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N. B.—B. = Birdwood; C. = Carruthers; T. = Tristram.

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.

(Jer. i. 11, 12.)

καρυΐνη [βακτηρία]. ἀμύγδαλον.

Amygdalus communis.

The almond blossoms before the leaves come out, hence its Hebrew name sháked, "hasten." (See the play on the word, Jer. i. 11, 12, ''a rod of sháked tree ... for I will hasten (shaked).") It is one of the native fruits of Palestine, and therefore often mentioned in Scripture. Aaron's rod was of this tree; and Jews now carry branches of it to the synagogue on great festivals. It was the model of the ornaments of the candlestick in the tabernacle. There is both a wild and a cultivated almond.

(1 Kin. x. 11, 12.)


ξύλα πελεκητά.

Pterocarpus santalinus. T.

Not indigenous, but imported in the form of timber by Solomon from Ophir (i.e. India), with gold and precious stones: evidently itself precious; used for making musical instruments. Probably red sandal wood, still highly prized in the East for lyres, &c.

(2 Chr. ii. 8.)



or Lign-Aloes.
(Ps. xlv. 8;
Num. xxiv. 6.)



Aquilaria agallocha. T.

Occurs in two different contexts: (1) as a perfume in connection with "myrrh, cassia, and cinnamon," or as a spice for embalming the dead (John xix. 39), where it the gum of the eagle tree, growing in Cochin China and N. India to a height of 120 feet; (2) Lign-aloes, used by Balaam with the cedars, as an illustration of the noble position of Israel, planted in a choice land. As the Aquilaria does not grow in Syria or Palestine, some other species must be meant, T. it has no connexion with our "bitter aloes."

(Mat. xxiii. 23.)


Anethum graveolens.

Only occurs in the New Testament once. See Dill.

(Cant. ii. 3;
Joel i. 12.)




"Apple tree" occurs four times in the Song of Solomon; also in Joel, the fruit being used for purposes of illustration in the Proverbs. The tree meant afforded a grateful shade; its fruit enticing to the sight, sweet to taste, imparting fragrance, and of golden colour amid silvery leaves. None exactly answer these conditions; quince, citron, and apple are the contesting candidates, the last being the least probable, since the climate is unfavourable. But the apricot is very probably the fruit, since it approaches most nearly the details of the description, and is very abundant in Palestine.


(Is. xliv. 14.)



Pinus halepensis.

Only once mentioned, as a tree from which idols were made. Our ash is not indigenous there; but the LXX. translates it "the pine," which flourishes on the coast, and is planted elsewhere. This may be the tree meant, or the Aran (Arabic) of Arabia Petræa, resembling our mountain ash. T.

or Balsam.
(Jer. viii. 22.)

1. Tzort.

a. Pistacia lentiscus.

b. Balanites Ægyptiaca.

c. Balsamodendron Gileadense.

The word tzorl is rendered "balm" (A.V.). Yet our word balm is derived from the Hebrew bosem, translated "spices." Each seems to denote primarily a tree, secondly, a gum or oil extracted from some tree. Three trees are supposed to be the source of the gum, viz.: a. Mastick; b. Modern Balm of Gilead, a small shrub, which grows near the Dead Sea and on the Plains of Moab only; c. True Balm of Giilead, a native E. coast of Africa, growing about Mecca. From a root given by the Queen of Sheba, Solomom carefully cultivated it in the tropical plain of Jericho; it was of great value, and was one of the trophies carried to Rome by Titus. It is now quite lost. T.

2. Bosem.

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.


(Ruth i. 22;
Judg. vii. 13).


Hordeum distichum.

The most universal cereal in the world, and the common food in Palestine of people, horses, asses, and draught oxen, oats being unknown. It is used in Scripture as a mark of poverty and of worthlessness (Hos. iii. 2). Barley harvest is in March or April, according to the locality.

Bay Tree.

(Ps. xxxvii. 35.)

ĸέδρος του̑

Laurus nobilis.

Ezrach is once rendered "bay tree;" elsewhere it is used of a "native," as opposed to a "stranger." If it be any particular "native" plant, it must be a green shrub growing by the water side, such as the sweet bay, which is not very common; but of all, the most glorious representative of luxuriant growth and pomp is the oleander, which decks so profusely the lakes and water-courses.


(Gen. ii. 12.)


Borassus flabelliformis.

Some suppose it to be the gum of a tree growing in Arabia Felix; others a precious stone. T.


(2 Sam. xvii. 28; Ezek. iv. 9.)


Vicia faba.

Beans, peas, and various kinds of leguminous plants are grown in Palestine, and used for food, both as vegetables, and in flour. They are gathered with the wheat harvest. T.


(Is. xli. 19; lx. 13.)


1. Buxus longifolia.

2. Juniperus phœnicea.

Box is twice mentioned as a forest tree, with the pine and fir. It is also the foundation of rowing benches, in which ivory is inlaid (Ezek. xxvii. 6). The species found resembles ours, but is larger (20 feet high), and grows on Mount Lebanon and Galilaean hills. Combs, spoons, &c. are made of it. Some think it to be a juniper, growing with the cedar. T.


(Judg. ix. 14.)

1. Atâd.

Lycium Europæum.

From 18 to 22 Hebrew words are used in the Bible to express prickly shrubs or weeds, which are indifferently translated in A. V. by " bramble," "brier," "thorn," "thistle," and we have little to guide us in distinguishing or identifying them. The following are some: 1. Translated "bramble," and "thorn," is the "box-thorn." It extends from Lebanon to the Dead Sea, and is often used for hedges.

(Is. xxxiv. 13;
Job xxxi. 40.)

2. Choach.

Notobasis Syriaca.

Scolymus maculatus.

Carthamus oxyacanthus.

2. Translated "bramble," "thistle," "thickets;" growing in Lebanon, and in corn-fields. Probably the thistle, of which there are many species, especially in the plains.

(Gen. iii. 18;
Matt. vii. 16.)

3. Dardar.

Centaurea calcitropa.

3. Generally translated "thistle," but also "brier." Supposed to be a species of knapweed (star thistle), found in corn-fields all over Southern, Europe, and Western Asia. T.

(Prov. xv. 19;
Mic. vii. 4.)

4. Chedek.

Solanum Sodomæum.

4. "Thorn," or "brier;" evidently a plant suitable for a hedge. From the Arabic term, chadalc, it is identified with the so-called "apple of Sodom," a shrubby plant, three to five feet high, having prickly stems like a brier, and blossom like a potato, and bearing similar apples. It grows in all the hot valleys, and is used for hedges. T.

(Gen. iii. 18;
Matt. vii. 16.)

5. Kôtz.


5. Very generally used in the Bible (Old and New Testaments) for a generic term for all prickly plants, from a bush to a weed (as in the Parable of the Sower).

(Is. vii. 23, 25.)

6. Shamîr.

a. Paliurus aculeatus.

b. Rhamnus oleoïdes.

