Table of Contents

Title Page.

The Works of Sulpitius Severus.

Life and Writings of Sulpitius Severus.

On the Life of St. Martin.

The Letters of Sulpitius Severus.

Dialogues of Sulpitius Severus.

The Doubtful Letters of Sulpitius Severus.

The Sacred History Of Sulpitius Severus.

The Commonitory of Vincent of Lérins, For the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith Against the Profane Novelties of All Heresies.


Chapter I. The Object of the Following Treatise.

Chapter II. A General Rule for distinguishing the Truth of the Catholic Faith from the Falsehood of Heretical Pravity.

Chapter III. What is to be done if one or more dissent from the rest.

Chapter IV. The evil resulting from the bringing in of Novel Doctrine shown in the instances of the Donatists and Arians.

Chapter V. The Example set us by the Martyrs, whom no force could hinder from defending the Faith of their Predecessors.

Chapter VI. The example of Pope Stephen in resisting the Iteration of Baptism.

Chapter VII. How Heretics, craftily cite obscure passages in ancient writers in support of their own novelties.

Chapter VIII. Exposition of St. Paul's Words, Gal. i. 8.

Chapter IX. His warning to the Galatians a warning to all.

Chapter X. Why Eminent Men are permitted by God to become Authors of Novelties in the Church.

Chapter XI. Examples from Church History, confirming the words of Moses,--Nestorius, Photinus, Apollinaris.

Chapter XII. A fuller account of the Errors of Photinus, Apollinaris and Nestorius.

Chapter XIII. The Catholic Doctrine of the Trinity and the Incarnation explained.

Chapter XIV. Jesus Christ Man in Truth, not in Semblance.

Chapter XV. The Union of the Divine with the Human Nature took place in the very Conception of the Virgin. The appellation “The Mother of God.”

Chapter XVI. Recapitulation of what was said of the Catholic Faith and of divers Heresies, Chapters xi-xv.

Chapter XVII. The Error of Origen a great Trial to the Church.

Chapter XVIII. Tertullian a great Trial to the Church.

Chapter XIX. What we ought to learn from these Examples.

Chapter XX. The Notes of a true Catholic.

Chapter XXI. Exposition of St. Paul's Words.--1 Tim. vi. 20.

Chapter XXII. A more particular Exposition of 1 Tim. vi. 20.

Chapter XXIII. On Development in Religious Knowledge.

Chapter XXIV. Continuation of the Exposition of 1 Tim. vi. 20.

Chapter XXV. Heretics appeal to Scripture that they may more easily succeed in deceiving.

Chapter XXVI. Heretics, in quoting Scripture, follow the example of the Devil.

Chapter XXVII. What Rule is to be observed in the Interpretation of Scripture.

Chapter XXVIII. In what Way, on collating the consentient opinions of the Ancient Masters, the Novelties of Heretics may be detected and condemned.

Chapter XXIX. Recapitulation.

Chapter XXX. The Council of Ephesus.

Chapter XXXI. The Constancy of the Ephesine Fathers in driving away Novelty and maintaining Antiquity.

Chapter XXXII. The zeal of Celestine and Sixtus, bishops of Rome, in opposing Novelty.

Chapter XXXIII. The Children of the Catholic Church ought to adhere to the Faith of their Fathers and die for it.

Appendix I. Note on Section 41, Page 143.

Appendix II. Note on Section 69, Page 149.

Appendix III. Note on Section 85, Page 156.

The Works of John Cassian.



The Twelve Books on the Institutes of the Cœnobia, and the Remedies for the Eight Principal Faults.

Book I. Of the Dress of the Monks.

Book II. Of the Canonical System of the Nocturnal Prayers and Psalms.

Chapter I. Of the Canonical System of the Nocturnal Prayers and Psalms.

Chapter II. Of the difference of the number of Psalms appointed to be sung in all the provinces.

Chapter III. Of the observance of one uniform rule throughout the whole of Egypt, and of the election of those who are set over the brethren.

Chapter IV. How throughout the whole of Egypt and the Thebaid the number of Psalms is fixed at twelve.

Chapter V. How the fact that the number of the Psalms was to be twelve was received from the teaching of an angel.

Chapter VI. Of the Custom of having Twelve Prayers.

Chapter VII. Of their Method of Praying.

Chapter VIII. Of the Prayer which follows the Psalm.

Chapter IX. Of the characteristics of the prayer, the fuller treatment of which is reserved for the Conferences of the Elders.

Chapter X. Of the silence and conciseness with which the Collects are offered up by the Egyptians.

Chapter XI. Of the system according to which the Psalms are said among the Egyptians.

Chapter XII. Of the reason why while one sings the Psalms the rest sit down during the service; and of the zeal with which they afterwards prolong their vigils in their cells till daybreak.

Chapter XIII. The reason why they are not allowed to go to sleep after the night service.

Chapter XIV. Of the way in which they devote themselves in their cells equally to manual labour and to prayer.

Chapter XV. Of the discreet rule by which every one must retire to his cell after the close of the prayers; and of the rebuke to which any one who does otherwise is subject.

Chapter XVI. How no one is allowed to pray with one who has been suspended from prayer.

Chapter XVII. How he who rouses them for prayer ought to call them at the usual time.

Chapter XVIII. How they do not kneel from the evening of Saturday till the evening of Sunday.

Book III. Of the Canonical System of the Daily Prayers and Psalms.

Chapter I. Of the services of the third, sixth, and ninth hours, which are observed in the regions of Syria.

Chapter II. How among the Egyptians they apply themselves all day long to prayer and Psalm continually, with the addition of work, without distinction of hours.

Chapter III. How throughout all the East the services of Tierce, Sext, and None are ended with only three Psalms and prayers each; and the reason why these spiritual offices are assigned more particularly to those hours.

Chapter IV. How the Mattin office was not appointed by an ancient tradition but was started in our own day for a definite reason.

Chapter V. How they ought not to go back to bed again after the Mattin prayers.

Chapter VI. How no change was made by the Elders in the ancient system of Psalms when the Mattin office was instituted.

Chapter VII. How one who does not come to the daily prayer before the end of the first Psalm is not allowed to enter the Oratory; but at Nocturnes a late arrival up to the end of the second Psalm can be overlooked.

Chapter VIII. Of the Vigil service which is celebrated on the evening preceding the Sabbath; of its length, and the manner in which it is observed.

Chapter IX. The reason why a Vigil is appointed as the Sabbath day dawns, and why a dispensation from fasting is enjoyed on the Sabbath all through the East.

Chapter X. How it was brought about that they fast on the Sabbath in the city.

Chapter XI. Of the points in which the service held on Sunday differs from what is customary on other days.

Chapter XII. Of the days on which, when supper is provided for the brethren, a Psalm is not said as they assemble for the meals as is usual at dinner.

Book IV. Of the Institutes of the Renunciants.

Chapter I. Of the training of those who renounce this world, and of the way in which those are taught among the monks of Tabenna and the Egyptians who are received into the monasteries.

Chapter II. Of the way in which among them men remain in the monasteries even to extreme old age.

Chapter III. Of the ordeal by which one who is to be received in the monastery is tested.

Chapter IV. The reason why those who are received in the monastery are not allowed to bring anything in with them.

Chapter V. The reason why those who give up the world, when they are received in the monasteries, must lay aside their own clothes and be clothed in others by the Abbot.

Chapter VI. The reason why the clothes of the renunciants with which they joined the monastery are preserved by the steward.

Chapter VII. The reason why those who are admitted to a monastery are not permitted to mix at once with the congregation of the brethren, but are first committed to the guest house.

Chapter VIII. Of the practices in which the juniors are first exercised that they may become proficient in overcoming all their desires.

Chapter IX. The reason why the juniors are enjoined not to keep back any of their thoughts from the senior.

Chapter X. How thorough is the obedience of the juniors even in those things which are matters of common necessity.

Chapter XI. The kind of food which is considered the greater delicacy by them.

