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Chapter 26

26:1 Thou art permitted [epitrepetai soi]. Literally, It is permitted thee. As if Agrippa were master of ceremonies instead of Festus. Agrippa as a king and guest presides at the grand display while Festus has simply introduced Paul. For thyself [huper seautou]. Some MSS. have [peri] (concerning). Paul is allowed to speak in his own behalf. No charges are made against him. In fact, Festus has admitted that he has no real proof of any charges. Stretched forth his hand [ekteinas tēn cheira]. Dramatic oratorical gesture (not for silence as in 12:17; 13:16) with the chain still upon it (verse 29) linking him to the guard. First aorist active participle of [ekteinō], to stretch out. Made his defence [apelogeito]. Inchoative imperfect of [apologeomai] (middle), “began to make his defence.” This is the fullest of all Paul’s defences. He has no word of censure of his enemies or of resentment, but seizes the opportunity to preach Christ to such a distinguished company which he does with “singular dignity” (Furneaux). He is now bearing the name of Christ “before kings” (Ac 9:15). In general Paul follows the line of argument of the speech on the stairs (chapter Ac 22).

26:2 I think myself happy [hēgēmai emauton makarion]. See on Mt 5:3 for [makarios]. Blass notes that Paul, like Tertullus, begins with captatio benevolentiae, but absque adulatione. He says only what he can truthfully speak. For [hēgēmai] see Php 3:7; 1Ti 6:1 (perfect middle indicative of [hēgeomai], I have considered. That I am to make my defence [mellōn apologeisthai]. Literally, “being about to make my defence.” Whereof I am accused [hōn egkaloumai]. Genitive with [egkaloumai] as in 19:40 or by attraction from accusative of relative [ha] to case of antecedent [pantōn].

26:3 Especially because thou art expert [malista gnōstēn onta se]. Or like the margin, “because thou art especially expert,” according as [malista] is construed. [Gnōstēn] is from [ginōskō] and means a knower, expert, connoisseur. Plutarch uses it and Deissmann (Light, etc., p. 367) restores it in a papyrus. Agrippa had the care of the temple, the appointment of the high priest, and the care of the sacred vestments. But the accusative [onta se] gives trouble here coming so soon after [sou] (genitive with [epi]. Some MSS. insert [epistamenos] or [eidōs] (knowing) but neither is genuine. Page takes it as “governed by the sense of thinking or considering.” Knowling considers it an anacoluthon. Buttmann held it to be an accusative absolute after the old Greek idiom. [Tuchon] is such an instance though used as an adverb (1Co 16:6). It is possible that one exists in Eph 1:18. See other examples discussed in Robertson’s Grammar, pp. 490f. Customs and questions [ethōn te kai zētēmatōn]. Both consuetudinum in practicis and quaestionum in theoreticis (Bengel). Agrippa was qualified to give Paul an understanding and a sympathetic hearing. Paul understands perfectly the grand-stand play of the whole performance, but he refused to be silent and chose to use this opportunity, slim as it seemed, to get a fresh hearing for his own case and to present the claims of Christ to this influential man. His address is a masterpiece of noble apologetic. Patiently [makrothumōs]. Adverb from [makrothumos]. Only here in the N.T., though [makrothumia] occurs several times. Vulgate has longanimiter. Long spirit, endurance, opposite of impatience. So Paul takes his time.

26:4 My manner of life [tēn men oun biōsin mou]. With [men oun] Paul passes from the captatio benevolentiae (verses 1, 2) “to the narratio or statement of his case” (Page). [Biōsis] is from [bioō] (1Pe 4:2) and that from [bios] (course of life). This is the only instance of [biōsis] yet found except the Prologue (10) of Ecclesiasticus and an inscription given in Ramsay’s Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, Vol II, p. 650. Know [isāsi]. Literary form instead of the vernacular Koinē [oidasin]. Paul’s early life in Tarsus and Jerusalem was an open book to all Jews.