6. Occurs very often in Isaiah, translated "briers," and coupled with shait, "thorns" (a generic term). Skamûr=Arabic samur, a common non-fruitbearing thorny tree. In the Jordan Valley the name is confined to (a) the Christ's thorn; elsewhere it is given to (b) the buckthorn. The former has small leaves like an olive, with very flexible boughs; it grows plentifully about Jerusalem, and is supposed by some to have been the tree from which Christ's crown of thorns was made. T. The real "brier," or wild rose, is found only in the extreme north of Palestine and Syria.

(Is. vii. 19.)

7. Naatzûtz.

Zizyphus spina Christi.

7. Another word (translated "thorn"), used of the same species of thorn tree, the nubk of the Arabs; very common in all the warmer parts of

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.





Palestine, especially in the Plain of Gennesaret and the Jordan Valley, where it forms a thicket. It sometimes grows to a great size, is common about Jerusalem, and is generally said to be that from which the crown of thorns was plaited. It is tough and pliant, the spikes very sharp and numerous. T.

Bramble (cont.).

(Judg. viii. 7, 16).

8. Parkanim.

Rubus fruticosus.

8. Only once used (rendered "briers"), as the scourge threatened by Gideon to the men of Succoth. Probably the common bramble, which is abundant in Palestine, and especially about Bethlehem, along Gideon's route. T.

(Ezek. ii. 6; xxviii. 24).

9. Sillon.

Ruscus aculeatus.

9. Translated "briers," and "a pricking brier." Probably identical with the Arabic sullaon, or "butcher's-broom," very common in Palestine.

The other words implying thorns, briers, or thistles, cannot be identified either by their Arabic names or by the context.


(Ex. ii. 3; Job viii. 11).

1. Gôme.
θίβη πάπυρος

Cyperus papyrus.

Six Hebrew words are used of the rush genus, and are variously translated somewhat indiscriminately: 1. Gôme ("bulrush" and "rush," A.V.) the material of Moses' ark in Egypt, and growing in miry places. The famous papyrus of Egypt, which formerly grew like a forest on the banks of the Nile, is now extinct in Egypt, though still found in the marshes of Nubia. It grows luxuriantly in a swamp at the north end of the Plain of Gennesaret, and covers acres of marsh by the Waters of Merom; but exists nowhere else in Asia. It is called by the Arabs babeer (i.e. papyrus). It has a triangular stem eight to ten feet high, with a bushy top.

(Is. xix. 7).

2. ’Aroth.
τὸ ἄχι
τὸ χλωρον


2. Mistranslated "paper reeds," as papyrus had already been mentioned. It is the "green herbage," which abounds in marshy places.

(Job viii. 11; Gen. xli. 2).

3. Achu.
ἄχι βούτομον

a. Cyperus esculentus.
b. Butomus umbellatus.

3. Translated "flag" in Job, but "meadow" in Genesis, as that in which Pharaoh's fat kine fed. From the former, where it is classed with the papyrus, it is clearly a specific platit. The word is not Hebrew, but Egyptian. Probably the (a) edible rush, or (b) flowering rush, both of which flourish in Egypt, and grow in Palestine, with the papyrus.

(Ex. ii. 3, 5; Jonah ii. 5).

4. Sûph.
τὸ ἕλος
(Omitted in LXX.)


4. Rendered "flags" (in which Moses' ark was concealed) by the river bank; but "weeds" in Jonah, at the bottom of the sea. A general term for water-weeds, whether seaweed or the rank marsh vegetation of a river's brink.

(Is. ix. 14; xix. 15).

5. Agmôn.
καὶ τέλος

Arundo donax.

5. "Reed," or "cane," occurs twice in a proverb, "head and tail, branch and rush," i.e. "top and bottom;" also in Job, in the phrase "bowing the head like a bulrush," whence it evidently had a high stem surmounted with a tuft. Probably the common reed of Egypt and Palestine, a tall thin cane. 12 feet high, with a bushy blossom, bending flat before the wind and rising again,—”the "reed shaken with the wind" (Matt. xi. 7), growing luxuriantly by the Dead Sea and the Jordan.

(Gen. xli. 5, 22).

6. Kaneh.


6. "Cane," or "reed," occurs often in the Old Testament as the general term for a "stem," whether the "stalk" of the wheat plant, the stem of a candlestick (Ex. xxv. 31), a measuring rod (Ezek. xl. 5), or even the Jiumerus (bone of the arm).

(Bush, Burning.

(Ex. iii. 2-4).


Acacia Nilotica.

Only used of the "burning bush," the thorny acacia of the Arabian peninsula, the súnt of Egypt, akin to the shittah tree, and senna; hence the mountains on which it grows derive theii name "Sinai," and the tract is the wilderness of "Sin," or the seneh.


(Ex. xxx. 23; Ezek. xxvii. 19).

Keneh bosem.
κάλαμος ευώδης


The name given to an aromatic substance extracted from some reed. It is one ingredient in the anointing oil; it is the Sweet Cane; is coupled with "cassia," "cinnamon"

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.

Calamus (cont.).




"spikenard," &c. Probably imported from Arabia Felix or India, and made from the lemon grass; no such plant has been found in Syria. T.


(Cant. i. 14; iv. 13.)


Lawsonia alba.

The henna of Arabs, with which they dye their nails, palms, soles, &c.; well known in Nubia, Egypt, and Arabia, but also found by the Dead Sea, at Engedi only. A small shrub, with dark bark, pale green leaves like a lilac, bearing clusters of white and yellow blossoms, very fragrant.

Cane, Sweet.

(Jer. vi. 20.)
(Cant. iv. 14;
Is. xliii. 24.)

Kaneh hattob.



Thought by some to mean "incense," by others the "sugar-cane;" but it would seem to be identical with, or closely akin to, the Calamus, viz. an aromatic reed, from which fragrant essence was extracted, probably Andropogon schcenanthus.





See Hyssop.


(Ex. xxx. 24.)


Not found.

Two spice-bearing trees are included under "cassia," viz.: 1. Cinnamomum cassia, one ingredient in the holy oil, sold in the market at Tyre. It is inferior to cinnamon, coarser, and more pungent. It is not now found in Arabia. Probably the spice was always imported from India, being the inner bark dried.

(Ps. xlv. 8.)

2. Ketzioth.

Aucklaudia costus (?).

2. Ketzioth, either a cassia-bearing tree, or the Indian orris.


(Lev. xlv. 4;
Ps. civ. 16;
Ezek. xxxl. 3, 6.)


Cedrus Libani.

Cedar, used in Scripture generically of the whole pine-tree family, and specially of the cedar of Lebanon. In the Pentateuch it probably means an aromatic juniper, found in the Sinaitic rocks; in later books it is the cedar of Lebanon, as the noblest of trees, the glory of the vegetable creation, and so is made the symbol of grandeur, might, loftiness, and of wide expansion. It grows rapidly, and lives long; but is not found in any part of Palestine except the Lebanon district.


(Gen. xxx. 37.)


Platanus Orientalis.

It occurs twice in A.V., but is translated "plane tree" in the LXX., which is probably the correct rendering, since the chestnut is not found in Palestine, while the plane tree is frequent by the side of streams and in plains. In the Bible it is coupled with the willow and poplar, which grow only in moist low ground.


(Ex. xxx. 23; Prov. vii. 17.)


Cinnamomum Zeylanicum.