Chapter XII. How they leave off every kind of work at the sound of some one knocking at the door, in their eagerness to answer at once.

Chapter XIII. How wrong it is considered for any one to say that anything, however trifling, is his own.

Chapter XIV. How, even if a large sum of money is amassed by the labour of each, still no one may venture to exceed the moderate limit of what is appointed as adequate.

Chapter XV. Of the excessive desire of possession among us.

Chapter XVI. On the rules for various rebukes.

Chapter XVII. Of those who introduced the plan that the holy Lessons should be read in the Cœnobia while the brethren are eating, and of the strict silence which is kept among the Egyptians.

Chapter XVIII. How it is against the rule for any one to take anything to eat or drink except at the common table.

Chapter XIX. How throughout Palestine and Mesopotamia a daily service is undertaken by the brethren.

Chapter XX. Of the three lentil beans which the Steward found.

Chapter XXI. Of the spontaneous service of some of the brethren.

Chapter XXII. The system of the Egyptians, which is appointed for the daily service of the brethren.

Chapter XXIII. The obedience of Abbot John by which he was exalted even to the grace of prophecy.

Chapter XXIV. Of the dry stick which, at the bidding of his senior, Abbot John kept on watering as if it would grow.

Chapter XXV. Of the unique vase of oil thrown away by Abbot John at his senior's command.

Chapter XXVI. How Abbot John obeyed his senior by trying to roll a huge stone, which a large number of men were unable to move.

Chapter XXVII. Of the humility and obedience of Abbot Patermucius, which he did not hesitate to make perfect by throwing his little boy into the river at the command of his senior.

Chapter XXVIII. How it was revealed to the Abbot concerning Patermucius that he had done the deed of Abraham; and how when the same Abbot died, Patermucius succeeded to the charge of the monastery.

Chapter XXIX. Of the obedience of a brother who at the Abbot's bidding carried about in public ten baskets and sold them by retail.

Chapter XXX. Of the humility of Abbot Pinufius, who left a very famous Cœnobium over which he presided as Presbyter, and out of the love of subjection sought a distant monastery where he could be received as a novice.

Chapter XXXI. How when Abbot Pinufius was brought back to his monastery he stayed there for a little while and then fled again into the regions of Syrian Palestine.

Chapter XXXII. The charge which the same Abbot Pinufius gave to a brother whom he admitted into his monastery in our presence.

Chapter XXXIII. How it is that, just as a great reward is due to the monk who labours according to the regulations of the fathers, so likewise punishment must he inflicted on an idle one; and therefore no one should be admitted into a monastery too easily.

Chapter XXXIV. Of the way in which our renunciation is nothing but mortification and the image of the Crucified.

Chapter XXXV. How the fear of the Lord is our cross.

Chapter XXXVI. How our renunciation of the world is of no use if we are again entangled in those things which we have renounced.

Chapter XXXVII. How the devil always lies in wait for our end, and how we ought continually to watch his head.

Chapter XXXVIII. Of the renunciant's preparation against temptation, and of the few who are worthy of imitation.

Chapter XXXIX. Of the way in which we shall mount towards perfection, whereby we may afterwards ascend from the fear of God up to love.

Chapter XL. That the monk should seek for examples of perfection not from many instances but from one or a very few.

Chapter XLI. The appearance of what infirmities one who lives in a Cœnobium ought to exhibit.

Chapter XLII. How a monk should not look for the blessing of patience in his own case as a result of the virtue of others, but rather as a consequence of his own longsuffering.

Chapter XLIII. Recapitulation of the explanation how a monk can mount up towards perfection.

Book V. Of the Spirit of Gluttony.

Chapter I. The transition from the Institutes of the monks to the struggle against the eight principal faults.

Chapter II. How the occasions of these faults, being found in everybody, are ignored by everybody; and how we need the Lord's help to make them plain.

Chapter III. How our first struggle must be against the spirit of gluttony, i.e. the pleasures of the palate.

Chapter IV. The testimony of Abbot Antony in which he teaches that each virtue ought to be sought for from him who professes it in a special degree.

Chapter V. That one and the same rule of fasting cannot be observed by everybody.

Chapter VI. That the mind is not intoxicated by wine alone.

Chapter VII. How bodily weakness need not interfere with purity of heart.

Chapter VIII. How food should be taken with regard to the aim at perfect continence.

Chapter IX. Of the measure of the chastisement to be undertaken, and the remedy of fasting.

Chapter X. That abstinence from food is not of itself sufficient for preservation of bodily and mental purity.

Chapter XI. That bodily lusts are not extinguished except by the entire rooting out of vice.

Chapter XII. That in our spiritual contest we ought to draw an example from the carnal contests.

Chapter XIII. That we cannot enter the battle of the inner man unless we have been set free from the vice of gluttony.

Chapter XIV. How gluttonous desires can be overcome.

Chapter XV. How a monk must always be eager to preserve his purity of heart.

Chapter XVI. How, after the fashion of the Olympic games, a monk should not attempt spiritual conflicts unless he has won battles over the flesh.

Chapter XVII. That the foundation and basis of the spiritual combat must be laid in the struggle against gluttony.

Chapter XVIII. Of the number of different conflicts and victories through which the blessed Apostle ascended to the crown of the highest combat.

Chapter XIX. That the athlete of Christ, so long as he is in the body, is never without a battle.

Chapter XX. How a monk should not overstep the proper hours for taking food, if he wants to proceed to the struggle of interior conflicts.

Chapter XXI. Of the inward peace of a monk, and of spiritual abstinence.

Chapter XXII. That we should for this reason practise bodily abstinence that we may by it attain to a spiritual fast.

Chapter XXIII. What should be the character of the monk's food.

Chapter XXIV. How in Egypt we saw that the daily fast was broken without scruple on our arrival.

Chapter XXV. Of the abstinence of one old man who took food six times so sparingly that he was still hungry.

Chapter XXVI. Of another old man, who never partook of food alone in his cell.

Chapter XXVII. What the two Abbots Pæsius and John said of the fruits of their zeal.

Chapter XXVIII. The lesson and example which Abbot John when dying left to his disciples.

Chapter XXIX. Of Abbot Machetes, who never slept during the spiritual conferences, but always went to sleep during earthly tales.

Chapter XXX. A saying of the same old man about not judging any one.

Chapter XXXI. The same old man's rebuke when he saw how the brethren went to sleep during the spiritual conferences, and woke up when some idle story was told.

Chapter XXXII. Of the letters which were burnt without being read.

Chapter XXXIII. Of the solution of a question which Abbot Theodore obtained by prayer.

Chapter XXXIV. Of the saying of the same old man, through which he taught by what efforts a monk can acquire a knowledge of the Scriptures.

Chapter XXXV. A rebuke of the same old man, when he had come to my cell in the middle of the night.

Chapter XXXVI. A description of the desert in Diolcos, where the anchorites live.

Chapter XXXVII. Of the cells which Abbot Archebius gave up to us with their furniture.

Chapter XXXVIII. The same Archebius paid a debt of his mother's by the labour of his own hands.

Chapter XXXIX. Of the device of a certain old man by which some work was found for Abbot Simeon when he had nothing to do.

Chapter XL. Of the boys who when bringing to a sick man some figs, died in the desert from hunger, without having tasted them.

Chapter XLI. The saying of Abbot Macarius of the behaviour of a monk as one who was to live for a long while, and as one who was daily at the point of death.

Book VI. On the Spirit of Fornication.

Book VII. Of the Spirit of Covetousness.

Chapter I. How our warfare with covetousness is a foreign one, and how this fault is not a natural one in man, as the other faults are.

Chapter II. How dangerous is the disease of covetousness.

Chapter III. What is the usefulness of those vices which are natural to us.

Chapter IV. That we can say that there exist in us some natural faults, without wronging the Creator.

Chapter V. Of the faults which are contracted through our own fault, without natural impulses.

Chapter VI. How difficult the evil of covetousness is to drive away when once it has been admitted.

Chapter VII. Of the source from which covetousness springs, and of the evils of which it is itself the mother.