26:5 Having knowledge of me from the first [proginōskontes me anōthen]. Literally, “knowing me beforehand” (both [pro] and [anōthen], from the beginning of Paul’s public education in Jerusalem (Knowling). Cf. 2Pe 3:17. If they be willing to testify [ean thelōsin marturein]. Condition of third class [ean] and subjunctive). A neat turning of the tables on the distinguished audience about Paul’s Jerusalem reputation before his conversion. After the straitest sect [tēn akribestatēn hairesin]. This is a true superlative (not elative) and one of the three (also [hagiōtatos], Jude 1:20, [timiōtatos] Re 18:12; 21:11) superlatives in [-tatos] in the N.T. (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 279f., 670), though common enough in the LXX and the papyri. [Hairesin] (choosing) is properly used here with Pharisees (Josephus, Life, 38). Religion [thrēskeias]. From [thrēskeuō] and this from [thrēskos] (Jas 1:26), old word for religious worship or discipline, common in the papyri and inscriptions (Moulton and Milligan’s Vocabulary) for reverent worship, not mere external ritual. In N.T. only here, Jas 1:26f.; Col 2:18. I lived a Pharisee [ezēsa Pharisaios]. Emphatic position. Paul knew the rules of the Pharisees and played the game to the full (Ga 1:14; Php 3:5f.). The Talmud makes it plain what the life of a Pharisee was. Paul had become one of the leaders and stars of hope for his sect.

26:6 And now [kai nun]. Sharp comparison between his youth and the present. To be judged for the hope [ep’ elpidi—krinomenos]. The hope of the resurrection and of the promised Messiah (13:32). Page calls verses 6-8 a parenthesis in the course of Paul’s argument by which he shows that his life in Christ is a real development of the best in Pharisaism. He does resume his narrative in verse 9, but verses 6-8 are the core of his defence already presented in Ga 3; Ro 9-11 where he proves that the children of faith are the real seed of Abraham.

26:7 Our twelve tribes [to dōdekaphulon hēmōn]. A word found only here in N.T. and in Christian and Jewish writings, though [dōdekamēnon] (twelve month) is common in the papyri and [dekaphulos] (ten tribes) in Herodotus. Paul’s use of this word for the Jewish people, like Jas 1:1 [tais dōdeka phulais], the twelve tribes), shows that Paul had no knowledge of any “lost ten tribes.” There is a certain national pride and sense of unity in spite of the dispersion (Page). Earnestly [en ekteneiāi]. A late word from [ekteinō], to stretch out, only here in N.T., but in papyri and inscriptions. Page refers to Simeon and Anna (Lu 2:25-28) as instances of Jews looking for the coming of the Messiah. Note the accusative of [nukta kai hēmeran] as in 20:31. Hope to attain [elpizei katantēsai]. This Messianic hope had been the red thread running through Jewish history. Today, alas, it is a sadly worn thread for Jews who refuse to see the Messiah in Jesus. I am accused by Jews [egkaloumai hupo Ioudaiōn]. The very word used in 23:28 [enekaloun] which see, and by Jews of all people in the world whose mainspring was this very “hope.” It is a tremendously effective turn.

26:8 Incredible with you [apiston par’ humin]. This old word [apiston] [a] privative and [pistos] means either unfaithful (Lu 12:46), unbelieving (Joh 20:27), or unbelievable as here). Paul turns suddenly from Agrippa to the audience [par’ humin], plural), most of whom were probably Gentiles and scouted the doctrine of the resurrection as at Athens (17:32). If God doth raise the dead [ei ho theos nekrous egeirei]. Condition of the first class assuming that God does raise dead people. Only God can do it. This rhetorical question needs no answer, though the narrative resumed in verse 9 does it in a way.

26:9 I verily thought with myself [egō men oun edoxa emautōi]. Personal construction instead of the impersonal, a touch of the literary style. Paul’s “egoism” is deceived as so often happens. I ought [dein]. Infinitive the usual construction with [dokeō]. Necessity and a sense of duty drove Paul on even in this great sin (see on 23:1), a common failing with persecutors. Contrary [enantia]. Old word (adjective), over against, opposite (Ac 27:4), then hostile to as here.