Cinnamon is a native of Ceylon, and the tree is unknown in Syria. The spice was an ingredient of the holy oil, and a perfume. It is the inner ripd of the bark, and was imported; but the oil is distilled from the ripe fruit. The tree is a species of laurel, growing thirty feet high, with a long lance-head leaf, and white blossom.



’Etz hadar.
καρπὸς ξύλον .

Citrus medica.

The Hebrew, Peri 'etz hadar, translated "boughs (or fruits) of goodly trees" (A.V.), is taken by the Chaldee paraphrase and the Babbis to mean "fruit of the citron trees," which is still used, according to the enactment, on the Feast of Tabernacles (Farrar's "Life of Christ," vol. II., p. 57, note 2). The citron is a native of Media; its leaves are larger than those of the orange, and its bloom is pale purple, Itisthemost common of theoraoge tribe in Palestine, and is occasionally used in synagogue worship as representative of God's gift of fruits.


(Job xxxi. 40.)



Only occurs once in A.V., but the same Hebrew word is translated "wild grapes," Is. v. 2, 4. The root of the Hebrew would suggest any "noisome weed," or plant of offensive odour, e.g. the "tares" of the New Testament, the fœtid arums of Galilee, or the smut, Uredo fœtida, that attacks corn. T. Some think it to be aconite, or deadly nightshade.


(Ex. xvi. 31.)


Coriandrum sativum.

Only once mentioned, as that to which manna is compared. It is an umbelliferous plant, with a white blossom, yielding globular peppercorn seeds of aromatic flavour. It grows wild in Egypt and Palestine, especially in the Jordan Valley.

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.


(Num. xviii. 27.)

1. Dagan.

Triticum compositum.

Triticum spelta.

Triticum hybernum.

Different Hebrew words are used for "corn" in its different states, e.g.: 1. General term for corn in the abstract, as compared to any other commodity, such as "wine." 2. "Standing corn," as it grows in the field. 3. Grain, or winnowed corn. 4. An ear of corn. 5. Early sprouts of corn. 6 Corn a year old; or earthly produce opposed to heavenly food, i.e. manna. 7. Parched corn, dried or baked by fire. 8. Corn beaten out. 9. Sheaf, or handful of corn stalks. Hence corn was extensively grown in Palestine.

Barley, millet, wheat, and spelt ("fitches," A.V.), are common in Palestine. Oats are unknown; but Egypt was a great corn-producing country in Jacob's time, and the chief granary of the Roman empire in later ages. The wheat with seven ears on one stalk is still to be seen in the Delta, and is known as "mummy wheat." "Parched corn" is fresh wheat scorched or baked, and eaten without further preparation. The dish sent by Joseph from his table to Benjamin and his brethren was doubtless "frumenty," or "firmity," i.e., corn stewed in the grain, and boiled up with milk.

(Judg. xv. 5.)

2. Kamah.

(Gen. xli. 49.)

3. Bar.

(Ruth ii. 2.)

4. Shibboleth.

(Lev. ii. 14.)

5. Karmel.

(Josh. v. 11.)

6. ’Abûr.

(Josh. v. 11.)

7. Kâli.

(Lev. ii. 16.)

8. Girsah.

(Ruth ii. 7.)

9. ’Amâr.


(Esth. i. 6.)


Gossypium herbaceum.

Though the word does not occur in the A.V., the substance is certainly mentioned in the original, where the hangings of the king's palace are described as white, green (carpas), and blue. The rendering should be "white and violet-coloured cotton." The cotton plant is now largely cultivated in Palestine (though it must have been imported from India), and furnishes almost the entire clothing of the women; but it was probably unknown to the writers of the Old or New Testament. C.


(Num. xi. 5.)

1. Kishuim.

Cucumis sativus.

"Cucumber," and "a garden of cucumbers" (Mikshah), each occurs once. It has always been one of the chief vegetables of Egypt, and is common in Palestine, being planted by the acre in the plains, and forming a staple article of vegetable diet for the poor in summer. There are two kinds, the common species being small, from want of tillage.

(Is. i. 8.)

2. Mikshah.

Cucumis chate.


(Is. xxviii. 25, 27.)


Cucumis sativus.

A common umbelliferous plant, whose fruits, "beaten out with a rod," are used as spices in bread and stewed meats, and as a medicine. It resembles fennel, but is smaller; is indigenous, and cultivated like the cereals. It was only included inferentially in the Mosaic law as to tithes.


(Is. xliv. 14, 15.)

(Omitted in LXX.)

Cupressus sempervirens.

Once only mentioned, as a material for a heathen god; hence some hard-grained wood. Some think it is the Syrian juniper of Lebanon, resembling the cypress. The real cypress is the funeral or cemetery tree of the East, and so esteemed by the Mohammedans; but is not to be seen in the wild state.


(Eccles. xii. 5.)


Capparis Ægyptiaca.

The word occurs only in this passage, and is thought to mean the "caper" (Hyssop), which was eaten as an intoxicating stimulant to the appetites, and should fail of its effects in the decrepitude of old age. So Gesenius, the Talmudists, and ancient versions interpret it.


(Matt. xxiii. 23.)


Anethum graveolens.

Anethos is incorrectly translated "anise" in our New Testament. It is the "dill," an umbelliferous little plant, grown for its aromatic seeds, which are useful as medicine and for seasoning, and resemble caraway seeds. It grows wild in Palestine, and is cultivated in gardens; it is also found in the islands of the Archipelago, and in Egypt. According to the Talmud, its "seeds, leaves, and stem" were subject to tithe.

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.

Dove's Dung.

(2 Kin. vi. 25.)



To palliate the revolting idea of a literal interpretation of the passage, some nauseous plant or herb has been suggested as the probable rendering, such as "chick-pea," or "star of Bethlehem;" but it is more probable that it refers to the cost of the smallest particle of fuel, for which dried dung is commonly used in Palestine.


(Ezek. xxvii. 15.)

(Omitted in LXX.)

Diospyrus ebenus.

It is the heart-wood of the date tree, growing in Ceylon and South India. This heart is only about two feet in diameter. Ezekiel mentions it as a costly article, brought to the market at Tyre by the merchants of Dedan, i.e. of the Persian Gulf.


(Hos. iv. 13.)

(Omitted in LXX.)

Pistacia terebinthus.

"Elm" occurs only once in the A.V., but elah, of which it is a translation, occurs often. The elm is not believed to be indigenous to S. Palestine, and the translation is erroneous. Elsewhere the word is rendered by "oak," "plane tree," "terebinth," "teil tree".

Fig Tree.

(Gen. iii. 7;
Deut. viii. 8.)

1. Teenah.

Ficus carica.