Chapter VIII. How covetousness is a hindrance to all virtues.

Chapter IX. How a monk who has money cannot stay in the monastery.

Chapter X. Of the toils which a deserter from a monastery must undergo through covetousness, though he used formerly to murmur at the very slightest tasks.

Chapter XI. That under pretence of keeping the purse women have to besought to dwell with them.

Chapter XII. An instance of a lukewarm monk caught in the snares of covetousness.

Chapter XIII. What the elders relate to the juniors in the matter of stripping off sins.

Chapter XIV. Instances to show that the disease of covetousness is threefold.

Chapter XV. Of the difference between one who renounces the world badly and one who does not renounce it at all.

Chapter XVI. Of the authority under which those shelter themselves who object to stripping themselves of their goods.

Chapter XVII. Of the renunciation of the apostles and the primitive church.

Chapter XVIII. That if we want to imitate the apostles we ought not to live according to our own prescriptions, but to follow their example.

Chapter XIX. A saying of S. Basil, the Bishop, directed against Syncletius.

Chapter XX. How contemptible it is to be overcome by covetousness.

Chapter XXI. How covetousness can be conquered.

Chapter XXII. That one who actually has no money may still be deemed covetous.

Chapter XXIII. An example drawn from the case of Judas.

Chapter XXIV. That covetousness cannot be overcome except by stripping one's self of everything.

Chapter XXV. Of the deaths of Ananias and Sapphira, and Judas, which they underwent through the impulse of covetousness.

Chapter XXVI. That covetousness brings upon the soul a spiritual leprosy.

Chapter XXVII. Scripture proofs by which one who is aiming at perfection is taught not to take back again what he has given up and renounced.

Chapter XXVIII. That the victory over covetousness can only be gained by stripping one's self bare of everything.

Chapter XXIX. How a monk can retain his poverty.

Chapter XXX. The remedies against the disease of covetousness.

Chapter XXXI. That no one can get the better of covetousness unless he stays in the Cœnobium: and how one can remain there.

Book VIII. Of the Spirit of Anger.

Chapter I. How our fourth conflict is against the sin of anger, and how many evils this passion produces.

Chapter II. Of those who say that anger is not injurious, if we are angry with those who do wrong, since God Himself is said to be angry.

Chapter III. Of those things which are spoken of God anthropomorphically.

Chapter IV. In what sense we should understand the passions and human arts which are ascribed to the unchanging and incorporeal God.

Chapter V. How calm a monk ought to be.

Chapter VI. Of the righteous and unrighteous passion of wrath.

Chapter VII. Of the only case in which anger is useful to us.

Chapter VIII. Instances from the life of the blessed David in which anger was rightly felt.

Chapter IX. Of the anger which should be directed against ourselves.

Chapter X. Of the sun, of which it is said that it should not go down upon your wrath.

Chapter XI. Of those to whose wrath even the going down of the sun sets no limit.

Chapter XII. How this is the end of temper and anger when a man carries it into act as far as he can.

Chapter XIII. That we should not retain our anger even for an instant.

Chapter XIV. Of reconciliation with our brother.

Chapter XV. How the Old Law would root out anger not only from the actions but from the thoughts.

Chapter XVI. How useless is the retirement of those who do not give up their bad manners.

Chapter XVII. That the peace of our heart does not depend on another's will, but lies in our own control.

Chapter XVIII. Of the zeal with which we should seek the desert, and of the things in which we make progress there.

Chapter XIX. An illustration to help in forming an opinion on those who are only patient when they are not tried by any one.

Chapter XX. Of the way in which auger should be banished according to the gospel.

Chapter XXI. Whether we ought to admit the addition of “without a cause,” in that which is written in the Gospel, “whosoever is angry with his brother,” etc.

Chapter XXII. The remedies by which we can root out anger from our hearts.

Book IX. Of the Spirit of Dejection.

Book X. Of the Spirit of Accidie.

Chapter I. How our sixth combat is against the spirit of accidie, and what its character is.

Chapter II. A description of accidie, and the way in which it creeps over the heart of a monk, and the injury it inflicts on the soul.

Chapter III. Of the different ways in which accidie overcomes a monk.

Chapter IV. How accidie hinders the mind from all contemplation of the virtues.

Chapter V. How the attack of accidie is twofold.

Chapter VI. How injurious are the effects of accidie.

Chapter VII. Testimonies from the Apostle concerning the spirit of accidie.

Chapter VIII. That he is sure to be restless who will not be content with the work of his own hands.

Chapter IX. That not the Apostle only, but those two who were with him laboured with their own hands.

Chapter X. That for this reason the Apostle laboured with his own hands, that he might set us an example of work.

Chapter XI. That he preached and taught men to work not only by his example, but also by his words.

Chapter XII. Of his saying: “If any will not work, neither shall he eat.”

Chapter XIII. Of his saying: “We have heard that some among you walk disorderly.”

Chapter XIV. How manual labour prevents many faults.

Chapter XV. How kindness should be shown even to the idle and careless.

Chapter XVI. How we ought to admonish those who go wrong, not out of hatred, but out of love.

Chapter XVII. Different passages in which the Apostle declares that we ought to work, or in which it is shown that he himself worked.

Chapter XVIII. That the Apostle wrought what he thought would be sufficient for him and for others who were with him.

Chapter XIX. How we should understand these words: “It is more blessed to give than to receive.”

Chapter XX. Of a lazy brother who tried to persuade others to leave the monastery.

Chapter XXI. Different passages from the writings of Solomon against accidie.

Chapter XXII. How the brethren in Egypt work with their hands, not only to supply their own needs, but also to minister to those who are in prison.

Chapter XXIII. That idleness is the reason why there are not monasteries for monks in the West.

Chapter XXIV. Abbot Paul who every year burnt with fire all the works of his hands.

Chapter XXV. The words of Abbot Moses which he said to me about the cure of accidie.

Book XI. Of the Spirit of Vainglory.

Book XII. Of the Spirit of Pride.

Chapter I. How our eighth combat is against the spirit of pride, and of its character.

Chapter II. How there are two kinds of pride.

Chapter III. How pride is equally destructive of all virtues.

Chapter IV. How by reason of pride Lucifer was turned from an archangel into a devil.

Chapter V. That incentives to all sins spring from pride.

Chapter VI. That the sin of pride is last in the actual order of the combat, but first in time and origin.

Chapter VII. That the evil of pride is so great that it rightly has even God Himself as its adversary.

Chapter VIII. How God has destroyed the pride of the devil by the virtue of humility, and various passages in proof of this.

Chapter IX. How we too may overcome pride.

Chapter X. How no one can obtain perfect virtue and the promised bliss by his own strength alone.

Chapter XI. The case of the thief and of David, and of our call in order to illustrate the grace of God.

Chapter XII. That no toil is worthy to be compared with the promised bliss.

Chapter XIII. The teaching of the elders on the method of acquiring purity.

Chapter XIV. That the help of God is given to those who labour.

Chapter XV. From whom we can learn the way of perfection.

Chapter XVI. That we cannot even make the effort to obtain perfection without the mercy and inspiration of God.

Chapter XVII. Various passages which clearly show that we cannot do anything which belongs to our salvation without the aid of God.

Chapter XVIII. How we are protected by the grace of God not only in our natural condition, but also by His daily Providence.

Chapter XIX. How this faith concerning the grace of God was delivered to us by the ancient Fathers.

Chapter XX. Of one who for his blasphemy was given over to a most unclean spirit.

Chapter XXI. The instance of Joash, King of Judah, showing what was the consequence of his pride.

Chapter XXII. That every proud soul is subject to spiritual wickedness to be deceived by it.

Chapter XXIII. How perfection can only be attained through the virtue of humility.

Chapter XXIV. Who are attacked by spiritual and who by carnal pride.

Chapter XXV. A description of carnal pride, and of the evils which it produces in the soul of a monk.

Chapter XXVI. That a man whose foundation is bad, sinks daily from bad to worse.

