Table of Contents

Title Page.



Preface to the American Edition.

Introductory Essay on Augustin and the Pelagian Controversy.

Dedication of Volume I. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Dedication of Volume II. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Preface to Volume I. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Preface to Volume II. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

A Treatise on the Merits and Forgiveness of Sins, and on the Baptism of Infants.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.

Book I

Introductory, in the Shape of an Inscription to His Friend Marcellinus.

If Adam Had Not Sinned, He Would Never Have Died.

It is One Thing to Be Mortal, Another Thing to Be Subject to Death.

Even Bodily Death is from Sin.

The Words, Mortale (Capable of Dying), Mortuum (Dead), and Moriturus (Destined to Die).

How It is that the Body Dead Because of Sin.

The Life of the Body the Object of Hope, the Life of the Spirit Being a Prelude to It.

Bodily Death from Adam’s Sin.

Sin Passes on to All Men by Natural Descent, and Not Merely by Imitation.

The Analogy of Grace.

Distinction Between Actual and Original Sin.

The Law Could Not Take Away Sin.

Meaning of the Apostle’s Phrase 'The Reign of Death.'

Superabundance of Grace.

The One Sin Common to All Men.

How Death is by One and Life by One.

Whom Sinners Imitate.

Only Christ Justifies.

Sin is from Natural Descent, as Righteousness is from Regeneration; How ‘All’ Are Sinners Through Adam, and ‘All’ Are Just Through Christ.

Original Sin Alone is Contracted by Natural Birth.

Unbaptized Infants Damned, But Most Lightly; The Penalty of Adam’s Sin, the Grace of His Body Lost.

To Infants Personal Sin is Not to Be Attributed.

He Refutes Those Who Allege that Infants are Baptized Not for the Remission of Sins, But for the Obtaining of the Kingdom of Heaven.

Infants Saved as Sinners.

Infants are Described as Believers and as Penitents. Sins Alone Separate Between God and Men.

No One, Except He Be Baptized, Rightly Comes to the Table of the Lord.

Infants Must Feed on Christ.

Baptized Infants, of the Faithful; Unbaptized, of the Lost.

It is an Inscrutable Mystery Why Some are Saved, and Others Not.

Why One is Baptized and Another Not, Not Otherwise Inscrutable.

He Refutes Those Who Suppose that Souls, on Account of Sins Committed in Another State, are Thrust into Bodies Suited to Their Merits, in Which They are More or Less Tormented.

The Case of Certain Idiots and Simpletons.

Christ is the Saviour and Redeemer Even of Infants.

Baptism is Called Salvation, and the Eucharist, Life, by the Christians of Carthage.

Unless Infants are Baptized, They Remain in Darkness.

Infants Not Enlightened as Soon as They are Born.

How God Enlightens Every Person.

What ‘Lighteth’ Means.

The Conclusion Drawn, that All are Involved in Original Sin.

A Collection of Scripture Testimonies. From the Gospels.

From the First Epistle of Peter.

From the First Epistle of John.

From the Epistle to the Romans.

From the Epistles to the Corinthians.

From the Epistle to the Galatians.

From the Epistle to the Ephesians.

From the Epistle to the Colossians.

From the Epistles to Timothy.

From the Epistle to Titus.

From the Epistle to the Hebrews.

From the Apocalypse.

From the Acts of the Apostles.

The Utility of the Books of the Old Testament.

By the Sacrifices of the Old Testament, Men Were Convinced of Sins and Led to the Saviour.

He Concludes that All Men Need the Death of Christ, that They May Be Saved. Unbaptized Infants Will Be Involved in the Condemnation of the Devil. How All Men Through Adam are Unto Condemnation; And Through Christ Unto Justification. No One is Reconciled with God, Except Through Christ.

No One is Reconciled to God Except Through Christ.

The Good of Marriage; Four Different Cases of the Good and the Evil Use of Matrimony.

In What Respect the Pelagians Regarded Baptism as Necessary for Infants.

The Context of Their Chief Text.

Christ, the Head and the Body; Owing to the Union of the Natures in the Person of Christ, He Both Remained in Heaven, and Walked About on Earth; How the One Christ Could Ascend to Heaven; The Head, and the Body, the One Christ.

The Serpent Lifted Up in the Wilderness Prefigured Christ Suspended on the Cross; Even Infants Themselves Poisoned by the Serpent’s Bite.

No One Can Be Reconciled to God, Except by Christ.

The Form, or Rite, of Baptism. Exorcism.

A Twofold Mistake Respecting Infants.

In Infants There is No Sin of Their Own Commission.

Infants’ Faults Spring from Their Sheer Ignorance.

On the Ignorance of Infants, and Whence It Arises.

If Adam Was Not Created of Such a Character as that in Which We are Born, How is It that Christ, Although Free from Sin, Was Born an Infant and in Weakness?

The Ignorance and the Infirmity of an Infant.

How Far Sin is Done Away in Infants by Baptism, Also in Adults, and What Advantage Results Therefrom.

Book II

What Has Thus Far Been Dwelt On; And What is to Be Treated in This Book.

Some Persons Attribute Too Much to the Freedom of Man’s Will; Ignorance and Infirmity.

In What Way God Commands Nothing Impossible. Works of Mercy, Means of Wiping Out Sins.

Concupiscence, How Far in Us; The Baptized are Not Injured by Concupiscence, But Only by Consent Therewith.

The Will of Man Requires the Help of God.

Wherein the Pharisee Sinned When He Thanked God; To God’s Grace Must Be Added the Exertion of Our Own Will.

Four Questions on the Perfection of Righteousness: (1.) Whether a Man Can Be Without Sin in This Life.

(2) Whether There is in This World a Man Without Sin.

The Beginning of Renewal; Resurrection Called Regeneration; They are the Sons of God Who Lead Lives Suitable to Newness of Life.

Perfection, When to Be Realized.

An Objection of the Pelagians: Why Does Not a Righteous Man Beget a Righteous Man?

He Reconciles Some Passages of Scripture.

A Subterfuge of the Pelagians.

Job Was Not Without Sin.

Carnal Generation Condemned on Account of Original Sin.

Job Foresaw that Christ Would Come to Suffer; The Way of Humility in Those that are Perfect.

No One Righteous in All Things.

Perfect Human Righteousness is Imperfect.

Zacharias and Elisabeth, Sinners.

Paul Worthy to Be the Prince of the Apostles, and Yet a Sinner.

All Righteous Men Sinners.

An Objection of the Pelagians; Perfection is Relative; He is Rightly Said to Be Perfect in Righteousness Who Has Made Much Progress Therein.

Why God Prescribes What He Knows Cannot Be Observed.

An Objection of the Pelagians. The Apostle Paul Was Not Free From Sin So Long as He Lived.

God Punishes Both in Wrath and in Mercy.

(3)Why No One in This Life is Without Sin.

The Divine Remedy for Pride.

A Good Will Comes from God.

A Subterfuge of the Pelagians.

All Will is Either Good, and Then It Loves Righteousness, or Evil, When It Does Not Love Righteousness.

Grace is Given to Some Men in Mercy; Is Withheld from Others in Justice and Truth.

God’s Sovereignity in His Grace.

Through Grace We Have Both the Knowledge of Good, and the Delight Which It Affords.

(4) That No Man, with the Exception of Christ, Has Ever Lived, or Can Live Without Sin.

Adam and Eve; Obedience Most Strongly Enjoined by God on Man.

Man’s State Before the Fall.

The Corruption of Nature is by Sin, Its Renovation is by Christ.

What Benefit Has Been Conferred on Us by the Incarnation of the Word; Christ’s Birth in the Flesh, Wherein It is Like and Wherein Unlike Our Own Birth.

An Objection of Pelagians.

An Argument Anticipated.

Children of Believers are Called ‘Clean’ By the Apostle.

Sanctification Manifold; Sacrament of Catechumens.

Why the Children of the Baptized Should Be Baptized.

An Objection of the Pelagians.

The Law of Sin is Called Sin; How Concupiscence Still Remains After Its Evil Has Been Removed in the Baptized.

Guilt May Be Taken Away But Concupiscence Remain.

All the Predestinated are Saved Through the One Mediator Christ, and by One and the Same Faith.

Christ the Saviour Even of Infants; Christ, When an Infant, Was Free from Ignorance and Mental Weakness.

An Objection of the Pelagians.

Why It is that Death Itself is Not Abolished, Along with Sin, by Baptism.

Why the Devil is Said to Hold the Power and Dominion of Death.

Why Christ, After His Resurrection, Withdrew His Presence from the World.

An Objection of the Pelagians.

Why Punishment is Still Inflicted, After Sin Has Been Forgiven.

To Recover the Righteousness Which Had Been Lost by Sin, Man Has to Struggle, with Abundant Labour and Sorrow.

The Case of David, in Illustration.

Turn to Neither Hand.

'Likeness of Sinful Flesh' Implies the Reality.