Arabic tin. It is very often mentioned in the Old and New Testament. It is indigenous in Syria, and reaches a great size, having smooth bark, thick trunk, wide and thick leaves (whose central fibre is made into walking sticks). The pear-like fruit is a hollow succulent, containing the imperfect flower encased within it. The fig tree is the earliest named in the Bible, and abounds (wild and cultivated) in every part of Palestine; its being smitten is one of God's threatened judgments. It puts out its earliest fruit-buds before its leaves, the former in February, the latter in April or May. When the leaves are out, the fruit ought to be ripe (Matt. xxi. 19). Of the four Hebrew words, the first is the general term, the other three denote different stages or conditions of the fruit: e.g. 2. Pag is the green fig, or unripened fruit remaining on the tree through the winter. (Bethphage is the "house of green figs," a sunless ravine.) 3. BikMrah is the "early fig." 4. Debelah is a "cake of dried figs," i.e. the main produce of the tree kept for winter use, often mentioned in the Old Testament as a staple article of food. It also possesses medicinal qualities (Is. xxxviii. 21).

(S. of S. ii. 13.)

2. Pag.


(Hos. ix. 10.)

3. Bikkurah.


(1 Sam. xxv. 18.)

4. Debelah.



(Is. xxxvii. 24.)



Pinus halepensis.

Pinus maritima.

Pinus carica.

The berosh is often mentioned in conjunction with the cedar of Lebanon, as a "choice" and a " goodly " tree. Its timber was used in building the Temple (for flooring, ceiling, and doors), for rafters of ships' decks, and for musical instruments, especially harps. In the LXX. it is rendered by "pine," "cypress," and "juniper;" and probably it may have included these in its connotation. Besides these are found several species of pine and fir (arranged in order of prevalence in Col. 3). The halepensis is certainly the "fir" of Scripture, and is scarcely inferior to the cedar. No Scotch fir or larch trees exist there.


(Is. xxviii. 25, 27.)

1. Ketzach.

2. Cussemeth.

Nigella sativa.

Nigella orientalis.

Two Hebrew words are translated "fitches;" the former (ketzach) is a kind of ranunculus, growing wild in the Mediterranean, cultivated in Egypt and Syria for its pungent black seeds, largely used like caraway seeds for flavouring cakes, &c. It is too small to bear the threshing instrument, and is "beaten out with a staff." The other (cussemeth) is "spelt" (elsewhere translated "rye"). The Nigella orientalis also grows wild, is inferior, and used for adulterating pepper. T.





See Bulrush.


(Ex.ix. 31;
Is. xix. 9.)

1. Pishtah.

Linum sativum.

Flax was the earliest known product cultivated and manufactured for clothing purposes, especially in Egypt, where it is found enwrapping the most

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.

Flax. cont.

(Gen. xli. 42.)

2. Shesh.


ancient mummies, and for centuries the only and universal textile fabric. It was cultivated there, and also in Canaan before the Israelite settlement (Josh. ii. 6); and its failure is among God's punishments (Hos. ii. 9). It was a material of female domestic industry, the fabric of priestly robes, the composition of lamp-wicks (Is. xlii. 3). In modern times its culture in both countries has been much superseded by cotton. 2. Shesh ("fine linen") is probably an Egyptian word, and seems to be synonymous with 3. Bad, unless the former is the warn, and the latter the cloth. 4. Butz ("fine linen") denotes the material of the robes of kings, of rich men, of the Temple choir, and the Temple veil; and is the original of the βύσσος of the New Testament, the dress of Dives, and of the Lamb's bride. The word is probably Assyrian, and used for the linen brought from the East, and shesh that from Egypt. 5. Sadin is a cloth from which sheets (Judg. xiv. 12) and clothes (Is. iii. 23) were made. 6. Etun (used once) is "linen of Egypt," and its Greek equivalent is the "great sheet" in Peter's vision, and the grave-cloth of Jesus (John xix. 40). 7. Mikveh ("linen yarn," A.V.) is an import of Solomon from Egypt, though the LXX. and old versions retain it as a proper name, while Gesenius translates it "troop," and Bochart "tax." Its signification is very doubtful. C.

(Lev. vi. 10.)

3. Bad.


(Esth. viii. 15.)

4. Butz.


(Judg. xiv. 12.)

5. Sadin.


(Prov. vii. 16.)

6. Etun.


(1 Kin. x. 28.)

7. Mikveh.
(Omitted in LXX.)



(Ex. xxx. 34; Is. lx. 6.)


Boswellia Carterii.
Boswellia thurifera.
Boswellia papyrifera.

The Heb. word for "frankincense" is quite distinct from those used in the Bible for "incense" (miktar, hitter, kitteroih), of which the former was one constituent. It is a fragrant gum distilled from the yagaar, or frankincense tree, somewtat like a mountain ash, with long glossy serrated leaves, and green star-like flowers, tipped with red, emitting a lemon fragrance. It grows mainly near Saba (Sheba) in Arabia, along the coast of Hadramant, and also in the Soumali country. It was never grown in Syria, nor in India. B.


(Ex. xxx. 34.)


Opqidia galbanifera.
Galbanum officinale.

A yellow resin, exuding from two umbelliferous plants, of which the latter (Galbanum officinale) grows in Syria, and from it this ingredient of the holy incense was doubtless extracted. C.


(Jer. ix. 15; Amos vi. 12.)



Rôsh is some poisonous bitter herb; it is twice translated "poison," and also "hemlock." It is often used with wormwood, and may be taken for any "bitter herb."


(Num. xi. 5.)

τὰ σκόρδα.

Allium sativum.

One of the vegetables Israel enjoyed in Egypt. Akin to the onion; grows wild and cultivated in Palestine. T.


(Gen. vi. 14.)

ξύλα τετράγωνα.


Only once used, as material of Noah's ark, which our translators have not rendered into English. Cedar, pine, and cypress have been conjectured, with no reason. C.


(Jonah iv. 5–9.)


Cucurbita pepo.

A climbing gourd, with wide leaves, very commonly used in the East to form shelter for arbours; growing often a foot a day, and withering as rapidly. The "castor-oil plant" is a shrub, and unsuitable. T.

Gourd (wild).

(2 Kin. iv. 39.)

τολύπη ἀγρία.

Citrullus colocynthis.

The poisonous fruit of a wild vine, gathered by the young prophet in mistake for a wholesome melon. Many kinds of wild gourd are found in Palestine, but only the bitter fruit of the colocynth would be likely to be mistaken by its appearance, and yet reveal itself by taste. It grows wild in profusion about Gilgal. C. It is supposed also to be the "vine of Sodom" (Deut. xxxii. 32). T.


(Num. xxii. 4.)

1. Yered.
τὰ χλωρά.


Several Hebrew words are translated "grass;" of which 1. is simply generic for all kinds of green herbage; 2. really answers to our word, viz. "green grass," distinguished from "herbs;" while 3. is "fodder," or dry food for cattle. There are

(Gen. i. 11.)

2. Desher.

(British and
S. European.)

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.

Grass. (cont.).

(Is. xxxv. 70).

3. Chatzir.

scarcely any pastures or meadows in Palestine, but great variety of grasses (more than seventy species), as of all other vegetable productions. Principally, (1) the bare down grass of the limestone hills of Judæa; (2) tall, luxuriant meadow grass of the maritime plains, answering more nearly to ours; (3) the rank, rapid-growing, prairie-like herbage of Jordan Valley.


(Gen. xxi. 33).

1. Asherah

2. Eshel.


(Gen. xxx. 37).



(Prov. xxvii. 25).



(Jer. xvii. 6; xlviii. 6).