Chapter XXVII. A description of the faults which spring from the evil of pride.

Chapter XXVIII. On the pride of a certain brother.

Chapter XXIX. The signs by which you can recognize the presence of carnal pride in a soul.

Chapter XXX. How when a man has grown cold through pride he wants to be put to rule other people.

Chapter XXXI. How we can overcome pride and attain perfection.

Chapter XXXII. How pride which is so destructive of all virtues can itself be destroyed by true humility.

Chapter XXXIII. Remedies against the evil of pride.

The Conferences of John Cassian. Part I. Containing Conferences I-X.


Conference I. First Conference of Abbot Moses.

Chapter I. Of our stay in Scete, and that which we proposed to Abbot Moses.

Chapter II. Of the question of Abbot Moses, who asked what was the goal and what the end of the monk.

Chapter III. Of our reply.

Chapter IV. Of Abbot Moses' question on the aforesaid statement.

Chapter V. A comparison with a man who is trying to hit a mark.

Chapter VI. Of those who in renouncing the world, aim at perfection without love.

Chapter VII. How peace of mind should be sought.

Chapter VIII. Of the main effort towards the contemplation of things and an illustration from the case of Martha and Mary.

Chapter IX. A question how it is that the practice of virtue cannot remain with a man.

Chapter X. The answer that not the reward, but the doing of them will come to an end.

Chapter XI. On the abiding character of love.

Chapter XII. A question on perseverance in spiritual contemplation.

Chapter XIII. The answer concerning the direction of the heart towards and concerning the kingdom of God and the kingdom of the devil.

Chapter XIV. Of the continuance of the soul.

Chapter XV. How we must meditate on God.

Chapter XVI. A question on the changing character of the thoughts.

Chapter XVII. The answer what the mind can and what it cannot do with regard to the state of its thoughts.

Chapter XVIII. Comparison of a soul and a millstone.

Chapter XIX. Of the three origins of our thoughts.

Chapter XX. About discerning the thoughts, with an illustration from a good money-changer.

Chapter XXI. Of the illusion of Abbot John.

Chapter XXII. Of the fourfold method of discrimination.

Chapter XXIII. Of the discourse of the teacher in regard to the merits of his hearers.

Conference II. Second Conference of Abbot Moses.

Chapter I. Abbot Moses' introduction on the grace of discretion.

Chapter II. What discretion alone can give a monk; and a discourse of the blessed Antony on this subject.

Chapter III. Of the error of Saul and of Ahab, by which they were deceived through lack of discretion.

Chapter IV. What is said of the value of discretion in Holy Scripture.

Chapter V. Of the death of the old man Heron.

Chapter VI. Of the destruction of two brethren for lack of discretion.

Chapter VII. Of an illusion into which another fell for lack of discretion.

Chapter VIII. Of the fall and deception of a monk of Mesopotamia.

Chapter IX. A question about the acquirement of true discretion.

Chapter X. The answer how true discretion may be gained.

Chapter XI. The words of Abbot Serapion on the decline of thoughts that are exposed to others, and also on the danger of self-confidence.

Chapter XII. A confession of the modesty which made us ashamed to reveal our thoughts to the elders.

Chapter XIII. The answer concerning the trampling down of shame, and the danger of one without contrition.

Chapter XIV. Of the call of Samuel.

Chapter XV. Of the call of the Apostle Paul.

Chapter XVI. How to seek for discretion.

Chapter XVII. On excessive fasts and vigils.

Chapter XVIII. A question on the right measure of abstinence and refreshment.

Chapter XIX. Of the best plan for our daily food.

Chapter XX. An objection on the ease of that abstinence in which a man is sustained by two biscuits.

Chapter XXI. The answer concerning the value and measure of well-proved abstinence.

Chapter XXII. What is the usual limit both of abstinence and of partaking food.

Chapter XXIII. Quemadmodum abundantia umorum genitalium castigetur.

Chapter XXIV. Of the difficulty of uniformity in eating; and of the gluttony of brother Benjamin.

Chapter XXV. A question how is it possible always to observe one and the same measure.

Chapter XXVI. The answer how we should not exceed the proper measure of food.

Conference III. Conference of Abbot Paphnutius. On the Three Sorts of Renunciations.

Chapter I. Of the life and conduct of Abbot Paphnutius.

Chapter II. Of the discourse of the same old man, and our reply to it.

Chapter III. The statement of Abbot Paphnutius on the three kinds of vocations, and the three sorts of renunciations.

Chapter IV. An explanation of the three callings.

Chapter V. How the first of these calls is of no use to a sluggard, and the last is no hindrance to one who is in earnest.

Chapter VI. An account of the three sorts of renunciations.

Chapter VII. How we can attain perfection in each of these sorts of renunciations.

Chapter VIII. Of our very own possessions in which the beauty of the soul is seen or its foulness.

Chapter IX. Of three sorts of possessions.

Chapter X. That none can become perfect merely through the first grade of renunciation.

Chapter XI. A question on the free will of man and the grace of God.

Chapter XII. The answer on the economy of Divine Grace, with free will still remaining in us.

Chapter XIII. That the ordering of our way comes from God.

Chapter XIV. That knowledge of the law is given by the guidance and illumination of the Lord.

Chapter XV. That the understanding, by means of which we can recognize God's commands, and the performance of a good will are both gifts from the Lord.

Chapter XVI. That faith itself must be given us by the Lord.

Chapter XVII. That temperateness and the endurance of temptations must be given to us by the Lord.

Chapter XVIII. That the continual fear of God must be bestowed on us by the Lord.

Chapter XIX. That the beginning of our good will and its completion comes from God.

Chapter XX. That nothing can be done in this world without God.

Chapter XXI. An objection on the power of free will.

Chapter XXII. The answer; viz., that our free will always has need of the help of the Lord.

Conference IV. Conference of Abbot Daniel. On the Lust of the Flesh and of the Spirit.

Chapter I. Of the life of Abbot Daniel.

Chapter II. An investigation of the origin of a sudden change of feeling from inexpressible joy to extreme dejection of mind.

Chapter III. His answer to the question raised.

Chapter IV. How there is a twofold reason for the permission and allowance of God.

Chapter V. How our efforts and exertions are of no use without God's help.

Chapter VI. How it is sometimes to our advantage to be left by God.

Chapter VII. Of the value of the conflict which the Apostle makes to consist in the strife between the flesh and the spirit.

Chapter VIII. A question, how it is that in the Apostle's chapter, after he has spoken of the lusts of the flesh and spirit opposing one another, he adds a third thing; viz., man's will.

Chapter IX. The answer on the understanding of one who asks rightly.

Chapter X. That the word flesh is not used with one single meaning only.

Chapter XI. What the Apostle means by flesh in this passage, and what the lust of the flesh is.

Chapter XII. What is our free will, which stands in between the lust of the flesh and the spirit.

Chapter XIII. Of the advantage of the delay which results from the struggle between flesh and spirit.

Chapter XIV. Of the incurable depravity of spiritual wickednesses.

Chapter XV. Of the value of the lust of the flesh against the spirit in our case.

Chapter XVI. Of the excitements of the flesh, without the humiliation of which we should fall more grievously.

Chapter XVII. Of the lukewarmness of eunuchs.

Chapter XVIII. The question what is the difference between the carnal and natural man.

Chapter XIX. The answer concerning the threefold condition of souls.

Chapter XX. Of those who renounce the world but ill.

Chapter XXI. Of those who having made light of great things busy themselves about trifles.

Conference V. Conference of Abbot Serapion. On the Eight Principal Faults.

Chapter I. Our arrival at Abbot Serapion's cell, and inquiry on the different kinds of faults and the way to overcome them.

Chapter II. Abbot Serapion's enumeration of eight principal faults.

Chapter III. Of the two classes of faults and their fourfold manner of acting on us.

Chapter IV. A review of the passions of gluttony and fornication and their remedies.

Chapter V. How our Lord alone was tempted without sin.