Whether the Soul is Propagated; On Obscure Points, Concerning Which the Scriptures Give Us No Assistance, We Must Be on Our Guard Against Forming Hasty Judgments and Opinions; The Scriptures are Clear Enough on Those Subjects Which are Necessary to Salvation.

Book III

A Treatise on the Spirit and the Letter.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.


The Occasion of Writing This Work; A Thing May Be Capable of Being Done, and Yet May Never Be Done.

The Examples Apposite.

Theirs is Comparatively a Harmless Error, Who Say that a Man Lives Here Without Sin.

Theirs is a Much More Serious Error, Requiring a Very Vigorous Refutation, Who Deny God’s Grace to Be Necessary.

True Grace is the Gift of the Holy Ghost, Which Kindles in the Soul the Joy and Love of Goodness.

The Teaching of Law Without the Life-Giving Spirit is 'The Letter that Killeth.'

What is Proposed to Be Here Treated.

Romans Interprets Corinthians.

Through the Law Sin Has Abounded.

Christ the True Healer.

From What Fountain Good Works Flow.

Paul, Whence So Called; Bravely Contends for Grace.

Keeping the Law; The Jews’ Glorying; The Fear of Punishment; The Circumcision of the Heart.

In What Respect the Pelagians Acknowledge God as the Author of Our Justification.

The Righteousness of God Manifested by the Law and the Prophets.

How the Law Was Not Made for a Righteous Man.

The Exclusion of Boasting.

Piety is Wisdom; That is Called the Righteousness of God, Which He Produces.

The Knowledge of God Through the Creation.

The Law Without Grace.

The Law of Works and the Law of Faith.

No Man Justified by Works.

How the Decalogue Kills, If Grace Be Not Present.

The Passage in Corinthians.

The Passage in Romans.

No Fruit Good Except It Grow from the Root of Love.

Grace, Concealed in the Old Testament, is Revealed in the New.

Why the Holy Ghost is Called the Finger of God.

A Comparison of the Law of Moses and of the New Law.

The New Law Written Within.

The Old Law Ministers Death; The New, Righteousness.

The Christian Faith Touching the Assistance of Grace.

The Prophecy of Jeremiah Concerning the New Testament.

The Law; Grace.

The Old Law; The New Law.

The Law Written in Our Hearts.

The Eternal Reward.

The Re-Formation Which is Now Being Effected, Compared with the Perfection of the Life to Come.

The Eternal Reward Which is Specially Declared in the New Testament, Foretold by the Prophet.

How that is to Be the Reward of All; The Apostle Earnestly Defends Grace.

The Law Written in the Heart, and the Reward of the Eternal Contemplation of God, Belong to the New Covenant; Who Among the Saints are the Least and the Greatest.

Difference Between the Old and the New Testaments.

A Question Touching the Passage in the Apostle About the Gentiles Who are Said to Do by Nature the Law’s Commands, Which They are Also Said to Have Written on Their Hearts.

The Answer Is, that the Passage Must Be Understood of the Faithful of the New Covenant.

It is Not by Their Works, But by Grace, that the Doers of the Law are Justified; God’s Saints and God’s Name Hallowed in Different Senses.

How the Passage of the Law Agrees with that of the Prophet.

The Law ‘Being Done by Nature’ Means, Done by Nature as Restored by Grace.

The Image of God is Not Wholly Blotted Out in These Unbelievers; Venial Sins.

The Grace Promised by the Prophet for the New Covenant.

Righteousness is the Gift of God.

Faith the Ground of All Righteousness.

Grace Establishes Free Will.

Volition and Ability.

Whether Faith Be in a Man’s Own Power.

What Faith is Laudable.

The Faith of Those Who are Under the Law Different from the Faith of Others.

Whence Comes the Will to Believe?

The Free Will of Man is an Intermediate Power.

Mercy and Pity in the Judgment of God.

The Will to Believe is from God.

Conclusion of the Work.

He Returns to the Question Which Marcellinus Had Proposed to Him.

An Objection.

When the Commandment to Love is Fulfilled.

In What Sense a Sinless Righteousness in This Life Can Be Asserted.

Although Perfect Righteousness Be Not Found Here on Earth, It is Still Not Impossible.

A Treatise on Nature and Grace.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.

Note on the Following Work.


The Occasion of Publishing This Work; What God’s Righteousness is.

Faith in Christ Not Necessary to Salvation, If a Man Without It Can Lead a Righteous Life.

Nature Was Created Sound and Whole; It Was Afterwards Corrupted by Sin.

Free Grace.

It Was a Matter of Justice that All Should Be Condemned.

The Pelagians Have Very Strong and Active Minds.

He Proceeds to Confute the Work of Pelagius; He Refrains as Yet from Mentioning Pelagius’ Name.

A Distinction Drawn by Pelagius Between the Possible and Actual.

Even They Who Were Not Able to Be Justified are Condemned.

He Could Not Be Justified, Who Had Not Heard of the Name of Christ; Rendering the Cross of Christ of None Effect.

Grace Subtly Acknowledged by Pelagius.

In Our Discussions About Grace, We Do Not Speak of that Which Relates to the Constitution of Our Nature, But to Its Restoration.

The Scope and Purpose of the Law’s Threatenings; 'Perfect Wayfarers.'

Refutation of Pelagius.

Not Everything [of Doctrinal Truth] is Written in Scripture in So Many Words.

Pelagius Corrupts a Passage of the Apostle James by Adding a Note of Interrogation.

Explanation of This Text Continued.

Who May Be Said to Be in the Flesh.

Sins of Ignorance; To Whom Wisdom is Given by God on Their Requesting It.

What Prayer Pelagius Would Admit to Be Necessary.

Pelagius Denies that Human Nature Has Been Depraved or Corrupted by Sin.

How Our Nature Could Be Vitiated by Sin, Even Though It Be Not a Substance.

Adam Delivered by the Mercy of Christ.

Sin and the Penalty of Sin the Same.

God Forsakes Only Those Who Deserve to Be Forsaken. We are Sufficient of Ourselves to Commit Sin; But Not to Return to the Way of Righteousness. Death is the Punishment, Not the Cause of Sin.

Christ Died of His Own Power and Choice.

Even Evils, Through God’s Mercy, are of Use.

The Disposition of Nearly All Who Go Astray. With Some Heretics Our Business Ought Not to Be Disputation, But Prayer.

A Simile to Show that God’s Grace is Necessary for Doing Any Good Work Whatever. God Never Forsakes the Justified Man If He Be Not Himself Forsaken.

Sin is Removed by Sin.

The Order and Process of Healing Our Heavenly Physician Does Not Adopt from the Sick Patient, But Derives from Himself. What Cause the Righteous Have for Fearing.

God Forsakes Us to Some Extent that We May Not Grow Proud.

Not Every Sin is Pride. How Pride is the Commencement of Every Sin.

A Man’s Sin is His Own, But He Needs Grace for His Cure.

Why God Does Not Immediately Cure Pride Itself. The Secret and Insidious Growth of Pride. Preventing and Subsequent Grace.

Pride Even in Such Things as are Done Aright Must Be Avoided. Free Will is Not Taken Away When Grace is Preached.

Being Wholly Without Sin Does Not Put Man on an Equality with God.

We Must Not Lie, Even for the Sake of Moderation. The Praise of Humility Must Not Be Placed to the Account of Falsehood.

Pelagius Glorifies God as Creator at the Expense of God as Saviour.

Why There is a Record in Scripture of Certain Men’s Sins, Recklessness in Sin Accounts It to Be So Much Loss Whenever It Falls Short in Gratifying Lust.

Whether Holy Men Have Died Without Sin.

The Blessed Virgin Mary May Have Lived Without Sin. None of the Saints Besides Her Without Sin.

Why Scripture Has Not Mentioned the Sins of All.

Pelagius Argues that Abel Was Sinless.

Why Cain Has Been by Some Thought to Have Had Children by His Mother Eve. The Sins of Righteous Men. Who Can Be Both Righteous, and Yet Not Without Sin.

Shall We Follow Scripture, or Add to Its Declarations?

For What Pelagius Thought that Christ is Necessary to Us.

How the Term ‘All’ Is to Be Understood.

A Man Can Be Sinless, But Only by the Help of Grace. In the Saints This Possibility Advances and Keeps Pace with the Realization.

God Commands No Impossibilities.

State of the Question Between the Pelagians and the Catholics. Holy Men of Old Saved by the Self-Same Faith in Christ Which We Exercise.

The Whole Discussion is About Grace.

Pelagius Distinguishes Between a Power and Its Use.

There is No Incompatibility Between Necessity and Free Will.

The Same Continued.

The Assistance of Grace in a Perfect Nature.

It Does Not Detract from God’s Almighty Power, that He is Incapable of Either Sinning, or Dying, or Destroying Himself.

Even Pious and God-Fearing Men Resist Grace.

In What Sense Pelagius Attributed to God’s Grace the Capacity of Not Sinning.

Pelagius Admits ‘Contrary Flesh’ In the Unbaptized.

Paul Asserts that the Flesh is Contrary Even in the Baptized.