(Deut. xxix. 18; Hos. x. 4).

1. Rôsh.

(Amos vi. 12).

2. La’anah.


(Gen. i. 11, 12).

1. Esheb.

(Is. xviii. 4).

2. Oroth.

Herb (Bitter).

(Ex. xii. 8).


Five bitter herbs were eaten with the Paschal lamb, viz. lettuce, endive, chicory, mint, and one other not identified; but many more are now eaten in Palestine, as salads, by the natives. No specific plant is meant by the word.


(Luke xv. 16).


The fruit of the carob, or locust tree, a leguminous plant, very common in Palestine, with leaves like our ash. Its pods (very abundant in April and May) are flat, narrow, hornshaped, from six to ten inches long; chiefly used for feeding cattle, horses, and pigs, but sometimes the food of the very poorest people. T.


(Ex. xii. 22; 1 Kin. iv. 33).


The hyssop is much disputed, but thought to be either Satureia thymbia, found on Carmel, or marjoram; or, more probably, the thorny caper. It seems to have been used as a broom or brush, and so would appear to be formed of a bunch of twigs. It grew in Egypt, in the Sinaitic desert, in Palestine, "out of the wall;" with all which the caper best accords. T.


(1 Kin. xix. 4).


A desert shrub (Arabic retem), growing near Sinai, Petra, the Dead Sea, and the Jordan. Not a juniper, but a broom; the largest shrub of Sinai, under which Elijah lay down to die; and one Israelite station was "place of broom" (Rithmah).


(Gen. xxxvii. 25; xliii. 11).


Occurs only twice, and both times rendered "myrrh," which cannot be correct, as that is not an indigenous product of Gilead or Palestine. It is identical with the Arabic ladan (ladanum), the gum of the Cistus or rock rose, of which there are many species in Palestine, especially on Mount Carmel. See Myrrh.


Tamarix Pallasii. Tamarix Gallica.

. . . aypiofJ.vpiK.rj.

. aypw-



Juniperus satin a.


. v(rrairo.

Ceratonia sili-qua.

Satureia.. . Capparis spi-nosa


. . »


Retama roetam.

Cistus creticus. „ villosus. „ salviaefolius.

scarcely any pastures or meadows in Palestine, but great variety of grasses (more than seventy species), as of all other vegetable productions. Principally, (1) the bare down grass of the limestone bills of Judæa; (2) tall, luxuriant meadow grass of the maritime plains, answering more nearly to ours; (3) the rank, rapid-growing, prairie-like herbage of Jordan Valley.

Two Hebrew words, are rendered "grove" (A.V.), both erroneously. The first, always used in connexion with the temples of Baal, is supposed to be a wooden image of Ashtaroth. The other occurs only three times, and is twice translated "a tree;" hence it is believed to be identical with the Arabic asal, "tamarisk tree," of which seven species exist in Palestine, growing thickly by the Lower Jordan and Dead Sea. T.

The hazel is common in Galilee and the Lebanons, but is not found elsewhere. The name occurs only once, and is identical with the Arab name of the almond tree, which some suppose it to mean.

Twice occurs; but means tall stems of grass. There is no such thing as '"hay" in Palestine. See Grass.

Only occurs twice, and is identical with the Arabic word for a dwarf juniper, growing in the most barren and rocky parts of the desert. It is a shrub, of stunted appearance, bearing purple berries. There is no heath south of the Lebanons. T.

Rôsh, translated "hemlock," and "gall," is thought by some to be the "poppy;" by others "darnel," "henbane," "aconite," &c.; but its identification is uncertain. G. See Gall. La’anah is "wormwood," which see

Esheb is used generally of "herbs yielding seed," as opposed to grass. Oroth is thought to be "cole-wort," or "cabbage." T.

English Translation. Hebrew and Greek. Botanical Name. Remarks.


(Num. xi. 5).


Allium porrum.

Chatzir occurs many times, but is only in one place rendered "leeks" (in conjunction with "onions"); and all old versions and commentators adopt this interpretation, though some modern ones suggest a kind of lucern, largely used as salad, since in all other passages chatzir is translated "herbs," or "grass." Leeks were a very favourite vegetable in Egypt, where they were reverenced as sacred; and are still largely grown there and in Palestine. T. Others suggest the "fenugreek," a common article of food in Egypt. H.


(Gen. xxv. 34;
2 Sam. xxiii. 11).


Ervum lens.

Arabic adas. Jacob's red pottage was of lentiles, mentioned in three other places, among the produce and food of Palestine, in conjunction with beans. A species of vetch, resembling the tine-tare, grown on poorer soils. The red lentile is most esteemed; it is cut and threshed like corn, then stewed, like haricot beans, and made into pottage. "Revalenta Arabica" is the flour made from the lentile seeds.


(1 Kin. vii. 26;
S. of S. ii. 16; vi. 2, 3).


Anemone coronaria.

Ranunculus Asiaticus.

Adonis Palestina.

The Arabs use the word susan as a general term for flowers of lily kind (e.g. tulip, anemone, ranunculus, &c.). From a comparison of texts, it seems to grow in valleys and gardens, is conjoined with the rose of Sharon, (which see) distilled fragrant juice, formed an ornamental garland, was red, and grew in profusion in the Plain of Gennesaret (Matt. vi. 28). Probably the allusions in the Old Testament are general, including the above-mentioned, the iris, and water-lilies; but what impresses the traveller universally as the "lilies of the field" of the New Testament are the anemones, carpeting every plain, and luxuriantly pervading the land in every soil and all situations.


(Job xxx. 4).


Atriplex halimus.

Malva rotundifolia.C.

Malva sylvestris. C.

Althaea frutex. C.

Only once named, and then as food for the most abject poor. The word suggests the notion of "salt" in its taste or locality, such as the tree-mallow and marsh-mallow. Eighteen species of mallow are found in Palestine. Most scholars understand the sea purslane.


(Gen. xxx. 14;
S. of S. vii. 13).


Mandragora officinalis. T.

A plant of the potato family, with a root like the beet, dark green leaves lying flat like a primrose, and bearing yellow pulpy fruit of the size of a large plum, having exhilarating qualities, and still thought by the natives to stimulate fruitfulness. It abounds in Palestine.


(Ex. xvi. 15).


Manna (Heb. Man hu, "What is it?") was the name by which the miraculous food of Israel was known. It is described as a small round thing, like coriander seed, white, tasting like wafer and honey. It is still the name given to a sweet gum distilled in the hot weather from the tamarisk trees in a limited locality of the Arabian desert; collected by the Arabs before sunrise; boiled, strained, eaten as honey; but it has no taste of wafer, does not resemble coriander seed, is found in very small quantities, only under the tamarisk trees; melts as soon as the sun is up, and could not form a staple food of life. See Manna, p. 93.

Mastick Tree.
(Hist. of Sus. V. 54.)

schinos Pistacia lentiscus. Though the name occurs only in the Apocrypha, it is thought by some to be the balsam tree (Gen. xxxvii. 25). It is a small evergreen bushy tree, of the terebinth genus, yielding a gum, a commercial commodity from the earliest times. It is very common in all countries bordering on the Mediterranean, is indigenous in Palestine, well known as the "lentisk."