Chapter VI. Of the manner of the temptation in which our Lord was attacked by the devil.

Chapter VII. How vainglory and pride can be consummated without any assistance from the body.

Chapter VIII. Of covetousness, which is something outside our nature, and of the difference between it and those faults which are natural to us.

Chapter IX. How dejection and accidie generally arise without any external provocation, as in the case of other faults.

Chapter X. How six of these faults are related, and the two which differ from them are akin to one another.

Chapter XI. Of the origin and character of each of these faults.

Chapter XII. How vainglory may be useful to us.

Chapter XIII. Of the different ways in which all these faults assault us.

Chapter XIV. Of the struggle into which we must enter against our faults, when they attack us.

Chapter XV. How we can do nothing against our faults without the help of God, and how we should not be puffed up by victories over them.

Chapter XVI. Of the meaning of the seven nations of whose lands Israel took possession, and the reason why they are sometimes spoken of as “seven,” and sometimes as “many.”

Chapter XVII. A question with regard to the comparison of seven nations with eight faults.

Chapter XVIII.

Chapter XIX. The reason why one nation is to be forsaken, while seven are commanded to be destroyed.

Chapter XX. Of the nature of gluttony, which may be illustrated by the simile of the eagle.

Chapter XXI. Of the lasting character of gluttony as described to some philosophers.

Chapter XXII. How it was that God foretold to Abraham that Israel would have to drive out ten nations.

Chapter XXIII. How it is useful for us to take possession of their lands.

Chapter XXIV. How the lands from which the Canaanites were expelled, had been assigned to the seed of Shem.

Chapter XXV. Different passages of Scripture on the meaning of the eight faults.

Chapter XXVI. How when we have got the better of the passion of gluttony we must take pains to gain all the other virtues.

Chapter XXVII. That our battles are not fought with our faults in the same order as that in which they stand in the list.

Conference VI. Conference of Abbot Theodore. On the Death of the Saints.

Conference VII. First Conference of Abbot Serenus. On Inconstancy of Mind, and Spiritual Wickedness.

Chapter I. On the chastity of Abbot Serenus.

Chapter II. The question of the aforesaid old man on the state of our thoughts.

Chapter III. Our answer on the fickle character of our thoughts.

Chapter IV. The discourse of the old man on the state of the soul and its excellence.

Chapter V. On the perfection of the soul, as drawn from the comparison of the Centurion in the gospel.

Chapter VI. Of perseverance as regards care of the thoughts.

Chapter VII. A question on the roving tendency of the mind and the attacks of spiritual wickedness.

Chapter VIII. The answer on the help of God and the power of free will.

Chapter IX. A question on the union of the soul with devils.

Chapter X. The answer how unclean spirits are united with human souls.

Chapter XI. An objection whether unclean spirits can be present in or united with the souls of those whom they have filled.

Chapter XII. The answer how it is that unclean spirits can lord it over those possessed.

Chapter XIII. How spirit cannot be penetrated by spirit, and how God alone is incorporeal.

Chapter XIV. An objection, as to how we ought to believe that devils see into the thoughts of men.

Chapter XV. The answer what devils can and what they cannot do in regard to the thoughts of men.

Chapter XVI. An illustration showing how we are taught that unclean spirits know the thoughts of men.

Chapter XVII. On the fact that not every devil has the power of suggesting every passion to men.

Chapter XVIII. A question whether among the devils there is any order observed in the attack, or system in its changes.

Chapter XIX. The answer how far an agreement exists among devils about the attack and its changes.

Chapter XX. Of the fact that opposite powers are not of the same boldness, and that the occasions of temptation are not under their control.

Chapter XXI. Of the fact that devils struggle with men not without effort on their part.

Chapter XXII. On the fact that the power to hurt does not depend upon the will of the devils.

Chapter XXIII. Of the diminished power of the devils.

Chapter XXIV. Of the way in which the devils prepare for themselves an entrance into the bodies of those whom they are going to possess.

Chapter XXV. On the fact that those men are more wretched who are possessed by sins than those who are possessed by devils.

Chapter XXVI. Of the death of the prophet who was led astray, and of the infirmity of the Abbot Paul, with which he was visited for the sake of his cleansing.

Chapter XXVII. On the temptation of Abbot Moses.

Chapter XXVIII. How we ought not to despise those who are delivered up to unclean spirits.

Chapter XXIX. An objection, asking why those who are tormented by unclean spirits are separated from the Lord's communion.

Chapter XXX. The answer to the question raised.

Chapter XXXI. On the fact that those men are more to be pitied to whom it is not given to be subjected to those temporal temptations.

Chapter XXXII. Of the different desires and wishes which exist in the powers of the air.

Chapter XXXIII. A question as to the origin of such differences in powers of evil in the sky.

Chapter XXXIV. The postponement of the answer to the question raised.

Conference VIII. The Second Conference of Abbot Serenus. On Principalities.

Chapter I. Of the hospitality of Abbot Serenus.

Chapter II. Statements on the different kinds of spiritual wickednesses.

Chapter III. The answer on the many kinds of food provided in holy Scripture.

Chapter IV. Of the double sense in which Holy Scripture may be taken.

Chapter V. Of the fact that the question suggested ought to be included among those things to be held in a neutral or doubtful way.

Chapter VI. Of the fact that nothing is created evil by God.

Chapter VII. Of the origin of principalities or powers.

Chapter VIII. Of the fall of the devil and the angels.

Chapter IX. An objection stating that the fall of the devil took its origin from the deception of God.

Chapter X. The answer about the beginning of the devil's fall.

Chapter XI. The punishment of the deceiver and the deceived.

Chapter XII. Of the crowd of the devils, and the disturbance which they always raise in our atmosphere.

Chapter XIII. Of the fact that opposing powers turn the attack, which they aim at men, even against each other.

Chapter XIV. How it is that spiritual wickednesses obtained the names of powers or principalities.

Chapter XV. Of the fact that it is not without reason that the names of angels and archangels are given to holy and heavenly powers.

Chapter XVI. Of the subjection of the devils, which they show to their own princes, as seen in a brother's victim.

Chapter XVII. Of the fact that two angels always cling to every man.

Chapter XVIII. Of the degrees of wickedness which exist in hostile spirits, as shown in the case of two philosophers.

Chapter XIX. Of the fact that devils cannot prevail at all against men unless they have first secured possession of their minds.

Chapter XX. A question about the fallen angels who are said in Genesis to have had intercourse with the daughters of men.

Chapter XXI. The answer to the question raised.

Chapter XXII. An objection, as to how an unlawful intermingling with the daughters of Cain could be charged against the line of Seth before the prohibition of the law.

Chapter XXIII. The answer, that by the law of nature men were from the beginning liable to judgment and punishment.

Chapter XXIV. Of the fact that they were justly punished, who sinned before the flood.

Chapter XXV. How this that is said of the devil in the gospel is to be understood; viz., that “he is a liar, and his father.”

Conference IX. The First Conference of Abbot Isaac. On Prayer.

Chapter I. Introduction to the Conference.

Chapter II. The words of Abbot Isaac on the nature of prayer.

Chapter III. How pure and sincere prayer can be gained.

Chapter IV. Of the lightness of the soul which may be compared to a wing or feather.

Chapter V. Of the ways in which our soul is weighed down.

Chapter VI. Of the vision which a certain Elder saw concerning the restless work of a brother.

Chapter VII. A question how it is that it is harder work to preserve than to originate good thoughts.

Chapter VIII. Of the different characters of prayer.

Chapter IX. Of the fourfold nature of prayer.

Chapter X. Of the order of the different kinds laid down with regard to the character of prayer.

Chapter XI. Of Supplications.

Chapter XII. Of Prayer.

Chapter XIII. Of Intercession.

Chapter XIV. Of Thanksgiving.

Chapter XV. Whether these four kinds of prayers are necessary for everyone to offer all at once or separately and in turns.

Chapter XVI. Of the kinds of prayer to which we ought to direct ourselves.

Chapter XVII. How the four kinds of supplication were originated by the Lord.