Concerning What Grace of God is Here Under Discussion. The Ungodly Man, When Dying, is Not Delivered from Concupiscence.

Does God Create Contraries?

Pelagius’ Admission as Regards the Unbaptized, Fatal.

'This Body of Death,' So Called from Its Defect, Not from Its Substance.

The Works, Not the Substance, of the 'Flesh' Opposed to the 'Spirit.'

Who May Be Said to Be Under the Law.

Despite the Devil, Man May, by God’s Help, Be Perfected.

Pelagius Puts Nature in the Place of Grace.

Whether Any Man is Without Sin in This Life.

Augustin Replies Against the Quotations Which Pelagius Had Advanced Out of the Catholic Writers. Lactantius.

Hilary. The Pure in Heart Blessed. The Doing and Perfecting of Righteousness.

He Meets Pelagius with Another Passage from Hilary.


Augustin Adduces in Reply Some Other Passages of Ambrose.

John of Constantinople.



A Certain Necessity of Sinning.

Augustin Himself. Two Methods Whereby Sins, Like Diseases, are Guarded Against.

Augustin Quotes Himself on Free Will.

How to Exhort Men to Faith, Repentance, and Advancement.

God Enjoins No Impossibility, Because All Things are Possible and Easy to Love.

The Degrees of Love are Also Degrees of Holiness.

A Treatise Concerning Man’s Perfection in Righteousness.

Title Page.

Preface to the Treatise on Man’s Perfection in Righteousness.



The First Breviate of Cœlestius.

The Second Breviate.

The Third Breviate.

The Fourth Breviate.

The Fifth Breviate.

The Sixth Breviate.

The Seventh Breviate.

The Eighth Breviate.

The Ninth Breviate.

The Tenth Breviate.

The Eleventh Breviate.

The Twelfth Breviate.

The Thirteenth Breviate.

The Fourteenth Breviate.

The Fifteenth Breviate.

The Sixteenth Breviate.

It is One Thing to Depart from the Body, Another Thing to Be Liberated from the Body of This Death.

The Righteousness of This Life Comprehended in Three Parts,—Fasting, Almsgiving, and Prayer.

The Commandment of Love Shall Be Perfectly Fulfilled in the Life to Come.

Who May Be Said to Walk Without Spot; Damnable and Venial Sins.

To Whom God’s Commandments are Grievous; And to Whom, Not. Why Scripture Says that God’s Commandments are Not Grievous; A Commandment is a Proof of the Freedom Of Man’s Will; Prayer is a Proof of Grace.

Passages to Show that God’s Commandments are Not Grievous.

Passages of Scripture Which, When Objected Against Him by the Catholics, Cœlestius Endeavours to Elude by Other Passages: the First Passage.

To Be Without Sin, and to Be Without Blame—How Differing.

Section 25

Why Job Was So Great a Sufferer.

Who May Be Said to Keep the Ways of the Lord; What It is to Decline and Depart from the Ways of the Lord.

When Our Heart May Be Said Not to Reproach Us; When Good is to Be Perfected.

The Second Passage. Who May Be Said to Abstain from Every Evil Thing.

'Every Man is a Liar,' Owing to Himself Alone; But 'Every Man is True,' By Help Only of the Grace of God.

The Third Passage. It is One Thing to Depart, and Another Thing to Have Departed, from All Sin. ‘There is None that Doeth Good,’—Of Whom This is to Be Understood.

The Fourth Passage. In What Sense God Only is Good. With God to Be Good and to Be Himself are the Same Thing.

The Fifth Passage.

The Opposing Passages.

The Church Will Be Without Spot and Wrinkle After the Resurrection.

The Difference Between the Upright in Heart and the Clean in Heart.

The Sixth Passage.

The Seventh Passage. Who May Be Called Immaculate. How It is that in God’s Sight No Man is Justified.

The Eighth Passage. In What Sense He is Said Not to Sin Who is Born of God. In What Way He Who Sins Shall Not See Nor Know God.

The Ninth Passage.

Specimens of Pelagian Exegesis.

God’s Promises Conditional. Saints of the Old Testament Were Saved by the Grace of Christ.

No Man is Assisted Unless He Does Himself Also Work. Our Course is a Constant Progress.

Conclusion of the Work. In the Regenerate It is Not Concupiscence, But Consent, Which is Sin.

A Work on the Proceedings of Pelagius.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.

Preface to the Book on the Proceedings of Pelagius.



The First Item in the Accusation, and Pelagius’ Answer.

Discussion of Pelagius’ First Answer.

The Same Continued.

The Second Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Answer.

Pelagius’ Answer Examined.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued.

The Third Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Answer.

Pelagius’ Answer Examined. On Origen’s Error Concerning the Non-Eternity of the Punishment of the Devil and the Damned.

The Same Continued.

The Fourth Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Answer.

The Fifth Item of the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Answer.

Examination of This Point. The Phrase ‘Old Testament’ Used in Two Senses. The Heir of the Old Testament. In the Old Testament There Were Heirs of the New Testament.

The Same Continued.

The Sixth Item of the Accusation, and Pelagius’ Reply.

Examination of the Sixth Charge and Answers.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued. Pelagius Acknowledges the Doctrine of Grace in Deceptive Terms.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued. The Synod Supposed that the Grace Acknowledged by Pelagius Was that Which Was So Thoroughly Known to the Church.

The Seventh Item of the Accusation: the Breviates of Cœlestius Objected to Pelagius.

Pelagius’ Answer to the Charges Brought Together Under the Seventh Item.

The Pelagians Falsely Pretended that the Eastern Churches Were on Their Side.

The Accusations in the Seventh Item, Which Pelagius Confessed.

The Eighth Item in the Accusation.

Pelagius’ Reply to the Eighth Item of Accusation.

The Ninth Item of the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Reply.

The Tenth Item in the Accusation. The More Prominent Points of Cœlestius’ Work Continued.

Remarks on the Tenth Item.

The Eleventh Item of the Accusation.

Discussion of the Eleventh Item Continued.

The Same Continued. On the Works of Unbelievers; Faith is the Initial Principle from Which Good Works Have Their Beginning; Faith is the Gift of God’s Grace.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued. The Monk Pelagius. Grace is Conferred on the Unworthy.

The Same Continued. John, Bishop of Jerusalem, and His Examination.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued. Heros and Lazarus; Orosius.

The Same Continued.

Augustin Indulgently Shows that the Judges Acted Incautiously in Their Official Conduct of the Case of Pelagius.

The Twelfth Item in the Accusation. Other Heads of Cœlestius’ Doctrine Abjured by Pelagius.

The Answer of the Monk Pelagius and His Profession of Faith.

The Acquittal of Pelagius.

Pelagius’ Acquittal Becomes Suspected.

How Pelagius Became Known to Augustin; Cœlestius Condemned at Carthage.

Pelagius’ Book, Which Was Sent by Timasius and Jacobus to Augustin, Was Answered by the Latter in His Work 'On Nature and Grace.'

A Letter Written by Timasius and Jacobus to Augustin on Receiving His Treatise 'On Nature and Grace.'

Pelagius’ Behaviour Contrasted with that of the Writers of the Letter.

Pelagius Has No Good Reason to Be Annoyed If His Name Be at Last Used in the Controversy, and He Be Expressly Refuted.

The Nature of Augustin’s Letter to Pelagius.

The Text of the Letter.

Pelagius’ Use of Recommendations.

On the Letter of Pelagius, in Which He Boasts that His Errors Had Been Approved by Fourteen Bishops.

Pelagius’ Letter Discussed.

Is Pelagius Sincere?

Fraudulent Practices Pursued by Pelagius in His Report of the Proceedings in Palestine, in the Paper Wherein He Defended Himself to Augustin.

The Same Continued.

Although Pelagius Was Acquitted, His Heresy Was Condemned.

The Synod’s Condemnation of His Doctrines.

History of the Pelagian Heresy. The Pelagian Heresy Was Raised by Sundry Persons Who Affected the Monastic State.

The History Continued. Cœlestius Condemned at Carthage by Episcopal Judgment. Pelagius Acquitted by Bishops in Palestine, in Consequence of His Deceptive Answers; But Yet His Heresy Was Condemned by Them.

The Same Continued. The Dogmas of Cœlestius Laid to the Charge of Pelagius, as His Master, and Condemned.

How the Bishops Cleared Pelagius of Those Charges.

Recapitulation of What Pelagius Condemned.

The Harsh Measures of the Pelagians Against the Holy Monks and Nuns Who Belonged to Jerome’s Charge.

A Treatise on the Grace of Christ, and on Original Sin.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.

On the Grace of Christ.


Suspicious Character of Pelagius’ Confession as to the Necessity of Grace for Every Single Act of Ours.

Grace According to the Pelagians.

Pelagius’ System of Faculties.

Pelagius’ Own Account of the Faculties, Quoted.

Pelagius and Paul of Different Opinions.

Pelagius Posits God’s Aid Only for Our 'Capacity.'