26:10 I both shut up many [pollous te katekleisa]. Effective aorist active of [katakleiō], old word to shut down like a trap door, in N.T. only here and Lu 3:20. Double use of [te] (both—and). Having received authority from the chief priests [tēn para tōn archiereōn exousian labōn]. “The authority,” he says. Paul was the official persecutor of the saints under the direction of the Sanhedrin. He mentions “chief priests” (Sadducees), though a Pharisee himself. Both parties were co-operating against the saints. And when they were put to death [anairoumenōn te autōn]. Genitive absolute with present passive participle of [anaireō]. I gave my vote against them [katēnegka psēphon]. “I cast down my pebble” (a black one). The ancient Greeks used white pebbles for acquittal (Re 2:17), black ones for condemnation as here (the only two uses of the word in the N.T.). Paul’s phrase (not found elsewhere) is more vivid than the usual [katapsēphizō] for voting. They literally cast the pebbles into the urn. Cf. [sumpsēphizō] in Ac 19:19, [sugkatapsephizo] in Ac 1:26. If Paul’s language is taken literally here, he was a member of the Sanhedrin and so married when he led the persecution. That is quite possible, though he was not married when he wrote 1Co 7:7f., but a widower. It is possible to take the language figuratively for approval, but not so natural.

26:11 Punishing [timōrōn]. Old word [timōreō] originally to render help, to succor [timōros], from [timē] and [ouros], then to avenge (for honour). In N.T. only here and 22:5. I strove to make them blaspheme [ēnagkazon blasphēmein]. Conative imperfect active of [anagkazō], old verb from [anagkē] (necessity, compulsion). The tense, like the imperfect in Mt 3:14; Lu 1:59, leaves room to hope that Paul was not successful in this effort, for he had already said that he brought many “unto death” (22:4). I persecuted [ediōkon]. Imperfect active again, repeated attempts. The old verb [diōkō] was used to run after or chase game and then to chase enemies. The word “persecute” is the Latin persequor, to follow through or after. It is a vivid picture that Paul here paints of his success in hunting big game, a grand heresy hunt. Even unto foreign cities [kai eis exō poleis]. We know of Damascus, and Paul evidently planned to go to other cities outside of Palestine and may even have done so before the fateful journey to Damascus.

26:12 Whereupon [en hois]. “In which things” (affairs of persecution), “on which errand.” Cf. 24:18. Paul made them leave Palestine (11:19) and followed them beyond it (9:2). With the authority and commission [met’ exousias kai epitropēs]. Not merely “authority” [exousia], but express appointment [epitropē], old word, but here only in N.T., derived from [epitropos], steward, and that from [epitrepō], to turn over to, to commit).

26:13 At midday [hēmeras mesēs]. Genitive of time and idiomatic use of [mesos], in the middle of the day, more vivid than [mesēmbrian] (22:6). Above the brightness of the sun [huper tēn lamprotēta tou hēliou]. Here alone not in Ac 9; 22, though implied in 9:3; 22:6, “indicating the supernatural character of the light” (Knowling). Luke makes no effort to harmonize the exact phrases here with those in the other accounts and Paul here (verse 16) blends together what Jesus said to him directly and the message of Jesus through Ananias (9:15). The word [lamprotēs], old word, is here alone in the N.T. Shining round about me [perilampsan me]. First aorist active participle of [perilampō], common Koinē verb, in N.T. only here and Lu 2:9.

26:14 When we were all fallen [pantōn katapesontōn hēmōn]. Genitive absolute with second aorist active participle of [katapiptō]. In the Hebrew language [tēi Ebraidi dialektōi]. Natural addition here, for Paul is speaking in Greek, not Aramaic as in 22:2. It is hard for thee to kick against the goad [sklēron soi pros kentra laktizein]. Genuine here, but not in chapters 9, 22. A common proverb as Aeschylus Ag. 1624: [Pros kentra mē laktize]. “It is taken from an ox that being pricked with a goad kicks and receives a severer wound” (Page). Cf. the parables of Jesus (Mt 13:35). Blass observes that Paul’s mention of this Greek and Latin proverb is an indication of his culture. Besides he mentions (not invents) it here rather than in chapter 22 because of the culture of this audience. [Kentron] means either sting as of bees (II Macc. 14:19) and so of death (1Co 15:55) or an iron goad in the ploughman’s hand as here (the only two N.T. examples). Note plural here (goads) and [laktizein] is present active infinitive so that the idea is “to keep on kicking against goads.” This old verb means to kick with the heel (adverb [lax], with the heel), but only here in the N.T. There is a papyrus example of kicking [laktizō] with the feet against the door.