(Num. xi. 5).


Cucurbita citrullus.

Cucumis melo.

Once mentioned among the fruits of Egypt. Melons are staple and refreshing food in Egypt and Palestine, especially the water-melon, which


Melons {cont.).


(Ezek. iv. 9.)


(Luke xi. 42.)

Mulberry. . . (2 Sam. v. 23; Luke xvii. 6.)

Mustard. . (Matt. xiii. 31.)

Hebrew and Greek.

Myrrh. . . . . (Ex. xxx. 23; Prov. vii. 17.)

(Gen. xxxvii. 25.):

Myrtle. . (Is. lv. 13.)


(S. of S. i. 12; John xii. 3.)

Nettles. . . . (Is. xxxiv. 13.)

(Prov. xxiv. 30, 31.)


(S. of S. vi. 11.) (Gen. xliii. 11.)

DQchan. . .

rjSvoa-fiov. .



1. MSr.. . .

2. L6t.

Hadas.. . . fivpcrivq.

Nerd. . vapSos,

1. Kimmosh.


2. Charul. pvyava aypia.

1. Egftz. . . Kopva.

2. Botnim.



Panicum mi-liac'eum.

Mentha sativa. „ sylvestris.

Populus tre-mula.

Sinapis nigra.

H. Salvadora

Persica. T.

Balsamoden-dron nayreha. T.

Myrtus com-munis.

Nardostachys jatamansi.

Urtica pilu-lifera.

Acanthus spi-nosus.

Juglans regia. Pistacia vera.


grows to a great size, is often thirty pounds in weight, and refreshes the thirsty as much as the hungry. There is a succession of crops from May to November. T.

Once named with "wheat, barley, beans, and lentiles," in compounding meal for bread. The same name is used by Arabs for two kinds of millet, largely grown in the East. Both are grasses, with very small seeds, used for cakes, but eaten by the very poor, uncooked. T.

Commonly eaten by Jews with their meat, and one of the "bitter herbs" of the Paschal feast. Several species (wild and cultivated) grow in Palestine.

The translation is believed to be erroneous, and the tree meant to be the aspen poplar; but some adopt the LXX. translation, "pear trees." In the New Testament the mulberry is intended by the Greek equivalent " sycamine."

Only mentioned in the New Testament; always with reference to the smallness of its seeds in comparison with the size of its branches. Commentators differ in identifying it. Some take it to be the annual herb "mustard," indigenous in Palestine as in Britain, but in such a soil and climate growing to the largest of plants, many feet high; others a shrub-like tree, with an equivalent Arabic name, and similar pungent flavour, having very small seed. The former answers all the Gospel requirements, and the comparison was proverbial.

Myrrh is frequently mentioned in the Old and New Testament. It was an ingredient in the holy oil; a domestic perfume, with " aloes, cassia, and cinnamon;" used for the purification of women, and for embalming. Both Scripture and classical writers give Arabia as its source; and it is the gum from the bark of a small thorny balsam (Arab. murr), somewhat like an acacia. 2. Lot, erroneously translated "myrrh," is Ladantjm, which see.

A wild tree in Palestine, growing twenty feet high, with dark glossy leaves and white flowers. Found generally through Central Palestine about Bethlehem, Hebron, and on the sides of Carmel and Tabor. Still used in synagogues on the Feast of Tabernacles; and its dried flowers and berries, as a perfume. Esther's Hebrew name, Hadassah, was from the "myrtle."

An Indian product, from a plant growing on the Himalayas, and therefore very costly. The plant has many hairy spikes shooting from one root, which are the root leaves shooting up from the ground and surrounding the stalk, from which the nard is procured and dried.

1. Kimmosh, mentioned several times with thorns, and twice translated "thorns" (A.V.), is the "sting-nettle," of which there are several varieties in Palestine.

2.  Charul is translated "nettles" in a text where Kimmosh is "thorns," and again in Job. Its identification is doubtful, probably "prickly acanthus," a common troublesome weed in the plains of Palestine, with spince. T.

1.  Egpz is the " walnut tree," which is a native of Persia, extensively cultivated in Palestine.

2.  Botnim (Arab, batam) is the "pistachio," a tree allied to the " terebinth," and now somewhat rare in Palestine, but the fruit is very abundant. T.



(Gen. xxxv. 4; Judg. vi. 11; Ezek. vi. 13.)

Oil Tree. . . « (Is. xli. 19.)

Hebrew and Greek.

l.Elah. .

2. El, ilan.

, SeV-Spov.

3. Allah, al-16n.



Pistacia tere-binthus.

Quercus pseu-dqpoccifera.


(Gen. viii. 11; Deut. viii. 7.)

„ (-wild.). . . dypieaios. (Kom. xi. 17.)

'Etz Shemen.

Zaith. , . . eAcua.

Eleagnus. .

Olea Eufopsea.


(Num. xi. 5.)

Palm Tree. . . (Ex. xv. 27.)

Betzalim. .

Tamar. . .

Allium cepa.

Phoenix dacty-lifera.

♦ • •


(Ezek. xxvii. 17.)

Pine Tree. . (Is. xli. 19; lx. 13.)

Pannag. KacrCa.

Tidhar. , ,




Ulmus cam-pestris (?). T.

Six Hebrew words are rendered "oak." 1. Eldh is the terebinth, or teil tree, sometimes interchanged with all'hi, "oak." It is the turpentine tree, and though altogether different from the oak, it resembles it in the grain of the wood, as also in its wide-spread growth. The remaining five words all refer to the acorn-bearing oaks.

3. Certainty means the oak; alldn, probably " evergreen oak;" elon, the "deciduous" kinds. Three varieties at least of oak are common in Palestine; some, as "Abraham's oak," of great size, its foliage covering a diameter of 90 ieet, and its girth being 23 feet. T.

The Hebrew words occur three times: once translated "olive tree," and again "pine branches" (Neh. viii. 15), where it is distinguished from the "olive." Probably the oleaster, very abundant, especially about Hebron, Tabor, Samaria, yielding inferior oil. It is smaller than the olive, with long, narrow, bluish leaves, silvery underneath, and bears bitter green berries. T.

One of the earliest trees named; especially one of the blessings of the Promised Land; very abundant in Palestine, and its chief characteristic, yielding abundant fruit and oil. The oldest trees remain at Gethsemane. The wood is a rich amber colour, finely grained, and from it the cherubim, doors, and posts of the Temple were made. T.

The olive requires grafting; the ungrafted suckers producing a small worthless fruit.

Named amongst the vegetables of Egypt; still extensively grown near the Nile, and in Syria; eaten raw by the natives, and regarded as a preservative against thirst. The Egyptian variety is as large as a Portugal onion. T.