Grace, According to the Pelagians, Consists in the Internal and Manifold Illumination of the Mind.

The Law One Thing, Grace Another. The Utility of the Law.

What Purpose the Law Subserves.

Pelagius’ Definition of How God Helps Us: 'He Promises Us Future Glory.'

The Same Continued: 'He Reveals Wisdom.'

Grace Causes Us to Do.

The Righteousness Which is of God, and the Righteousness Which is of the Law.

He Who Has Been Taught by Grace Actually Comes to Christ.

We Need Divine Aid in the Use of Our Powers. Illustration from Sight.

Does Pelagius Designedly Refrain from Openly Saying that All Good Action is from God?

He Discovers the Reason of Pelagius’ Hesitation So to Say.

The Two Roots of Action, Love and Cupidity; And Each Brings Forth Its Own Fruit.

How a Man Makes a Good or a Bad Tree.

Love the Root of All Good Things; Cupidity, of All Evil Ones.

Love is a Good Will.

Pelagius’ Double Dealing Concerning the Ground of the Conferrence of Grace.

Pelagius Places Free Will at the Basis of All Turning to God for Grace.

God by His Wonderful Power Works in Our Hearts Good Dispositions of Our Will.

The Pelagian Grace of ‘Capacity’ Exploded. The Scripture Teaches the Need of God’s Help in Doing, Speaking, and Thinking, Alike.

What True Grace Is, and Wherefore Given. Merits Do Not Precede Grace.

Pelagius Teaches that Satan May Be Resisted Without the Help of the Grace of God.

When He Speaks of God’s Help, He Means It Only to Help Us Do What Without It We Still Could Do.

What Pelagius Thinks is Needful for Ease of Performance is Really Necessary for the Performance.

Pelagius and Cœlestius Nowhere Really Acknowledge Grace.

Why the Pelagians Deemed Prayers to Be Necessary. The Letter Which Pelagius Despatched to Pope Innocent with an Exposition of His Belief.

Pelagius Professes Nothing on the Subject of Grace Which May Not Be Understood of the Law and Teaching.

Pelagius Says that Grace is Given According to Men’s Merits. The Beginning, However, of Merit is Faith; And This is a Gratuitous Gift, Not a Recompense for Our Merits.

Pelagius Believes that Infants Have No Sin to Be Remitted in Baptism.

Cœlestius Openly Declares Infants to Have No Original Sin.

Pelagius Nowhere Admits the Need of Divine Help for Will and Action.

A Definition of the Grace of Christ by Pelagius.

A Letter of Pelagius Unknown to Augustin.

The Help of Grace Placed by Pelagius in the Mere Revelation of Teaching.

Restoration of Nature Understood by Pelagius as Forgiveness of Sins.

Grace Placed by Pelagius in the Remission of Sins and the Example of Christ.

The Forgiveness of Sins and Example of Christ Held by Pelagius Enough to Save the Most Hardened Sinner.

Pelagius Once More Guards Himself Against the Necessity of Grace.

To What Purpose Pelagius Thought Prayers Ought to Be Offered.

Pelagius Professes to Respect the Catholic Authors.

Ambrose Most Highly Praised by Pelagius.

Ambrose is Not in Agreement with Pelagius.

Ambrose Teaches with What Eye Christ Turned and Looked Upon Peter.

Ambrose Teaches that All Men Need God’s Help.

Ambrose Teaches that It is God that Does for Man What Pelagius Attributes to Free Will.

If Pelagius Agrees with Ambrose, Augustin Has No Controversy with Him.

In What Sense Some Men May Be Said to Live Without Sin in the Present Life.

Ambrose Teaches that No One is Sinless in This World.

Ambrose Witnesses that Perfect Purity is Impossible to Human Nature.

On Original Sin.

Caution Needed in Attending to Pelagius’ Deliverances on Infant Baptism.

Cœlestius, on His Trial at Carthage, Refuses to Condemn His Error; The Written Statement Which He Gave to Zosimus.

Part of the Proceedings of the Council of Carthage Against Cœlestius.

Cœlestius Concedes Baptism for Infants, Without Affirming Original Sin.

Cœlestius’ Book Which Was Produced in the Proceedings at Rome.

Cœlestius the Disciple is In This Work Bolder Than His Master.

Pope Zosimus Kindly Excuses Him.

Cœlestius Condemned by Zosimus.

Pelagius Deceived the Council in Palestine, But Was Unable to Deceive the Church at Rome.

The Judgment of Innocent Respecting the Proceedings in Palestine.

How that Pelagius Deceived the Synod of Palestine.

A Portion of the Proceedings of the Synod of Palestine in the Cause of Pelagius.

Cœlestius the Bolder Heretic; Pelagius the More Subtle.

He Shows That, Even After the Synod of Palestine, Pelagius Held the Same Opinions as Cœlestius on the Subject of Original Sin.

Pelagius by His Mendacity and Deception Stole His Acquittal from the Synod in Palestine.

Pelagius’ Fraudulent and Crafty Excuses.

How Pelagius Deceived His Judges.

The Condemnation of Pelagius.

Pelagius’ Attempt to Deceive the Apostolic See; He Inverts the Bearings of the Controversy.

Pelagius Provides a Refuge for His Falsehood in Ambiguous Subterfuges.

Pelagius Avoids the Question as to Why Baptism is Necessary for Infants.

Another Instance of Pelagius’ Ambiguity.

What He Means by Our Birth to an ‘Uncertain’ Life.

Pelagius’ Long Residence at Rome.

The Condemnation of Pelagius and Cœlestius.

The Pelagians Maintain that Raising Questions About Original Sin Does Not Endanger the Faith.

On Questions Outside the Faith—What They Are, and Instances of the Same.

The Heresy of Pelagius and Cœlestius Aims at the Very Foundations of Our Faith.

The Righteous Men Who Lived in the Time of the Law Were for All that Not Under the Law, But Under Grace. The Grace of the New Testament Hidden Under the Old.

Pelagius and Cœlestius Deny that the Ancient Saints Were Saved by Christ.

Christ’s Incarnation Was of Avail to the Fathers, Even Though It Had Not Yet Happened.

He Shows by the Example of Abraham that the Ancient Saints Believed in the Incarnation of Christ.

How Christ is Our Mediator.

No Man Ever Saved Save by Christ.

Why the Circumcision of Infants Was Enjoined Under Pain of So Great a Punishment.

The Platonists’ Opinion About the Existence of the Soul Previous to the Body Rejected.

In What Sense Christ is Called 'Sin.'

Original Sin Does Not Render Marriage Evil.

Three Things Good and Laudable in Matrimony.

Marriage Existed Before Sin Was Committed. How God’s Blessing Operated in Our First Parents.

Lust and Travail Come from Sin. Whence Our Members Became a Cause of Shame.

The Evil of Lust Ought Not to Be Ascribed to Marriage. The Three Good Results of the Nuptial Ordinance: Offspring, Chastity, and the Sacramental Union.

Human Offspring, Even Previous to Birth, Under Condemnation at the Very Root. Uses of Matrimony Undertaken for Mere Pleasure Not Without Venial Fault.

Even the Children of the Regenerate Born in Sin. The Effect of Baptism.

Man’s Deliverance Suited to the Character of His Captivity.

Difficulty of Believing Original Sin. Man’s Vice is a Beast’s Nature.

Sentences from Ambrose in Favour of Original Sin.

Pelagius Rightly Condemned and Really Opposed by Ambrose.

On Marriage and Concupiscence.

Title Page.


Advertisement to the Reader on the Following Treatise.

A Letter Addressed to the Count Valerius.

On Marriage and Concupiscence

Concerning the Argument of This Treatise.

Why This Treatise Was Addressed to Valerius.

Conjugal Chastity the Gift of God.

A Difficulty as Regards the Chastity of Unbelievers. None But a Believer is Truly a Chaste Man.

The Natural Good of Marriage. All Society Naturally Repudiates a Fraudulent Companion. What is True Conjugal Purity? No True Virginity and Chastity Except in Devotion to True Faith.

The Censuring of Lust is Not a Condemnation of Marriage; Whence Comes Shame in the Human Body. Adam and Eve Were Not Created Blind; Meaning of Their 'Eyes Being Opened.'

Man’s Disobedience Justly Requited in the Rebellion of His Own Flesh; The Blush of Shame for the Disobedient Members of the Body.

The Evil of Lust Does Not Take Away the Good of Marriage.

This Disease of Concupiscence in Marriage is Not to Be a Matter of Will, But of Necessity; What Ought to Be the Will of Believers in the Use of Matrimony; Who is to Be Regarded as Using, and Not Succumbing To, the Evil of Concupiscence; How the Holy Fathers of the Old Testament Formerly Used Wives.

Why It Was Sometimes Permitted that a Man Should Have Several Wives, Yet No Woman Was Ever Allowed to Have More Than One Husband. Nature Prefers Singleness in Her Dominations.

The Sacrament of Marriage; Marriage Indissoluble; The World’s Law About Divorce Different from the Gospel’s.