26:16 Arise and stand [anastēthi kai stēthi]. “Emphatic assonance” (Page). Second aorist active imperative of compound verb [anistēmi] and simplex [histēmi]. “Stand up and take a stand.” Have I appeared unto thee [ōphthēn soi]. First aorist passive indicative of [horaō]. See on Lu 22:43. To appoint thee [procheirisasthai se]. See 3:30; 22:14 for this verb. Both of the things wherein thou hast seen me [hōn te eides me]. The reading [me] (not in all MSS.) makes it the object of [eides] (didst see) and [hōn] is genitive of [ha] (accusative of general reference) attracted to the case of the unexpressed antecedent [toutōn]. Paul is thus a personal eyewitness of the Risen Christ (Lu 1:1; 1Co 4:1; 9:1). And of the things wherein I will appear unto thee [hōn te ophthēsomai soi]. Here again [hōn] is genitive of the accusative (general reference) relative [ha] attracted to the case of the antecedent [toutōn] or [ekeinōn] as before. But [ophthēsomai] is first future passive of [horaō] and cannot be treated as active or middle. Page takes it to mean “the visions in which I shall be seen by you,” the passive form bringing out the agency of God. See those in Ac 18:9; 23:11; 2Co 12:2. The passive voice, however, like [apekrithēn] and [ephobēthēn], did become sometimes transitive in the Koinē (Robertson, Grammar, p. 819).

26:17 Delivering thee [exairoumenos se]. Present middle participle of [exaireō], old verb and usually so rendered, but the old Greek also uses it for “choose” as also in LXX (Isa 48:10). The papyri give examples of both meanings and either makes good sense here. God was continually rescuing Paul “out of the hands of Jews and Gentiles and Paul was a chosen vessel” (9:15). Modern scholars are also divided.

26:18 To open [anoixai]. First aorist active infinitive of purpose. That they may turn [tou epistrepsai]. Another infinitive of purpose first aorist active (genitive case and articular), epexegetic to [anoixai]. That they may receive [tou labein]. Another genitive articular infinitive of purpose subordinate (epexegetic) to [tou epistrepsai]. Sanctified by faith in me [hēgiasmenois pistei tēi eis eme]. Perfect passive participle of [hagiazō], instrumental case of [pistei], article before [eis eme] (“by faith, that in me”). These important words of Jesus to Paul give his justification to this cultured audience for his response to the command of Jesus. This was the turning point in Paul’s career and it was a step forward and upward.

26:19 Wherefore [hothen]. This relatival adverb (cf. 14:26; 28:13) gathers up all that Paul has said. I was not disobedient [ouk egenomēn apeithēs]. Litotes again, “I did not become (second aorist middle indicative of [ginomai] disobedient” [apeithēs], old word already in Lu 1:17). Unto the heavenly vision [tēi ouraniōi optasiāi]. A later form of [opsis], from [optazō], in LXX, and in N.T. (Lu 1:22; 24:23; Ac 26:19; 2Co 12:1). Only time that Paul uses it about seeing Christ on the Damascus road, but no reflection on the reality of the event.

26:20 But declared [alla apēggellon]. Imperfect active of [apaggellō], repeatedly. Throughout all the country of Judea [pāsan te tēn chōran tēs Ioudaias]. The accusative here in the midst of the datives [tois en Damaskōi, Ierosolumois, tois ethnesin] seems strange and Page feels certain that [eis] should be here even though absent in Aleph A B. But the accusative of extent of space will explain it (Robertson, Grammar, p. 469). Doing works worthy of repentance [axia tēs metanoias erga prassontas]. Accusative case of present active participle [prassontas] because of the implied [autous] with the present infinitive [metanoein] (repent) and [epistrephein] (turn), though the dative [prassousin] could have been used to agree with [ethnesin] (Gentiles). Cf. Mt 3:8 for similar language used of the Baptist. Paul, the greatest of theologians, was an interesting practical preacher.

26:21 Assayed to kill me [epeirōnto diacheirisasthai]. Conative imperfect middle of [peiraō], the old form of the later Koinē [peirazō] so common in the Koinē, but in N.T. here only. Some MSS. have it in Ac 9:26; Heb 4:15. The old verb [diacheirizō], to take in hand, middle to lay hands on, to slay, occurs in N.T. only here and 5:30 which see.