Chapter XVIII. Of the Lord's Prayer.

Chapter XIX. Of the clause “Thy kingdom come.”

Chapter XX. Of the clause “Thy will be done.”

Chapter XXI. Of our supersubstantial or daily bread.

Chapter XXII. Of the clause: “Forgive us our debts, etc.”

Chapter XXIII. Of the clause: “Lead us not into temptation.“

Chapter XXIV. How we ought not to ask for other things, except only those which are contained in the limits of the Lord's Prayer.

Chapter XXV. Of the character of the sublimer prayer.

Chapter XXVI. Of the different causes of conviction.

Chapter XXVII. Of the different sorts of conviction.

Chapter XXVIII. A question about the fact that a plentiful supply of tears is not in our own power.

Chapter XXIX. The answer on the varieties of conviction which spring from tears.

Chapter XXX. How tears ought not to be squeezed out, when they do not flow spontaneously.

Chapter XXXI. The opinion of Abbot Antony on the condition of prayer.

Chapter XXXII. Of the proof of prayer being heard.

Chapter XXXIII. An objection that the confidence of being thus heard as described belongs only to saints.

Chapter XXXIV. Answer on the different reasons for prayer being heard.

Chapter XXXV. Of prayer to be offered within the chamber and with the door shut.

Chapter XXXVI. Of the value of short and silent prayer.

Conference X. The Second Conference of Abbot Isaac. On Prayer.

The Conferences of John Cassian. Part II. Containing Conferences XI-XVII.


Conference XI. The First Conference of Abbot Chæremon. On Perfection.

Conference XII. The Second Conference of Abbot Chæremon. On Chastity.

Conference XIII. The Third Conference of Abbot Chæremon. On the Protection of God.

Conference XIV. The First Conference of Abbot Nesteros. On Spiritual Knowledge.

Conference XV. The Second Conference of Abbot Nesteros. On Divine Gifts.

Conference XVI. The First Conference of Abbot Joseph. On Friendship.

Chapter I. What Abbot Joseph asked us in the first instance.

Chapter II. Discourse of the same elder on the untrustworthy sort of friendship.

Chapter III. How friendship is indissoluble.

Chapter IV. A question whether anything that is really useful should be performed even against a brother's wish.

Chapter V. The answer, how a lasting friendship can only exist among those who are perfect.

Chapter VI. By what means union can be preserved unbroken.

Chapter VII. How nothing should be put before love, or after anger.

Chapter VIII. On what grounds a dispute can arise among spiritual persons.

Chapter IX. How to get rid even of spiritual grounds of discord.

Chapter X. On the best tests of truth.

Chapter XI. How it is impossible for one who trusts to his own judgment to escape being deceived by the devil's illusions.

Chapter XII. Why inferiors should not be despised in Conference.

Chapter XIII. How love does not only belong to God but is God.

Chapter XIV. On the different grades of love.

Chapter XV. Of those who only increase their own or their brother's grievances by hiding them.

Chapter XVI. How it is that, if our brother has any grudge against us, the gifts of our prayers are rejected by the Lord.

Chapter XVII. Of those who hold that patience should be shown to worldly people rather than to the brethren.

Chapter XVIII. Of those who pretend to patience but excite their brethren to anger by their silence.

Chapter XIX. Of those who fast out of rage.

Chapter XX. Of the feigned patience of some who offer the other cheek to be smitten.

Chapter XXI. A question how if we obey the commands of Christ we can fail of evangelical perfection.

Chapter XXII. The answer that Christ looks not only at the action but also at the will.

Chapter XXIII. How he is the strong and vigorous man, who yields to the will of another.

Chapter XXIV. How the weak are harmful and cannot bear wrongs.

Chapter XXV. A question how he can be strong who does not always support the weak.

Chapter XXVI. The answer that the weak does not always allow himself to be borne.

Chapter XXVII. How anger should be repressed.

Chapter XXVIII. How friendships entered upon by conspiracy cannot be lasting ones.

Conference XVII. The Second Conference of Abbot Joseph. On Making Promises.

Chapter I. Of the vigils which we endured.

Chapter II. Of the anxiety of Abbot Germanus at the recollection of our promise.

Chapter III. My ideas on this subject.

Chapter IV. Abbot Joseph's question and our answer on the origin of our anxiety.

Chapter V. The explanation of Abbot Germanus why we wanted to stay in Egypt, and were drawn back to Syria.

Chapter VI. Abbot Joseph's question whether we got more good in Egypt than in Syria.

Chapter VII. The answer on the difference of customs in the two countries.

Chapter VIII. How those who are perfect ought not to make any promises absolutely, and whether decisions can be reversed without sin.

Chapter IX. How it is often better to break one's engagements than to fulfil them.

Chapter X. Our question about our fear of the oath which we gave in the monastery in Syria.

Chapter XI. The answer that we must take into account the purpose of the doer rather than the execution of the business.

Chapter XII. How a fortunate issue will be of no avail to evil doers, while bad deeds will not injure good men.

Chapter XIII. Our answer as to the reason which demanded an oath from us.

Chapter XIV. The discourse of the Elder showing how the plan of action may be changed without fault provided that one keeps to the carrying out of a good intention.

Chapter XV. A question whether it can be without sin that our knowledge affords to weak brethren an opportunity for lying.

Chapter XVI. The answer that Scripture truth is not to be altered on account of an offence given to the weak.

Chapter XVII. How the saints have profitably employed a lie like hellebore.

Chapter XVIII. An objection that only those men employed lies with impunity, who lived under the law.

Chapter XIX. The answer, that leave to lie, which was not even granted under the old Covenant, has rightly been taken by many.

Chapter XX. How even Apostles thought that a lie was often useful and the truth injurious.

Chapter XXI. Whether secret abstinence ought to be made known, without telling a lie about it, to those who ask, and whether what has once been declined may be taken in hand.

Chapter XXII. An objection, that abstinence ought to be concealed, but that things that have been declined should not be received.

Chapter XXIII. The answer that obstinacy in this decision is unreasonable.

Chapter XXIV. How Abbot Piamun chose to hide his abstinence.

Chapter XXV. The evidence of Scripture on changes of determination.

Chapter XXVI. How saintly men cannot be hard and obstinate.

Chapter XXVII. A question whether the saying: “I have sworn and am purposed” is opposed to the view given above.

Chapter XXVIII. The answer telling in what cases the determination is to be kept fixedly, and in what cases it may be broken if need be.

Chapter XXIX. How we ought to do those things which are to be kept secret.

Chapter XXX. That no determination should be made on those things which concern the needs of the common life.

The Conferences of John Cassian. Part III. Containing Conferences XVIII.-XXIV.


Conference XVIII. Conference of Abbot Piamun. On the Three Sorts of Monks.

Conference XIX. Conference of Abbot John. On the Aim of the Cœnobite and Hermit.

Conference XX. Conference of Abbot Pinufius. On the End of Penitence and the Marks of Satisfaction.

Conference XXI. The First Conference of Abbot Theonas. On the Relaxation During the Fifty Days.

Chapter I. How Theonas came to Abbot John.

Chapter II. The exhortation of Abbot John to Theonas and the others who had come together with him.

Chapter III. Of the offering of tithes and firstfruits.

Chapter IV. How Abraham, David, and other saints went beyond the requirement of the law.

Chapter V. How those who live under the grace of the Gospel ought to go beyond the requirement of the law.

Chapter VI. How the grace of the gospel supports the weak so that they can obtain pardon, as it secures to the perfect the kingdom of God.

Chapter VII. How it lies in our own power to choose whether to remain under the grace of the gospel or under the terror of the law.

Chapter VIII. How Theonas exhorted his wife that she too should make her renunciation.

Chapter IX. How he fled to a monastery when his wife would not consent.

Chapter X. An explanation that we may not appear to recommend separation from wives.

Chapter XI. An inquiry why in Egypt they do not fast during all the fifty days (of Easter) nor bend their knees in prayer.