Marriage Does Not Cancel a Mutual Vow of Continence; There Was True Wedlock Between Mary and Joseph; In What Way Joseph Was the Father of Christ.

In the Marriage of Mary and Joseph There Were All the Blessings of the Wedded State; All that is Born of Concubinage is Sinful Flesh.

Before Christ It Was a Time for Marrying; Since Christ It Has Been a Time for Continence.

The Teaching of the Apostle on This Subject.

A Certain Degree of Intemperance is to Be Tolerated in the Case of Married Persons; The Use of Matrimony for the Mere Pleasure of Lust is Not Without Sin, But Because of the Nuptial Relation the Sin is Venial.

What is Sinless in the Use of Matrimony? What is Attended With Venial Sin, and What with Mortal?

Continence Better Than Marriage; But Marriage Better Than Fornication.

Blessing of Matrimony.

Why Children of Wrath are Born of Holy Matrimony.

Thus Sinners are Born of Righteous Parents, Even as Wild Olives Spring from the Olive.

Even Infants, When Unbaptized, are in the Power of the Devil; Exorcism in the Case of Infants, and Renunciation of the Devil.

Sin Has Not Arisen Out of the Goodness of Marriage; The Sacrament of Matrimony a Great One in the Case of Christ and the Church—A Very Small One in the Case of a Man and His Wife.

Lust and Shame Come from Sin; The Law of Sin; The Shamelessness of the Cynics.

Concupiscence in the Regenerate Without Consent is Not Sin; In What Sense Concupiscence is Called Sin.

Whatever is Born Through Concupiscence is Not Undeservedly in Subjection to the Devil by Reason of Sin; The Devil Deserves Heavier Punishment Than Men.

Through Lust Original Sin is Transmitted; Venial Sins in Married Persons; Concupiscence of the Flesh, the Daughter and Mother of Sin.

Concupiscence Remains After Baptism, Just as Languor Does After Recovery from Disease; Concupiscence is Diminished in Persons of Advancing Years, and Increased in the Incontinent.

How Concupiscence Remains in the Baptized in Act, When It Has Passed Away as to Its Guilt.

The Evil Desires of Concupiscence; We Ought to Wish that They May Not Be.

Who is the Man that Can Say, ‘It is No More I that Do It’?

When Good Will Be Perfectly Done.

True Freedom Comes with Willing Delight in God’s Law.

How Concupiscence Made a Captive of the Apostle; What the Law of Sin Was to the Apostle.

The Flesh, Carnal Affection.

Even Now While We Still Have Concupiscence We May Be Safe in Christ.

The Law of Sin with Its Guilt in Unbaptized Infants. By Adam’s Sin the Human Race Has Become a 'Wild Olive Tree.'

To Baptism Must Be Referred All Remission of Sins, and the Complete Healing of the Resurrection. Daily Cleansing.

By the Holiness of Baptism, Not Sins Only, But All Evils Whatsoever, Have to Be Removed. The Church is Not Yet Free from All Stain.

Refutation of the Pelagians by the Authority of St. Ambrose, Whom They Quote to Show that the Desire of the Flesh is a Natural Good.

Book II

Preliminary Notes on the Second Book.

Introductory Statement.

In This and the Four Next Chapters He Adduces the Garbled Extracts He Has to Consider.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued.

The Same Continued.

Augustin Adduces a Passage Selected from the Preface of Julianus. (See ‘The Unfinished Work,’ i. 73.)

Augustin Refutes the Passage Adduced Above.

The Catholics Maintain the Doctrine of Original Sin, and Thus are Far from Being Manicheans.

In What Manner the Adversary’s Cavils Must Be Refuted.

The Devil the Author, Not of Nature, But Only of Sin.

Eve’s Name Means Life, and is a Great Sacrament of the Church.

The Pelagian Argument to Show that the Devil Has No Rights in the Fruits of Marriage.

Concupiscence Alone, in Marriage, is Not of God.

Man, by Birth, is Placed Under the Dominion of the Devil Through Sin; We Were All One in Adam When He Sinned.

It is Not of Us, But Our Sins, that the Devil is the Author.

The Pelagians are Not Ashamed to Eulogize Concupiscence, Although They are Ashamed to Mention Its Name.

The Same Continued.

The Pelagians Misunderstand ‘Seed’ In Scripture.

Original Sin is Derived from the Faulty Condition of Human Seed.

It is the Good God That Gives Fruitfulness, and the Devil That Corrupts the Fruit.

Shall We Be Ashamed of What We Do, or of What God Does?

The Pelagians Affirm that God in the Case of Abraham and Sarah Aroused Concupiscence as a Gift from Heaven.

What Covenant of God the New-Born Babe Breaks. What Was the Value of Circumcision.

Augustin Not the Deviser of Original Sin.

The Child in No Sense Formed by Concupiscence.

The Pelagians Argue that God Sometimes Closes the Womb in Anger, and Opens It When Appeased.

Augustin’s Answer to This Argument. Its Dealing with Scripture.

The Same Continued. Augustin Also Asserts that God Forms Man at Birth.

The Case of Abimelech and His House Examined.

Why God Proceeds to Create Human Beings, Who He Knows Will Be Born in Sin.

God Not the Author of the Evil in Those Whom He Creates.

Though God Makes Us, We Perish Unless He Re-makes Us in Christ.

The Pelagians Argue that Cohabitation Rightly Used is a Good, and What is Born from It is Good.

He Answers the Arguments of Julianus. What is the Natural Use of the Woman? What is the Unnatural Use?

God Made Nature Good: the Saviour Restores It When Corrupted.

If There is No Marriage Without Cohabitation, So There is No Cohabitation Without Shame.

Jovinian Used Formerly to Call Catholics Manicheans; The Arians Also Used to Call Catholics Sabellians.

Man Born of Whatever Parentage is Sinful and Capable of Redemption.

Augustin Declines the Dilemma Offered Him.

The Pelagians Argue that Original Sin Cannot Come Through Marriage If Marriage is Good.

The Pelagians Try to Get Rid of Original Sin by Their Praise of God’s Works; Marriage, in Its Nature and by Its Institution, is Not the Cause of Sin.

The Good Tree in the Gospel that Cannot Bring Forth Evil Fruit, Does Not Mean Marriage.

The Pelagians Argue that If Sin Comes by Birth, All Married People Deserve Condemnation.

Answer to This Argument: The Apostle Says We All Sinned in One.

The Reign of Death, What It Is; The Figure of the Future Adam; How All Men are Justified Through Christ.

The Scriptures Repeatedly Teach Us that All Sin in One.

Original Sin Arose from Adam’s Depraved Will. Whence the Corrupt Will Sprang.

In Infants Nature is of God, and the Corruption of Nature of the Devil.

The Rise and Origin of Evil. The Exorcism and Exsufflation of Infants, a Primitive Christian Rite.

To Call Those that Teach Original Sin Manicheans is to Accuse Ambrose, Cyprian, and the Whole Church.

Sin Was the Origin of All Shameful Concupiscence.

Concupiscence Need Not Have Been Necessary for Fruitfulness.

How Marriage is Now Different Since the Existence of Sin.

Lust is a Disease; The Word ‘Passion’ In the Ecclesiastical Sense.

The Pelagians Allow that Christ Died Even for Infants; Julianus Slays Himself with His Own Sword.

The Great Sin of the First Man.

Adam’s Sin is Derived from Him to Every One Who is Born Even of Regenerate Parents; The Example of the Olive Tree and the Wild Olive.

The Pelagians Can Hardly Venture to Place Concupiscence in Paradise Before the Commission of Sin.

Let Not the Pelagians Indulge Themselves in a Cruel Defence of Infants.

A Treatise on the Soul and its Origin.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.

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Treatise on the Soul and Its Origin

Renatus Had Done Him a Kindness by Sending Him the Books Which Had Been Addressed to Him.

He Receives with a Kindly and Patient Feeling the Books of a Young and Inexperienced Man Who Wrote Against Him in a Tone of Arrogance. Vincentius Victor Converted from the Sect of the Rogatians.

The Eloquence of Vincentius, Its Dangers and Its Tolerableness.

The Errors Contained in the Books of Vincentius Victor. He Says that the Soul Comes from God, But Was Not Made Either Out of Nothing or Out of Any Created Thing.

Another of Victor’s Errors, that the Soul is Corporeal.

Another Error Out of His Second Book, to the Effect, that the Soul Deserved to Be Polluted by the Body.

Victor Entangles Himself in an Exceedingly Difficult Question. God’s Foreknowledge is No Cause of Sin.

Victor’s Erroneous Opinion, that the Soul Deserved to Become Sinful.

Victor Utterly Unable to Explain How the Sinless Soul Deserved to Be Made Sinful.

Another Error of Victor’s, that Infants Dying Unbaptized May Attain to the Kingdom of Heaven. Another, that the Sacrifice of the Body of Christ Must Be Offered for Infants Who Die Before They are Baptized.