Palm trees are characteristic of sandy semi-tropical deserts, but grow best on clay or rich alluvium. There are 250 varieties. The date palm is especially.identifled with Palestine. Many places were named from its abundance: e.g. Jericho, Hazazon-Tamar (by the Dead Sea), Baal-Tamar (near Gibeah), &c. It grew luxuriantly in the Jericho plain, the ravine Of the Jordan, around the Sea Of Galilee, the vale of Shechem, and on the maritime plains, and is still abundant at Bey-rout. It is improbable that it ever grew on Mount Olivet (Neh. viii. 15 is general in its directions to the whole country), as the soil is unsuitable. The palm leaf {lulal)), bound with myrtle on the right and citron on the left hand, formed the triple badge of the desert life, carried by Jews, and shaken, at the Feast of Tabernacles, after which they were carefully "laid up" at home. These were " the palm branches," fetched out and carried bv the multitude who went out to escort Jesus on His triumphal entry (John xii. 13); while those from Bethany cut down branches of olive trees, and strawed them in the way (Matt. xxi. 8). Its tall stem (from 30 to 80 feet high), with surmounting featheiy foliage, became the symbol of elegance and grace; hence it became a favourite woman's name, " Tamar " (Gen. xxxviii. 6; 2 Sam. xiii. 1; xiv. 27).

Not translated; mentioned with "wheat of Min-nith," as a commodity. The Syriac yersion renders it "millet;" the LXX. considers it the name of a place; others regard it as a spice, or some native product of Palestine.

Tidhar twice occurs in Isaiah, coupled with the "fir" and "box," growing on Lebanon. There is no clue to its identification. The "elm" grows on Mount Lebanon; but some conjecture it to be the plane, or pine. T. See Fir.


Pine Tree (cont.)

Pomegranate. . (Num. xx. 5; Deu. viii. 8.)


(Gen. xxx. 37; Hos. iv. 13.)





Rimmon. roa, roia kodon

Pulse. . . . (2 Sam. xvii. 28; Dan. i.



Zeroim. ospria

Punica grana-tum.


Populus alba. „ Euphratica.



(Is. xxxv. 1; S. of S. ii. 1.)


(Luke xi. 42.)

Chabatzeleth. KpCvov, av-0os.


Rush. ....


(Ex. ix. 32; Is. xxviii. 25.)

Saffron. . . . (S. of S. iv. 14.)


Sea-Weed. . . (Jonah ii. 5.)

ShittahTree. . (Is. xli. 19.)

Shittim Wood. . (Ex. xxvi. 15.)

Cussemeth.. £e'a, oAvpa.

Kark8m.. .

1. Narcissus tazetta.

2. Anastatica hierochun-tina.

Ruta bracteosa. „ graveolens.

Shittah. . . i-vkov


Shittim. t-vov


Triticum spelta.

Crocus sativus.

Acacia seyal.

"Pine branches" (Neh. viii. 15) is a mistranslation. See Oil Tree.

One of the pleasant fruits of Egypt, and promised blessings of Palestine. It is often alluded to, and its abundance is attested by the frequent occurrence of " Rimmon " as the name of a town. It is a shrub-like tree, of the myrtle family, with blood-red flowers and globular fruit, containing red juicy pulp with many seeds, from which refreshing drink was made (S. of S. viii. 2). Blood oranges are produced from a branch grafteS. on a pomegranate stem.

The Hebrew word means "white," is twice used, and rendered "poplar;" most probably the "white poplar," of which four varieties at least are found in Palestine. The Populus alba is found on the hills, and is doubtless that of Hos. iv.; the P. Euphratica abounds by the Jordan, and would be native in Padan-Aram (Gen. xxx.). Some have identified it with the " storax," a bushy shrub, with pale leaves having an undercoating of down, and white blossoms. See Stacte.

Though translated "parched pulse," the latter word is inserted in the A.V. by conjecture. The Hebrew is only "parched." Probably "peas." In the other passage, zeroim is "seed" of any kind, probably that of grain generally, or of leguminous plants. In both cases it is the simple food of the poor.

See Bulrush.

1.  Only mentioned twice: once as "rose of Sharon," no doubt a bulbous plant, of which there are abundance in Palestine, especially the narcissus, which abounds in the vale of Sharon. No "roses" proper are found, except in the Lebanons.

2. "Rose of Jericho," a small woody annual (not mentioned in Scripture), with short stem, bearing many branches, and white flowers. After seeding, it dries and curls up into a ball like wickerwork; but when put in water, it expands, as if alive again; hence called Anastatica, "resurrection flower." It is also called " Mary's flower."

Included among common garden herbs of small value, tithed by Pharisees. Four species are found in Palestine. T.

Egyptian papyrus. See Bulrush, 1.

The marginal reading, " spelt" is doubtless correct, as it resembles wheat. Rye is a northern plant, not Egyptian or Syrian; but the Hebrew name is akin to the Arab, chirsanat, " spelt." T.

Only once named, among scented garden flowers; doubtless the same as the Arab. Jcurkum, the saffron crocus, which abounds in Palestine, and is highly esteemed for its perfume. Many varieties are found there, from which "saffron" is obtained, a yellow powder freely used for seasoning in the East.

See Bulrush, 4. Suph.

The tree is named once only, the wood frequently, as the timber used for the tabernacle and its fittings in the wilderness, and therefore the only timber available. The acacia is the only timber tree of any size in the Arabian desert. It resembles the hawthorn, but is larger, growing in the driest places, and scattered over the whole peninsula, as also on the W. shore of the Dead Sea. Its wood is very hard, close-grained, orange-brown in colour. From it "Gfum Arabica" is obtained; its bark is an astringent, and is used for tanning.



(Jer. ii.22; Mai. iii. 2.)

Sodom, Vine of. (Deut. xxxii. 32.)

Spelt. . . .

Spicery {Spice Tree.)

(Gen. xxxvii. 25.)

Spikenard. .

Stacte. . . . (Ex. xxx. 34.)

Sycamine. . . . (Luke xvii. 6.)

Sycamore. ) Sycomore. j • ' (Ps. lxxviiL 47; 1 Chron. xxviii. 28.)

Tares. . . . (Matt. xiii.)

Teil.            )

Terebinth, f (Is. vi. 13.)

Thick Trees. (Lev. xxiii. 40.)

Hebrew and Greek.

B6rith, Troa.

Gephen Sodom.


Nataf. .


Shikmin.. Shikmoth. auxo/utopea.

avta. . .

Elah. .

'Etz 'Aboth. 8a-




Salsola kali..

Solanum sanctum.

Citrullus colo-cynthus.

Calbtropis procera.

Astragalus ' tragacantha.

Sty rax offici-nale.

Morus nigra.

Ficus syeamo-rus.

Lolium ternu-lentum.

Pistacia tere-binthus.


The native soap of Palestine is made from olive oil and potash, and dates from remote antiquity; the latter is abundantly produced by the numerous alkaline plants on the maritime marshes and by the Dead Sea. Its use is very ancient, and to its discovery on the Belus we owe the invention of glass by the Phoenicians, and to its Arabic name the word "alkali." It has always been one of the exports of Palestine.

See Bramble, ChedeJc. The Cdlocynth has long straggling tendrils like a vine, grows near the Dead Sea, and has a fruit of tempting appearance, like a beautiful orange, but nauseous to the taste, and when ripe its rind contains only dark ashes and seeds {see Wild Gourd). The Galotropis is ■also suggested as the Sodom vine. It grows on the S.E. of the Dead Sea, and in the plains of Shittim E. of Jordan by .Jericho, bearing clusters of bright yellow apples, not good for food; but it yields an esteemed medicinal gum. T.