Chapter XII. The answer on the nature of things good, bad, and indifferent.

Chapter XIII. What kind of good fasting is.

Chapter XIV. How fasting is not good in its own nature.

Chapter XV. How a thing that is good in its own nature ought not to be done for the sake of some lesser good.

Chapter XVI. How what is good in its own nature can be distinguished from other things that are good.

Chapter XVII. Of the reason for fasting and its value.

Chapter XVIII. How fasting is not always suitable.

Chapter XIX. A question why we break the fast all through Eastertide.

Chapter XX. The answer.

Chapter XXI. A question whether the relaxation of the fast is not prejudicial to the chastity of the body.

Chapter XXII. The answer on the way to keep control over abstinence.

Chapter XXIII. Of the time and measure of refreshment.

Chapter XXIV. A question on the different ways of keeping Lent.

Chapter XXV. The answer to the effect that the fast of Lent has reference to the tithe of the year.

Chapter XXVI. How we ought also to offer our firstfruits to the Lord.

Chapter XXVII. Why Lent is kept by very many with a different number of days.

Chapter XXVIII. Why it is called Quadragesima, when the fast is only kept for thirty-six days.

Chapter XXIX. How those who are perfect go beyond the fixed rule of Lent.

Chapter XXX. Of the origin and beginning of Lent.

Chapter XXXI. A question, how we ought to understand the Apostle's words: “Sin shall not have dominion over you.”

Chapter XXXII. The answer on the difference between grace and the commands of the law.

Chapter XXXIII. Of the fact that the precepts of the gospel are milder than those of the law.

Chapter XXXIV. How a man can be shown to be under grace.

Chapter XXXV. A question, why sometimes when we are fasting more strictly than usual, we are troubled by carnal desires more keenly than usual.

Chapter XXXVI. The answer, telling that this question should be reserved for a future Conference.

Conference XXII. The Second Conference of Abbot Theonas. On Nocturnal Illusions.

Conference XXIII. The Third Conference of Abbot Theonas. On Sinlessness.

Chapter I. Discourse of Abbot Theonas on the Apostle's words: “For I do not the good which I would.“

Chapter II. How the Apostle completed many good actions.

Chapter III. What is really the good which the Apostle testifies that he could not perform.

Chapter IV. How man's goodness and righteousness are not good if compared with the goodness and righteousness of God.

Chapter V. How no one can be continually intent upon that highest good.

Chapter VI. How those who think that they are without sin are like purblind people.

Chapter VII. How those who maintain that a man can be without sin are charged with a twofold error.

Chapter VIII. How it is given to but few to understand what sin is.

Chapter IX. Of the care with which a monk should preserve the recollection of God.

Chapter X. How those who are on the way to perfection are truly humble, and feel that they always stand in need of God's grace.

Chapter XI. Explanation of the phrase: “For I delight in the law of God after the inner man,” etc.

Chapter XII. Of this also: “But we know that the law is spiritual,” etc.

Chapter XIII. Of this also: “But I know that in me, that is in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing.”

Chapter XIV. An objection, that the saying: “For I do not the good that I would,” etc., applies to the persons neither of unbelievers nor of saints.

Chapter XV. The answer to the objection raised.

Chapter XVI. What is the body of sin.

Chapter XVII. How all the saints have confessed with truth that they were unclean and sinful.

Chapter XVIII. That even good and holy men are not without sin.

Chapter XIX. How even in the hour of prayer it is almost impossible to avoid sin.

Chapter XX. From whom we can learn the destruction of sin and perfection of goodness.

Chapter XXI. That although we acknowledge that we cannot be without sin, yet still we ought not to suspend ourselves from the Lord's Communion.

Conference XXIV. Conference of Abbot Abraham. On Mortification.

Chapter I. How we laid bare the secrets of our thoughts to Abbot Abraham.

Chapter II. How the old man exposed our errors.

Chapter III. Of the character of the districts which anchorites ought to seek.

Chapter IV. What sorts of work should be chosen by solitaries.

Chapter V. That anxiety of heart is made worse rather than better by restlessness of body.

Chapter VI. A comparison showing how a monk ought to keep guard over his thoughts.

Chapter VII. A question why the neighbourhood of our kinsfolk is considered to interfere with us, whereas it does not interfere in the case of those living in Egypt.

Chapter VIII. The answer that all things are not suitable for all men.

Chapter IX. That those need not fear the neighbourhood of their kinsfolk, who can emulate the mortification of Abbot Apollos.

Chapter X. A question whether it is bad for a monk to have his wants supplied by his kinsfolk.

Chapter XI. The answer stating what Saint Antony laid down on this matter.

Chapter XII. Of the value of work and the harm of idleness.

Chapter XIII. A story of a barber's payments, introduced for the sake of recognizing the devil's illusions.

Chapter XIV. A question how such wrong notions can creep into us.

Chapter XV. The answer on the threefold movement of the soul.

Chapter XVI. That the rational part of our soul is corrupt.

Chapter XVII. How the weaker part of the soul is the first to yield to the devil's temptations.

Chapter XVIII. A question whether we should be drawn back to our country by a proper desire for greater silence.

Chapter XIX. The answer on the devil's illusion, because he promises us the peace of a vaster solitude.

Chapter XX. How useful is relaxation on the arrival of brethren.

Chapter XXI. How the Evangelist John is said to have shown the value of relaxation.

Chapter XXII. A question how we ought to understand what the gospel says “My yoke is easy and My burden is light.“

Chapter XXIII. The answer with the explanation of the saying.

Chapter XXIV. Why the Lord's yoke is felt grievous and His burden heavy.

Chapter XXV. Of the good which an attack of temptation brings about.

Chapter XXVI. How the promise of an hundredfold in this life is made to those whose renunciation is perfect.

The Seven Books of John Cassian on the Incarnation of the Lord, Against Nestorius.


Book I.

Book II.

Book III.

Chapter I. That Christ, who is God and man in the unity of Person, sprang from Israel and the Virgin Mary according to the flesh.

Chapter II. The title of God is given in one sense to Christ, and in another to men.

Chapter III. He explains the apostle's saying: “If from henceforth we know no man according to the flesh,” etc.

Chapter IV. From the Epistle to the Galatians he brings forward a passage to show that the weakness of the flesh in Christ was absorbed by His Divinity.

Chapter V. As it is blasphemy to pare away the Divinity of Christ, so also is it blasphemous to deny that He is true man.

Chapter VI. He shows from the appearance of Christ vouchsafed to the Apostle when persecuting the Church, the existence of both natures in Him.

Chapter VII. He shows once more by other passages of the Apostle that Christ is God.

Chapter VIII. When confessing the Divinity of Christ we ought not to pass over in silence the confession of the cross.

Chapter IX. How the Apostle's preaching was rejected by Jews and Gentiles because it confessed that the crucified Christ was God.

Chapter X. How the apostle maintains that Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God.

Chapter XI. He supports the same doctrine by proofs from the gospel.

Chapter XII. He proves from the renowned confession of the blessed Peter that Christ is God.

Chapter XIII. The confession of the blessed Peter receives a testimony to its truth from Christ Himself.

Chapter XIV. How the confession of the blessed Peter is the faith of the whole Church.

Chapter XV. St. Thomas also confessed the same faith as Peter after the Lord's resurrection.

Chapter XVI. He brings forward the witness of God the Father to the Divinity of the Son.

Book IV.

Chapter I. That Christ was before the Incarnation God from everlasting.

Chapter II. He infers from what he has said that the Virgin Mary gave birth to a Son who had pre-existed and was greater than she herself was.

Chapter III. He proves from the Epistle to the Romans the eternal Divinity of Christ.

Chapter IV. He brings forward other testimonies to the same view.

Chapter V. How in virtue of the hypostatic union of the two natures in Christ the Word is rightly termed the Saviour, or incarnate man, and the Son of God.

Chapter VI. That there is in Christ but one Hypostasis (i.e., Personal self).