26:22 Having therefore obtained [oun tuchōn]. Second aorist active participle of old verb [tugchanō]. The help that is from God [epikourias tēs apo tou theou]. Old word from [epikoureō], to aid, and that from [epikouros], ally, assister. Only here in N.T. God is Paul’s ally. All of the plots of the Jews against Paul had failed so far. I stand [hestēka]. Second perfect of [histēmi], to place, intransitive to stand. Picturesque word (Page) of Paul’s stability and fidelity (cf. Php 4:1; Eph 6:13). Both to small and great [mikrōi te kai megalōi]. Dative singular (rather than instrumental, taking [marturoumenos] middle, not passive) and use of [te kai] links the two adjectives together in an inclusive way. These two adjectives in the singular (representative singular rather than plural) can apply to age (young and old) or to rank (Re 11:18) as is specially suitable here with Festus and Agrippa present. In Ac 8:10 (Heb 8:11) the phrase explains [pantes] (all). Saying nothing but what [ouden ektos legōn hōn]. “Saying nothing outside of those things which.” The ablative relative [hōn] is attracted into the case of the unexpressed antecedent [toutōn] and so ablative after [ektos] (adverbial preposition common in LXX, the papyri. In N.T. here and 1Co 6:18; 15:27; 2Co 12:2f.). Cf. Lu 16:29 about Moses and the prophets.

26:23 How that the Christ must suffer [ei pathētos ho Christos]. Literally, “if the Messiah is subject to suffering.” [Ei] can here mean “whether” as in Heb 7:15. This use of a verbal in [-tos] for capability or possibility occurs in the N.T. alone in [pathētos] (Robertson, Grammar, p. 157). This word occurs in Plutarch in this sense. It is like the Latin patibilis and is from paschō. Here alone in N.T. Paul is speaking from the Jewish point of view. Most rabbis had not rightly understood Isa 53. When the Baptist called Jesus “the Lamb of God” (Joh 1:29) it was a startling idea. It is not then “must suffer” here, but “can suffer.” The Cross of Christ was a stumbling-block to the rabbis. How that he first by the resurrection of the dead [ei prōtos ex anastaseōs nekrōn]. Same construction with [ei] (whether). This point Paul had often discussed with the Jews: “whether he (the Messiah) by a resurrection of dead people.” Others had been raised from the dead, but Christ is the first [prōtos] who arose from the dead and no longer dies (Ro 6:19) and proclaims light [phōs mellei kataggellein]. Paul is still speaking from the Jewish standpoint: “is about to (going to) proclaim light.” See verse 18 for “light” and Lu 2:32. Both to the people and to the Gentiles [tōi te laōi kai tois ethnesin]. See verse 17. It was at the word Gentiles [ethnē] that the mob lost control of themselves in the speech from the stairs (22:21f.). So it is here, only not because of that word, but because of the word “resurrection” [anastasis].

26:24 As he thus made his defence [tauta autou apologoumenou]. Genitive absolute again with present middle participle. Paul was still speaking when Festus interrupted him in great excitement. With a loud voice [megalēi tēi phōnēi]. Associative instrumental case showing manner (Robertson, Grammar, p. 530) and the predicate use of the adjective, “with the voice loud” (elevated). Thou art mad [mainēi]. Old verb for raving. See also Joh 10:20; Ac 12:15; 1Co 14:23. The enthusiasm of Paul was too much for Festus and then he had spoken of visions and resurrection from the dead (verse 8). “Thou art going mad” (linear present), Festus means. Thy much learning doth turn thee to madness [ta polla se grammata eis manian peritrepei]. “Is turning thee round.” Old verb [peritrepō], but only here in N.T. Festus thought that Paul’s “much learning” (= “many letters,” cf. Joh 7:15 of Jesus) of the Hebrew Scriptures to which he had referred was turning his head to madness (wheels in his head) and he was going mad right before them all. The old word [mania] (our mania, frenzy, cf. maniac) occurs here only in N.T. Note unusual position of [se] between [polla] and [grammata] (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 418, 420)

26:25 But speak forth [alla apophtheggomai]. Verb for dignified and elevated discourse, a word from the literary Koinē, not the vernacular. In N.T. only here and 2:4, 14 which see. It occurs three times in Vettius Valens in a “mantic” sense. Paul was not ruffled by the rude and excited interruption of Festus, but speaks with perfect courtesy in his reply “words of truth and soberness.” The old word [sōphrosunē] (soundness of mind) from [sōphrōn] (and that from [sōs] and [phrēn] is directly opposed to “madness” [mania] and in N.T. occurs only here and 1Ti 2:15.