Martyrdom for Christ Supplies the Place of Baptism. The Faith of the Thief Who Was Crucified Along with Christ Taken as Martyrdom and Hence for Baptism.

Dinocrates, Brother of the Martyr St. Perpetua, is Said to Have Been Delivered from the State of Condemnation by the Prayers of the Saint.

The Sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ Will Not Avail for Unbaptized Persons, and Can Not Be Offered for the Majority of Those Who Die Unbaptized.

Victor’s Dilemma: He Must Either Say All Infants are Saved, or Else God Slays the Innocent.

God Does Not Judge Any One for What He Might Have Done If His Life Had Been Prolonged, But Simply for the Deeds He Actually Commits.

Difficulty in the Opinion Which Maintains that Souls are Not by Propagation.

He Shows that the Passages of Scripture Adduced by Victor Do Not Prove that Souls are Made by God in Such a Way as Not to Be Derived by Propagation: First Passage.

By ‘Breath’ Is Signified Sometimes the Holy Spirit.

The Meaning of ‘Breath’ In Scripture.

Other Ways of Taking the Passage.

The Second Passage Quoted by Victor.

Victor’s Third Quotation.

His Fourth Quotation.

Whether or No the Soul is Derived by Natural Descent (Ex Traduce), His Cited Passages Fail to Show.

Just as the Mother Knows Not Whence Comes Her Child Within Her, So We Know Not Whence Comes the Soul.

The Fifth Passage of Scripture Quoted by Victor.

Augustin Did Not Venture to Define Anything About the Propagation of the Soul.

A Natural Figure of Speech Must Not Be Literally Pressed.

The Sixth Passage of Scripture Quoted by Victor.

The Danger of Arguing from Silence.

The Argument of the Apollinarians to Prove that Christ Was Without the Human Soul of This Same Sort.

The Self-Contradiction of Victor as to the Origin of the Soul.

Augustin Has No Objection to the Opinion About the Propagation of Souls Being Refuted, and that About Their Insufflation Being Maintained.

The Mistakes Which Must Be Avoided by Those Who Say that Men’s Souls are Not Derived from Their Parents, But are Afresh Inbreathed by God in Every Instance.


Book II

Depraved Eloquence an Injurious Accomplishment.

He Asks What the Great Knowledge is that Victor Imparts.

The Difference Between the Senses of the Body and Soul.

To Believe the Soul is a Part of God is Blasphemy.

In What Sense Created Beings are Out of God.

Shall God’s Nature Be Mutable, Sinful, Impious, Even Eternally Damned.

To Think the Soul Corporeal an Error.

The Thirst of the Rich Man in Hell Does Not Prove the Soul to Be Corporeal.

How Could the Incorporeal God Breathe Out of Himself a Corporeal Substance?

Children May Be Found of Like or of Unlike Dispositions with Their Parents.

Victor Implies that the Soul Had a ‘State’ And ‘Merit’ Before Incarnation.

How Did the Soul Deserve to Be Incarnated?

Victor Teaches that God Thwarts His Own Predestination.

Victor Sends Those Infants Who Die Unbaptized to Paradise and the Heavenly Mansions, But Not to the Kingdom of Heaven.

Victor ‘Decides’ That Oblations Should Be Offered Up for Those Who Die Unbaptized.

Victor Promises to the Unbaptized Paradise After Their Death, and the Kingdom of Heaven After Their Resurrection, Although He Admits that This Opposes Christ’s Statement.

Disobedient Compassion and Compassionate Disobedience Reprobated. Martyrdom in Lieu of Baptism.

Victor’s Dilemma and Fall.

Victor Relies on Ambiguous Scriptures.

Victor Quotes Scriptures for Their Silence, and Neglects the Biblical Usage.

Victor’s Perplexity and Failure.

Peter’s Responsibility in the Case of Victor.

Who They are that are Not Injured by Reading Injurious Books.

Book III

Book IV.

The Personal Character of This Book.

The Points Which Victor Thought Blameworthy in Augustin.

How Much Do We Know of the Nature of the Body?

Is the Question of Breath One that Concerns the Soul, or Body, or What?

God Alone Can Teach Whence Souls Come.

Questions About the Nature of the Body are Sufficiently Mysterious, and Yet Not Higher Than Those of the Soul.

We Often Need More Teaching as to What is Most Intimately Ours Than as to What is Further from Us.

We Have No Memory of Our Creation.

Our Ignorance of Ourselves Illustrated by the Remarkable Memory of One Simplicius.

The Fidelity of Memory; The Unsearchable Treasure of Memory; The Powers of a Man’s Understanding Sufficiently Understood by None.

The Apostle Peter Told No Lie, When He Said He Was Ready to Lay Down His Life for the Lord, But Only Was Ignorant of His Will.

The Apostle Paul Could Know the Third Heaven and Paradise, But Not Whether He Was in the Body or Not.

In What Sense the Holy Ghost is Said to Make Intercession for Us.

It is More Excellent to Know That the Flesh Will Rise Again and Live for Evermore, Than to Learn Whatever Scientific Men Have Been Able to Teach Us Concerning Its Nature.

We Must Not Be Wise Above What is Written.

Ignorance is Better Than Error. Predestination to Eternal Life, and Predestination to Eternal Death.

A Twofold Question to Be Treated Concerning the Soul; Is It ‘Body’? and is It ‘Spirit’? What Body is.

The First Question, Whether the Soul is Corporeal; Breath and Wind, Nothing Else Than Air in Motion.

Whether the Soul is a Spirit.

The Body Does Not Receive God’s Image.

Recognition and Form Belong to Souls as Well as Bodies.

Names Do Not Imply Corporeity.

Figurative Speech Must Not Be Taken Literally.

Abraham’s Bosom—What It Means.

The Disembodied Soul May Think of Itself Under a Bodily Form.

St. Perpetua Seemed to Herself, in Some Dreams, to Have Been Turned into a Man, and Then Have Wrestled with a Certain Egyptian.

Is the Soul Wounded When the Body is Wounded?

Is the Soul Deformed by the Body’s Imperfections?

Does the Soul Take the Body’s Clothes Also Away with It?

Is Corporeity Necessary for Recognition?

Modes of Knowledge in the Soul Distinguished.

Inconsistency of Giving the Soul All the Parts of Sex and Yet No Sex.

The Phenix After Death Coming to Life Again.

Prophetic Visions.

Do Angels Appear to Men in Real Bodies?

He Passes on to the Second Question About the Soul, Whether It is Called Spirit.

Wide and Narrow Sense of the Word 'Spirit.'

Victor’s Chief Errors Again Pointed Out.

Concluding Admonition.

A Treatise Against Two Letters of the Pelagians.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.

Book I

Introduction: Address to Boniface.

Why Heretical Writings Must Be Answered.

Why He Addresses His Book to Boniface.

The Calumny of Julian,—That the Catholics Teach that Free Will is Taken Away by Adam’s Sin.

Free Choice Did Not Perish With Adam ’s Sin. What Freedom Did Perish.

Grace is Not Given According to Merits.

He Concludes that He Does Not Deprive the Wicked of Free Will.

The Pelagians Demolish Free Will.

Another Calumny of Julian,—That 'It is Said that Marriage is Not Appointed by God.'

The Third Calumny,—The Assertion that Conjugal Intercourse is Condemned.

The Purpose of the Pelagians in Praising the Innocence of Conjugal Intercourse.

The Fourth Calumny,—That the Saints of the Old Testament are Said to Be Not Free from Sins.

The Fifth Calumny,—That It is Said that Paul and the Rest of the Apostles Were Polluted by Lust.

That the Apostle is Speaking in His Own Person and that of Others Who Are Under Grace, Not Still Under Law.

He Sins in Will Who is Only Deterred from Sinning by Fear.

How Sin Died, and How It Revived.

'The Law is Spiritual, But I Am Carnal,' To Be Understood of Paul.

How the Apostle Said that He Did the Evil that He Would Not.

What It is to Accomplish What is Good.

In Me, that Is, in My Flesh.

No Condemnation in Christ Jesus.

Why the Passage Referred to Must Be Understood of a Man Established Under Grace.

What It is to Be Delivered from the Body of This Death.

He Concludes that the Apostle Spoke in His Own Person, and that of Those Who are Under Grace.

The Sixth Calumny,—That Augustin Asserts that Even Christ Was Not Free from Sins.

The Seventh Calumny,—That Augustin Asserts that in Baptism All Sins are Not Remitted.

In What Sense Lust is Called Sin in the Regenerate.

Many Without Crime, None Without Sin.

Julian Opposes the Faith of His Friends to the Opinions of Catholic Believers. First of All, of Free Will.

Secondly, of Marriage.

Thirdly, of Conjugal Intercourse.

The Aprons Which Adam and Eve Wore.

The Shame of Nakedness.

Whether There Could Be Sensual Appetite in Paradise Before the Fall.

Desire in Paradise Was Either None at All, or It Was Obedient to the Impulse of the Will.

Julian’s Fourth Objection, that Man is God’s Work, and is Not Constrained to Evil or Good by His Power.