Chapter VII. He returns to the former subject, in order to show against the Nestorians that those things are said of the man, which belong to the Divine nature as it were of a Person of Divine nature, and conversely that those things are said of God, which belong to the human nature as it were of a Person of human nature, because there is in Christ but one and a single Personal self.

Chapter VIII. How this interchange of titles does not interfere with His Divine power.

Chapter IX. He corroborates this statement by the authority of the old prophets.

Chapter X. He proves Christ's Divinity from the blasphemy of Judaizing Jews as well as from the confession of converts to the faith of Christ.

Chapter XI. He returns to the prophecy of Isaiah.

Chapter XII. How the title of Saviour is given to Christ in one sense, and to men in another.

Chapter XIII. He explains who are those in whose person the Prophet Isaiah says: “Thou art our God, and we knew Thee not.”

Book V.

Chapter I. He vehemently inveighs against the error of the Pelagians, who declared that Christ was a mere man.

Chapter II. That the doctrine of Nestorius is closely connected with the error of the Pelagians.

Chapter III. How this participation in Divinity which the Pelagians and Nestorians attribute to Christ, is common to all holy men.

Chapter IV. What the difference is between Christ and the saints.

Chapter V. That before His birth in time Christ was always called God by the prophets.

Chapter VI. He illustrates the same doctrine by passages from the New Testament.

Chapter VII. He shows again from the union in Christ of two natures in one Person that what belongs to the Divine nature may rightly be ascribed to man, and what belongs to the human nature to God.

Chapter VIII. He confirms the judgment of the Apostle by the authority of the Lord.

Chapter IX. Since those marvellous works which from the days of Moses were shown to the children of Israel are attributed to Christ, it follows that He must have existed long before His birth in time.

Chapter X. He explains what it means to confess, and what it means to dissolve Jesus.

Chapter XI. The mystery of the Lord's Incarnation clearly implies the Divinity of Christ.

Chapter XII. He explains more fully what the mystery is which is signified under the name of the man and wife.

Chapter XIII. Of the longing with which the old patriarchs desired to see the revelation of that mystery.

Chapter XIV. He refutes the wicked and blasphemous notion of the heretics who said that God dwelt and spoke in Christ as in an instrument or a statue.

Chapter XV. What the prayers of the saints for the coming of Messiah contained; and what was the nature of that longing of theirs.

Book VI.

Chapter I. From the miracle of the feeding of the multitude from five barley loaves and two fishes he shows the majesty of Divine Power.

Chapter II. The author adapts the mystery of the number seven (made up of the five loaves and two fishes) to his own work.

Chapter III. He refutes his opponent by the testimony of the Council of Antioch.

Chapter IV. How the Creed has authority Divine as well as human.

Chapter V. He proceeds against his opponent with the choicest arguments, and shows that we ought to hold fast to the religion which we have received from our fathers.

Chapter VI. Once more he challenges him to the profession of the Creed of Antioch.

Chapter VII. He continues the same line of argument drawn from the Creed of Antioch.

Chapter VIII. How it can be said that Christ came and was born of a Virgin.

Chapter IX. Again he convicts his opponent of deadly heresy by his own confession.

Chapter X. He inveighs against him because though he has forsaken the Catholic religion, he nevertheless presumes to teach in the Church, to sacrifice, and to give decisions.

Chapter XI. He removes the silent objection of heretics who want to recant the profession of their faith made in childhood.

Chapter XII. Christ crucified is an offence and foolishness to those who declare that He was a mere man.

Chapter XIII. He replies to the objection in which they say that the child born ought to be of one substance with the mother.

Chapter XIV. He compares this erroneous view with the teaching of the Pelagians.

Chapter XV. He shows that those who patronize this false teaching acknowledge two Christs.

Chapter XVI. He shows further that this teaching is destructive of the confession of the Trinity.

Chapter XVII. Those who are under an error in one point of the Catholic religion, lose the whole faith, and all the value of the faith.

Chapter XVIII. He directs his discourse upon his antagonist with whom he is disputing, and begs him to return to his senses. The sacrament of reconciliation is necessary for the lapsed for their salvation.

Chapter XIX. That the birth of Christ in time diminished nothing of the glory and power of His Deity.

Chapter XX. He shows from what has been said that we do not mean that God was mortal or of flesh before the worlds, although Christ, who is God from eternity and was made man in time, is but one Person.

Chapter XXI. The authority of Holy Scripture teaches that Christ existed from all eternity.

Chapter XXII. The hypostatic union enables us to ascribe to God what belongs to the flesh in Christ.

Chapter XXIII. That the figure Synecdoche, in which the part stands for the whole, is very familiar to the Holy Scripture.

Book VII.

Chapter I. As he is going to reply to the slanders of his opponents he implores the aid of Divine grace to teach a prayer to be used by those who undertake to dispute with heretics.

Chapter II. He meets the objection taken from these words: No one gave birth to one who had existed before her.

Chapter III. He replies to the cavil that the one who is born must be of one substance with the one who bears.

Chapter IV. How God has shown His Omnipotence in His birth in time as well as in everything else.

Chapter V. He shows by proofs drawn from nature itself, that the law which his opponents lay down; viz., that the one born ought to be of one substance with the one who bears, fails to hold good in many cases.

Chapter VI. He refutes another argument of Nestorius, in which he tried to make out that Christ was like Adam in every point.

Chapter VII. Heretics usually cover their doctrines with a cloak of holy Scripture.

Chapter VIII. The heretics attribute to Christ only the shadow of Divinity, and so assert that he is to be worshipped together with God but not as God.

Chapter IX. How those are wrong who say that the birth of Christ was a secret, since it was clearly shown even to the patriarch Jacob.

Chapter X. He collects more witnesses of the same fact.

Chapter XI. How the devil was forced by many reasons to the view that Christ was God.

Chapter XII. He compares this notion and reasonable suspicion of the devil with the obstinate and inflexible idea of his opponents, and shows that this last is worse and more blasphemous than the former.

Chapter XIII. How the devil always retained this notion of Christ's Divinity (because of His secret working which he experienced) even up to His Cross and Death.

Chapter XIV. He shows how heretics pervert holy Scripture, by replying to the argument drawn from the Apostle's words, “Without father, without mother,” etc.: Heb. vii.

Chapter XV. How Christ could be said by the Apostle to be without genealogy.

Chapter XVI. He shows that like the devil when tempting Christ, the heretics garble and pervert holy Scripture.

Chapter XVII. That the glory and honour of Christ is not to be ascribed to the Holy Ghost in such a way as to deny that it proceeds from Christ Himself, as if all that excellency, which was in Him, was another's and proceeded from another source.

Chapter XVIII. How we are to understand the Apostle's words: “He appeared in the flesh, was justified in the Spirit,” etc.

Chapter XIX. That it was not only the Spirit, but Christ Himself also who made Him to be feared.

Chapter XX. He tries by stronger and weightier arguments to destroy that notion.

Chapter XXI. That it must be ascribed equally to Christ and the Holy Ghost that His flesh and Humanity became the temple of God.

Chapter XXII. That the raising up of Christ into heaven is not to be ascribed to the Spirit alone.

Chapter XXIII. He continues the same argument to show that Christ had no need of another's glory as He had a glory of His own.

Chapter XXIV. He supports this doctrine by the authority of the blessed Hilary.

Chapter XXV. He shows that Ambrose agrees with S. Hilary.

Chapter XXVI. He adds to the foregoing the testimony of S. Jerome.

Chapter XXVII. To the foregoing he adds Rufinus and the blessed Augustine.

Chapter XXVIII. As he is going to produce the testimony of Greek or Eastern Bishops, he brings forward in the first place S. Gregory Nazianzen.

Chapter XXIX. In the next place he puts the authority of S. Athanasius.

Chapter XXX. He adds also S. John Chrysostom.

Chapter XXXI. He bemoans the unhappy lot of Constantinople, owing to the misfortune which has overtaken it from that heretic; and at the same time he urges the citizens to stand fast in the ancient Catholic and ancestral faith.


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