See Rye.

"Spicery," carried by Ishmaelites to Egypt for sale, iS not a general term, but the product of some tree, probably the Arab, neca'at, or "gum traga-canth," obtained from the Astragali, a kind of lupine, of which there are more than 20 varieties in Palestine, dwarf shrubs with pinnate leaves, long thorns, and yellow blossoms, growing at all elevations. T. Some conjecture the " storax." See Stacte.

The spice-bearing trees, producing cinnamon, &c. belong to the laurel family, not indigenous to Palestine. C.

Sec Nard.

Lit. "a drop" of some exuding gum; one ingredient in the holy oil; translated Job xxxvi. 27, "drop of ivater." Is identified with the gum of the storax, a beautiful, fragrant shrub, growing abundantly on the lower hills in Palestine, with blossoms like the orange tree.

The black mulberry, still called sycamenea in Greece. Both it and the white mulberry are common in Palestine.

A species of fig, allied to the banyan tree, quite distinct from our "sycamore." It has a leaf like the mulberry, and fruit like a fig. It is an evergreen timber tree, of vast size. It supplied the common timber of Egypt for furniture, doors, boxes, mummy-cases. It is found in the low plains of Jericho, but not on the hills, and is therefore uncommon in Palestine.

The Arab, zawdn, the bearded darnel, a kind of rye-grass whose seeds are poisonous, common in all coun-tries bordering on the Mediterranean. The leaf resembles that of wheat, but the seed is much smaller.

Elah in most passages is translated "oak" (which see). Sometimes it is mistranslated " plain " (1 Sam. xvii. 2; Gen. xiii. 18); once "elm" (Hos. iv. 13); and in only one passage correctly, "teil," or " turpentine" tree. The LXX. generally renders it the "terebinth." Very common in S. and E. of Palestine, in localities too warm or dry for the oak, whose place it supplies, and whose winter appearance with straggling boughs it closely resembles. Its leaves are "pinnate, dark reddish green; it bears small clustering blossoms, and red berries. On a terebinth (still shewn) Judas is said to have hanged himself.

"Thick trees" are mentioned among those from whose branches the booths were to be made at the Feast of Tabernacles. The Rabbinical commentators interpret it of the "myrtle," which in consequence is used for the purpose to this day.


• * •

Thistle. (Hos. x. 8.)

(Job xxxi. 40.)

Thorn. . . .

Thyine Wood. (Rev. xviii. 12.)


(Gen. ix. 20; xl. 9; Deut. Viii. 7, 8.)

(wild). . . (Is. v. 2.)


(S. of S. vi. 11.)


(Gen. xxx. 14:


Willow. . . . (Lev. xxiii. 40; Job xl. 22.) (Ezek. xvii. 5.)


(Judg. xvi. 7.)

Wormwood. . (Deut. xxix. 18.)

Hebrew and Greek.

Dardar. rpijSoAo Choach.

£vov Ov'C-vov.

Gephen. . .

Baoshah. a.K.avOa.1.

Egoz. . . . 17 napva.

Chittah. . .

1. 'Arabim. . crea.

2. Tzaphtza-


(Omitted in LXX.)

Yether Lacb. vevpa vypd.


Botanical Name.

Centaurea cal-citropa.

Notobasis Sy-riaca.

Callitrts *qua~ drivalvis.

Vitis vinifera.

Juglans regia.

Triticum com-

positum. „ spelta. „ bybernuin.

Salix octandra. „ JSgyptiaca. „ Babylonica.

Oleander (?).

Artemisia Ju-


„ Nilotica. „ absinthium


Two words are translated " tbistles " (see Bramble, 2 and 3). Tbistles of gigantic size, overtopping tbe horse and his rider, abound in the rich plains of Gennesaret, Sharon, Esdratilon, and Jericho. Clioach is thought to be the generic term for any spring herb or shrub, including thistles, knap-weed, &c.; and dardar represents the genus Calcitropa. C.

See Bramble.

"Thyine wood" is one of the priceless commodities of the Babylon of the Book of Revelation. It is not indigenous^to Palestine, but to the Atlas mountains. It was called "citron wood" by the Romans. It is a small tree of the cypress family, allied to the Lignum vitoe. T.

It is a native of the hilly region south of the Caspian, and of Armenia and north Persia; and one of the earliest plants cultivated, and has followed civilisation. Palestine is beyond all renowned for the quantity, quality, and productiveness of its vines, especially the valley of Eshcol (or "grapes"), and no climate or soil is more adapted for it. It is the emblem of the nation, and hence was adopted as that of the Christian Church.

The wild vine, or fox grape, has a small, black, acid fruit, suitable only for vinegar; grows commonly in the hedges or thickets of Palestine. T. See Cockle.

"Nuts" should be "walnut tree" in this passage. It is a native of Persia, and is still extensively cultivated in the higher grounds and colder parts of Palestine. See Nuts.

Wheat is one of the earliest products, being the chief grain of Mesopotamia in Jacob's time; and from that to this equally so in Egypt, where the many-eared (Gen. xli. 22) or "mummy " variety, depicted on monuments; is still grown. Three varieties are commonly found in Palestine: (1) on maritime plains, white, short-bearded; (2) short-grown, long-bearded, thick-set, coarse grain; (3) a longer stem, with coarse black beard and husk. It is still trodden out (Deut. xxv. 4), pressed out by a wooden wheel, or threshed with a flail (Is. xxviii. 27), and then winnowed with a fan and sifted.

" Wheat harvest" (about April) marks a division of the year.

Two words are rendered "willow:" 1. 'Arabim are always said to grow in the valley. The Arabic name is gharab. 2. Tzaphtzaphah (Arab, safsaf), occurs only once of a tree growing by the waterside. It was used for constructing booths for the Feast of Tabernacles; and no doubt both words express the "willow," of which many varieties are found in Palestine. H. But some suggest the oleander, which flourishes abundantly by the watercourses, and lines every valley. T.

The Anglo-Saxon word "with" is a supple twig, used for twining or wicker-work, and so came to be synonymous with "willow," for which it occurs in Wickliffe's Bible; but in Judges it is better translated " cords."

It is often mentioned, but only by way of metaphor. Several varieties of Artemisia grow in Palestine. Wormwood is well known for its bitter taste. T.

Note.—It is worthy of notice, that the Fauna and Flora, &c.. of the Bible seem to accord with its assumed geography and chronology; e.g. the animals and cereals belong specially to Mesopotamia and the country east of Palestine, and the musical instruments to the earliest ages of human life. Those of the rest of the Pentateuch are such as have their origin or prevalence in Egypt and the Sinaitic peninsula; those of the historical books, and of most of the prophets, belong more particularly to Palestine in an advanced stage of civilization; while the animals mentioned in Job have received more illustration from the Assyrian records and monuments than from anything found in Egypt, Arabia, or Canaan. The marked omission of aquatic pursuits and industries, and of marine products, from the Bible narrative, accords with the historical fact that the sea coast was never occupied by the Hebrews.

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