The Beginning of a Good Will is the Gift of Grace.

The Power of God’s Grace is Proved.

Julian’s Fifth Objection Concerning the Saints of the Old Testament.

The Sixth Objection, Concerning the Necessity of Grace for All, and Concerning the Baptism of Infants.

The Seventh Objection, of the Effect of Baptism.

He Rebuts the Conclusion of Julian’s Letter.

Book II

Book III.


The Misrepresentation of the Pelagians Concerning the Use of the Old Law.

Scriptural Confirmation of the Catholic Doctrine.

Misrepresentation Concerning the Effect of Baptism.

Baptism Puts Away All Sins, But It Does Not at Once Heal All Infirmities.

The Calumny Concerning the Old Testament and the Righteous Men of Old.

The New Testament is More Ancient Than the Old; But It Was Subsequently Revealed.

All Righteous Men Before and After Abraham are Children of the Promise and of Grace.

Who are the Children of the Old Covenant.

The Old Law Also Given by God.

Distinction Between the Children of the Old and of the New Testaments.

The Old Testament is Properly One Thing—The Old Instrument Another.

Why One of the Covenants is Called Old, the Other New.

Calumny Concerning the Righteousness of the Prophets and Apostles.

The Perfection of Apostles and Prophets.

Misrepresentation Concerning Sin in Christ.

Their Calumny About the Fulfilment of Precepts in the Life to Come.

Perfection of Righteousness and Full Security Was Not Even in Paul in This Life.

In What Sense the Righteousness of Man in This Life is Said to Be Perfect.

Why the Righteousness Which is of the Law is Valued Slightly by Paul.

That Righteousness is Never Perfected in This Life.

Nature of Human Righteousness and Perfection.

There is No True Righteousness Without the Faith of the Grace of Christ.

There are Three Principal Heads in the Pelagian Heresy.

He Shows that the Opinion of the Catholics is the Mean Between that of the Manicheans and Pelagians, and Refutes Both.

The Pelagians Still Strive After a Hiding-Place, by Introducing the Needless Question of the Origin of the Soul.

Book IV

The Subterfuges of the Pelagians are Five.

The Praise of the Creature.

The Catholics Praise Nature, Marriage, Law, Free Will, and the Saints, in Such Wise as to Condemn as Well Pelagians as Manicheans.

Pelagians and Manicheans on the Praise of the Creature.

What is the Special Advantage in the Pelagian Opinions?

Not Death Alone, But Sin Also Has Passed into Us by Means of Adam.

What is the Meaning of ‘In Whom All Have Sinned’?

Death Passed Upon All by Sin.

Of the Praise of Marriage.

Of the Praise of the Law.

The Pelagians Understand that the Law Itself is God’s Grace.

Of the Praise of Free Will.

God’s Purposes are Effects of Grace.

The Testimonies of Scripture in Favour of Grace.

From Such Scriptures Grace is Proved to Be Gratuitous and Effectual.

Why God Makes of Some Sheep, Others Not.

Of the Praise of the Saints.

The Opinion of the Saints Themselves About Themselves.

The Craft of the Pelagians.

The Testimonies of the Ancients Against the Pelagians.

Pelagius, in Imitation of Cyprian, Wrote a Book of Testimonies.

Further References to Cyprian.

Further References to Cyprian.

The Dilemma Proposed to the Pelagians.

Cyprian’s Testimonies Concerning God’s Grace.

Further Appeals to Cyprian’s Teaching.

Cyprian’s Testimonies Concerning the Imperfection of Our Own Righteousness.

Cyprian’s Orthodoxy Undoubted.

The Testimonies of Ambrose Against the Pelagians and First of All Concerning Original Sin.

The Testimonies of Ambrose Concerning God’s Grace.

The Testimonies of Ambrose on the Imperfection of Present Righteousness.

The Pelagian’s Heresy Arose Long After Ambrose.

Opposition of the Manichean and Catholic Dogmas.

The Calling Together of a Synod Not Always Necessary to the Condemnation of Heresies.

A Treatise on Grace and Free Will.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.

Two Letters Written by Augustin to Valentinus and the Monks of Adrumetum.


The Occasion and Argument of This Work.

He Proves the Existence of Free Will in Man from the Precepts Addressed to Him by God.

Sinners are Convicted When Attempting to Excuse Themselves by Blaming God, Because They Have Free Will.

The Divine Commands Which are Most Suited to the Will Itself Illustrate Its Freedom.

He Shows that Ignorance Affords No Such Excuse as Shall Free the Offender from Punishment; But that to Sin with Knowledge is a Graver Thing Than to Sin in Ignorance.

God’s Grace to Be Maintained Against the Pelagians; The Pelagian Heresy Not an Old One.

Grace is Necessary Along with Free Will to Lead a Good Life.

Conjugal Chastity is Itself the Gift of God.

Entering into Temptation. Prayer is a Proof of Grace.

Free Will and God’s Grace are Simultaneously Commended.

Other Passages of Scripture Which the Pelagians Abuse.

He Proves Out of St. Paul that Grace is Not Given According to Men’s Merits.

The Grace of God is Not Given According to Merit, But Itself Makes All Good Desert.

Paul First Received Grace that He Might Win the Crown.

The Pelagians Profess that the Only Grace Which is Not Given According to Our Merits is that of the Forgiveness of Sins.

Paul Fought, But God Gave the Victory: He Ran, But God Showed Mercy.

The Faith that He Kept Was the Free Gift of God.

Faith Without Good Works is Not Sufficient for Salvation.

How is Eternal Life Both a Reward for Service and a Free Gift of Grace?

The Question Answered. Justification is Grace Simply and Entirely, Eternal Life is Reward and Grace.

Eternal Life is 'Grace for Grace.'

Who is the Transgressor of the Law? The Oldness of Its Letter. The Newness of Its Spirit.

The Pelagians Maintain that the Law is the Grace of God Which Helps Us Not to Sin.

Who May Be Said to Wish to Establish Their Own Righteousness. ‘God’s Righteousness,’ So Called, Which Man Has from God.

As The Law is Not, So Neither is Our Nature Itself that Grace by Which We are Christians.

The Pelagians Contend that the Grace, Which is Neither the Law Nor Nature, Avails Only to the Remission of Past Sins, But Not to the Avoidance of Future Ones.

Grace Effects the Fulfilment of the Law, the Deliverance of Nature, and the Suppression of Sin’s Dominion.

Faith is the Gift of God.

God is Able to Convert Opposing Wills, and to Take Away from the Heart Its Hardness.

The Grace by Which the Stony Heart is Removed is Not Preceded by Good Deserts, But by Evil Ones.

Free Will Has Its Function in the Heart’s Conversion; But Grace Too Has Its.

In What Sense It is Rightly Said That, If We Like, We May Keep God’s Commandments.

A Good Will May Be Small and Weak; An Ample Will, Great Love. Operating and Co-operating Grace.

The Apostle’s Eulogy of Love. Correction to Be Administered with Love.

Commendations of Love.

Love Commended by Our Lord Himself.

The Love Which Fulfils the Commandments is Not of Ourselves, But of God.

We Would Not Love God Unless He First Loved Us. The Apostles Chose Christ Because They Were Chosen; They Were Not Chosen Because They Chose Christ.

The Spirit of Fear a Great Gift of God.

The Ignorance of the Pelagians in Maintaining that the Knowledge of the Law Comes from God, But that Love Comes from Ourselves.

The Wills of Men are So Much in the Power of God, that He Can Turn Them Whithersoever It Pleases Him.

God Does Whatsoever He Wills in the Hearts of Even Wicked Men.

God Operates on Men’s Hearts to Incline Their Wills Whithersoever He Pleases.

Gratuitous Grace Exemplified in Infants.

The Reason Why One Person is Assisted by Grace, and Another is Not Helped, Must Be Referred to the Secret Judgments of God.

Understanding and Wisdom Must Be Sought from God.

A Treatise on Rebuke and Grace.

Title Page.

Extract from Augustin’s Retractations.



The Catholic Faith Concerning Law, Grace, and Free Will.

What the Grace of God Through Jesus Christ is.

The Children of God are Led by the Spirit of God.

Rebuke Must Not Be Neglected.

Objections to the Use of Rebuke.

The Necessity and Advantage of Rebuke.

Further Replies to Those Who Object to Rebuke.

Why They May Justly Be Rebuked Who Do Not Obey God, Although They Have Not Yet Received the Grace of Obedience.

All Perseverance is God’s Gift.

They Who Have Not Received the Gift of Perseverance, and Have Relapsed into Mortal Sin and Have Died Therein, Must Righteously Be Condemned.

They Who Have Not Received Perseverance are Not Distinguished from the Mass of Those that are Lost.

Election is of Grace, Not of Merit.

None of the Elect and Predestinated Can Perish.

Perseverance is Given to the End.

Whosoever Do Not Persevere are Not Distinguished from the Mass of Perdition by Predestination.

Why Perseverance Should Be Given to One and Not Another is Inscrutable.