26:26 For the king knoweth of these things [epistatai gar peri toutōn ho basileus]. [Epistatai] (present middle probably Ionic form of [ephistēmi] is a literary word and suits well here (cf. 24:10). Freely [parrēsiazomenos]. Present middle participle, speaking fully, making a clean breast of it. From [parrēsia] [pan, rhēsis] (cf. 13:46). Is hidden from him [lanthanein auton]. Escapes his notice. Infinitive in indirect discourse after [peithomai] (I am persuaded).

26:27 I know that thou believest [oida hoti pisteueis]. Paul had “cornered” Agrippa by this direct challenge. As the Jew in charge of the temple he was bound to confess his faith in the prophets. But Paul had interpreted the prophets about the Messiah in a way that fell in with his claim that Jesus was the Messiah risen from the dead. To say, “Yes” would place himself in Paul’s hands. To say “No” would mean that he did not believe the prophets. Agrippa had listened with the keenest interest, but he slipped out of the coils with adroitness and a touch of humour.

26:28 With but little persuasion thou wouldest fain make me a Christian [en oligōi me peitheis Christianon poiēsai]. The Authorized rendering is impossible: “Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.” [En oligōi] does not mean “almost.” That would require [oligou, par’ oligon], or [dei oligou]. It is not clear, however, precisely what [en oligoi] does mean. It may refer to time (in little time) or a short cut, but that does not suit well [en megalōi] in verse 29. Tyndale and Crammer rendered it “somewhat” (in small measure or degree). There are, alas, many “somewhat” Christians. Most likely the idea is “in (or with) small effort you are trying to persuade [peitheis], conative present active indicative) me in order to make me a Christian.” This takes the infinitive [poiēsai] to be purpose (Page renders it by “so as”) and thus avoids trying to make [poiēsai] like [genesthai] (become). The aorist is punctiliar action for single act, not “perfect.” The tone of Agrippa is ironical, but not unpleasant. He pushes it aside with a shrug of the shoulders. The use of “Christian” is natural here as in the other two instances (11:26; 1Pe 4:16).

26:29 I would to God [euxaimēn an tōi theōi]. Conclusion of fourth-class condition (optative with [an], undetermined with less likelihood, the so-called potential optative (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1021). Polite and courteous wish (first aorist middle optative of [euchomai]. Whether with little or with much [kai en mikrōi kai en megalōi]. Literally, “both in little and in great,” or “both with little and with great pains” or “both in some measure and in great measure.” Paul takes kindly the sarcasm of Agrippa. Such as I am [toioutous hopoios kai egō eimi]. Accusative [toioutous] with the infinitive [genesthai]. Paul uses these two qualitative pronouns instead of repeating the word “Christian.” Except these bonds [parektos tōn desmōn toutōn]. Ablative case with [parektos] (late preposition for the old [parek]. Paul lifts his right manacled hand with exquisite grace and good feeling.

26:30 Rose up [anestē]. Second aorist active of [anistēmi] (intransitive), agreeing only with “the king” [ho basileus]. The entertainment was over.

26:31 They spake one to another [elaloun pros allēlous]. Imperfect active, describing the eager conversation of the dignitaries about Paul’s wonderful speech. Nothing worthy of death or bonds [ouden thanatou ē desmōn axion]. This is the unanimous conclusion of all these dignitaries (Romans, Jews, Greeks) as it was of Festus before (25:25). But Paul had not won any of them to Christ. The conclusion leaves Festus in a predicament. Why had he not set Paul free before this?

26:32 This man might have been set at liberty [Apolelusthai edunato ho anthrōpos houtos]. Conclusion of the second class condition (determined as unfulfilled) without [an] as in 24:19 because of [edunato] (verb of possibility, Robertson, Grammar, p. 1014). Note perfect passive infinitive [apolelusthai] from [apoluō]. He certainly “could have been set free.” Why was it not done? If he had not appealed unto Caesar [ei mē epekeklēto Kaisara]. Condition of the second class with the past perfect middle indicative (op. cit., p. 1015) of [epikaleō] (cf. 25:11f.). But Paul only appealed to Caesar after Festus had tried to shift him back to Jerusalem and had refused to set him free in Caesarea. Festus comes out with no honour in the case. Since Agrippa was a favourite at court perhaps Festus would be willing to write favourably to Caesar.

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