Some Instances of God’s Amazing Judgments.

God’s Ways Past Finding Out.

Some are Children of God According to Grace Temporally Received, Some According to God’s Eternal Foreknowledge.

Who May Be Understood as Given to Christ.

True Children of God are True Disciples of Christ.

Those Who are Called According to the Purpose Alone are Predestinated.

Even the Sins of the Elect are Turned by God to Their Advantage.

Therefore Rebuke is to Be Used.

Whether Adam Received the Gift of Perseverance.

The Answer.

The First Man Himself Also Might Have Stood by His Free Will.

Distinction Between the Grace Given Before and After the Fall.

The Incarnation of the Word.

The First Man Had Received the Grace Necessary for His Perseverance, But Its Exercise Was Left in His Free Choice.

The Gifts of Grace Conferred on Adam in Creation.

What is the Difference Between the Ability Not to Sin, to Die, and Forsake Good, and the Inability to Sin, to Die, and to Forsake Good?

The Aid Without Which a Thing Does Not Come to Pass, and the Aid with Which a Thing Comes to Pass.

There is a Greater Freedom Now in the Saints Than There Was Before in Adam.

God Not Only Foreknows that Men Will Be Good, But Himself Makes Them So.

To a Sound Will is Committed the Power of Persevering or of Not Persevering.

What is the Nature of the Gift of Perseverance that is Now Given to the Saints.

The Number of the Predestinated is Certain and Defined.

No One is Certain and Secure of His Own Predestination and Salvation.

Even in Judgment God’s Mercy Will Be Necessary to Us.

The Reprobate are to Be Punished for Merits of a Different Kind.

Rebuke and Grace Do Not Set Aside One Another.

In What Way God Wills All Men to Be Saved.

Scriptural Instances Wherein It is Proved that God Has Men’s Wills More in His Power Than They Themselves Have.

Rebuke Must Be Varied According to the Variety of Faults. There is No Punishment in the Church Greater Than Excommunication.

Another Interpretation of the Apostolic Passage, Who Will Have All Men to Be Saved.

The Purpose of Rebuke.


A Treatise on the Predestination of the Saints.

Title Page.

Book I


To What Extent the Massilians Withdraw from the Pelagians.

Even the Beginning of Faith is of God’s Gift.

Continuation of the Preceding.

To Believe is to Think with Assent.

Presumption and Arrogance to Be Avoided.

Augustin Confesses that He Had Formerly Been in Error Concerning the Grace of God.

What Augustin Wrote to Simplicianus, the Successor of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan.

The Purpose of the Apostle in These Words.

It is God’s Grace Which Specially Distinguishes One Man from Another.

That Some Men are Elected is of God’s Mercy.

Why the Apostle Said that We are Justified by Faith and Not by Works.

The Effect of Divine Grace.

Why the Father Does Not Teach All that They May Come to Christ.

It is Believers that are Taught of God.

Why the Gift of Faith is Not Given to All.

His Argument in His Letter Against Porphyry, as to Why the Gospel Came So Late into the World.

The Preceding Argument Applied to the Present Time.

In What Respects Predestination and Grace Differ.

Did God Promise the Good Works of the Nations and Not Their Faith, to Abraham?

It is to Be Wondered at that Men Should Rather Trust to Their Own Weakness Than to God’s Strength.

God’s Promise is Sure.

Remarkable Illustrations of Grace and Predestination in Infants, and in Christ.

That No One is Judged According to What He Would Have Done If He Had Lived Longer.

Possibly the Baptized Infants Would Have Repented If They Had Lived, and the Unbaptized Not.

Reference to Cyprian’s Treatise 'On the Mortality.'

The Book of Wisdom Obtains in the Church the Authority of Canonical Scripture.

Cyprian’s Treatise 'On the Mortality.'

God’s Dealing Does Not Depend Upon Any Contingent Merits of Men.

The Most Illustrious Instance of Predestination is Christ Jesus.

Christ Predestinated to Be the Son of God.

The Twofold Calling.

It is in the Power of Evil Men to Sin; But to Do This or That by Means of that Wickedness is in God’s Power Alone.

The Special Calling of the Elect is Not Because They Have Believed, But in Order that They May Believe.

Election is for the Purpose of Holiness.

God Chose the Righteous; Not Those Whom He Foresaw as Being of Themselves, But Those Whom He Predestinated for the Purpose of Making So.

We Were Elected and Predestinated, Not Because We Were Going to Be Holy, But in Order that We Might Be So.

What is the View of the Pelagians, and What of the Semi-Pelagians, Concerning Predestination.

The Beginning of Faith is God’s Gift.

Apostolic Testimony to the Beginning of Faith Being God’s Gift.

Further Apostolic Testimonies.

Old Testament Testimonies.


A Treatise on the Gift of Perseverance.

Title Page.


Of the Nature of the Perseverance Here Discoursed of.

Faith is the Beginning of a Christian Man. Martyrdom for Christ’s Sake is His Best Ending.

God is Besought for It, Because It is His Gift.

Three Leading Points of the Pelagian Doctrine.

The Second Petition in the Lord’s Prayer.

The Third Petition. How Heaven and Earth are Understood in the Lord’s Prayer.

The Fourth Petition.

The Fifth Petition. It is an Error of the Pelagians that the Righteous are Free from Sin.

When Perseverance is Granted to a Person, He Cannot But Persevere.

The Gift of Perseverance Can Be Obtained by Prayer.

Effect of Prayer for Perseverance.

Of His Own Will a Man Forsakes God, So that He is Deservedly Forsaken of Him.

Temptation the Condition of Man.

It is God’s Grace Both that Man Comes to Him, and that Man Does Not Depart from Him.

Why God Willed that He Should Be Asked for that Which He Might Give Without Prayer.

Why is Not Grace Given According to Merit?

The Difficulty of the Distinction Made in the Choice of One and the Rejection of Another.

But Why Should One Be Punished More Than Another?

Why Does God Mingle Those Who Will Persevere with Those Who Will Not?

Ambrose on God’s Control Over Men’s Thoughts.

Instances of the Unsearchable Judgments of God.

It is an Absurdity to Say that the Dead Will Be Judged for Sins Which They Would Have Committed If They Had Lived.

Why for the People of Tyre and Sidon, Who Would Have Believed, the Miracles Were Not Done Which Were Done in Other Places Which Did Not Believe.

It May Be Objected that The People of Tyre and Sidon Might, If They Had Heard, Have Believed, and Have Subsequently Lapsed from Their Faith.

God’s Ways, Both in Mercy and Judgment, Past Finding Out.

The Manicheans Do Not Receive All the Books of the Old Testament, and of the New Only Those that They Choose.

Reference to the 'Retractations.'

God’s Goodness and Righteousness Shown in All.

God’s True Grace Could Be Defended Even If There Were No Original Sin, as Pelagius Maintains.

Augustin Claims the Right to Grow in Knowledge.

Infants are Not Judged According to that Which They are Foreknown as Likely to Do If They Should Live.

The Inscrutability of God’s Free Purposes.

God Gives Both Initiatory and Persevering Grace According to His Own Will.

The Doctrine of Predestination Not Opposed to the Advantage of Preaching.

What Predestination is.

The Preaching of the Gospel and the Preaching of Predestination the Two Parts of One Message.

Ears to Hear are a Willingness to Obey.

Against the Preaching of Predestination the Same Objections May Be Alleged as Against Predestination.

Prayer and Exhortation.

When the Truth Must Be Spoken, When Kept Back.

Predestination Defined as Only God’s Disposing of Events in His Foreknowledge.

The Adversaries Cannot Deny Predestination to Those Gifts of Grace Which They Themselves Acknowledge, and Their Exhortations are Not Hindered by This Predestination Nevertheless.

Further Development of the Foregoing Argument.

Exhortation to Wisdom, Though Wisdom is God’s Gift.

Exhortation to Other Gifts of God in Like Manner.

A Man Who Does Not Persevere Fails by His Own Fault.

Predestination is Sometimes Signified Under the Name of Foreknowledge.

Practice of Cyprian and Ambrose.

Further References to Cyprian and Ambrose.

Obedience Not Discouraged by Preaching God’s Gifts.

Predestination Must Be Preached.

Previous Writings Anticipatively Refuted the Pelagian Heresy.

Augustin’s 'Confessions.'

Beginning and End of Faith is of God.

Testimony of His Previous Writings and Letters.

God Gives Means as Well as End.

How Predestination Must Be Preached So as Not to Give Offence.

The Doctrine to Be Applied with Discrimination.

Offence to Be Avoided.

The Application to the Church in General.

Use of the Third Person Rather Than the Second.

Prayer to Be Inculcated, Nevertheless.

The Testimony of the Whole Church in Her Prayers.

In What Sense the Holy Spirit Solicits for Us, Crying, Abba, Father.

The Church’s Prayers Imply the Church’s Faith.

Recapitulation and Exhortation.

The Most Eminent Instance of Predestination is Christ Jesus.


Index of Subjects


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