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NOUNS, 1-14

1. Disuse of the Dual. The Greek of the LXX has two numbers, the singular and the plural. The dual, which was already falling into disuse in the time of Homer, and which is seldom addhered to systematically in classical writers, has disappeared altogether.


Gen. 40:2 ἐπὶ τοῖς δυσὶν εὐνοá½»χοις αὐτοῦ. Ex. 4:9 τοῖς δυσὶ σημεá½·οις τοá½»τοις.


Contrast with the above—

Plat. Rep. 470 B ἐπὶ δυοῖν διαφοραῖν. Isocr. Paneg. 55 c περὶ τοῖν πολá½³οιν τοá½»τοιν.



2. Εá¼·ς as Article. Under the influence of Hebrew idiom we find the numeral εá¼·ς turning into an indefinite pronoun in the Greek of the LXX, as in Gen. 42:27 λá½»σας δá½² εá¼·ς τὸν μá½±ρσιππον αὐτοῦ, and then subsiding into a mere article, as –


Jdg. 13:2 [Codex B] ἀνá½´ρ εá¼·ς, 9:53 γυνá½´ μá½·α. 2 K. [2 Sam.] 2:18 ὡσεὶ μá½·α δορκá½°ς ἐν ἀγρá¿·. 2 Esd. [Ezra] 4:8 ἔγραψαν ἐπιστολá½´ν μá½·αν. Ezk. 4:9 ἄγγος ἓν ὀστρá½±κινον.


There are instances of the same usage in the two most Hebraistic books of the N. T.

Mt. 8:19 εá¼·ς γραμματεá½»ς, 9:18 ἄρχων εá¼µς, 21:19 συκῆν μá½·αν, 26:69 μá½·α παιδá½·σκη, Rev. 8:13 ἑνὸς ἀετοῦ, 9:13 φωνá½´ν μá½·αν, 18:21 εá¼·ς ἄγγελος, 19:17 ἕνα ἄγγελον.


Our own indefinite article ‘a’ or ‘an’ (Scotch ane) is originally the same as ‘one.’ We can also see the beginning of the French article in the colloquial language of the Latin comedians.

Ter. And. 118 forte unam aspicio adulescentulam.

Plaut. Most. 990 unum vidi mortuum efferri foras.

Apart from the influence of the Hebrew, εá¼·ς is occasionally found in good Greek on the way to becoming an article. See L. & S. under εá¼·ς 4. In German the indefinite article and the first of the numerals coincide, and so a German, in beginning to speak English, frequently puts ‘one’ for ‘a.” In the same way a Hebrew learning to speak Greek said εá¼·ς ἀετá½¹ς and so on.


3. First Declension. In classical Greek there is a tendency for proper names, especially those of foreign origin, which end in the nominative in preceded by a consonant other than ρ, to retain the α in the genitive, e.g. Λá½µδας, Ἀνδρομá½³δας, Κομπλá½³γας (name of a Spanish town, App. VI De Reb. Hisp. 43). In pursuance of this analogy we have such genitives as Βá½±λλας and Ζá½³λφας (Gen. 37:2), Σουσá½±ννας (Sus. Ο´ 30).

On the other hand, nouns in pure, or preceded by ρ, are in a few instances found in the LXX to take the Ionic form of the genitive and dative in -ης and -ῃ.

Ex. 8:21[20] κυνá½¹μυιαν . . . κυνομυá½·ης, 15:9 τῇ μαχαá½·ρῃ. and Gen. 27:40. 1K. [1 Sam.] 25:20 αὐτῆς ἐπιβεβηκυá½·ης ἐπὶ τá½´ν ὄνον. 2 Mac. 8:23, 12:22 σπεá½·ρης.


It is said that in the Papyri σπεá½·ρης is always used, never σπεá½·ρας.

The plural of γῆ is found in the LXX

Acc. γᾶς 4 K. [2 Kings] 18:35. Gen γαιῶν 4 K. [2 Kings] 18:35; Ps. 48:11; Ezk. 36:24; 2 Esd. [Ezra] 9:1 and three other passages. Dat. γαῖς 4 K. [2 Kings] 10:11. γᾶς 4 K. [2 Kings] 19:11. γαá½·αις Dan. Ο´ 11:42.


4. Second Declension. θεá½¹ς has a vocative θεá½³. Dt. 3:24: Jdg. 21:3, 16:28; Wisd. 9:1. Usually, however the nominative is employed for the vocative, as in—


Ps. 21:1 [21:2] ὁ Θεὸς ὁ Θεá½¹ς μου πρá½¹σχες μοι á¼±νατá½· ἐγκατá½³λιπá½³ς με;


But in Matthew 27:46 this passage assumes the form—


Θεá½³ μου Θεá½³ μου á¼±νατá½· με ἐγκατá½³λιπες;


The Attic form of this declension is of rare occurrence in the LXX. Λαá½¹ς and ναá½¹ς are the regular forms. Λεá½½ς does not occur at all, and νεá½½ς only in Second Maccabees. ἅλως is common: but for that there is no non-Attic form, as it does not arise, like the others, on the principle of transpositon of quantity.


5. Third Declension. The word σκνá½·ψ (Ex. 8:16) is interesting, as adding another instance of a noun-stem in to the rare word κατῆλιψ and νá½·φα, which occurs only in the accusative in Hes. Op. 533. Σκνá½·ψ is also found in the LXX with the stem σκνιπ-.


6. Absence of Contraction. Many words are left uncontracted in the LXX which in Attic Greek would be contracted, e.g.—


Dt. 18:11 ἐπαεá½·δων ἐπαοιδá½µν. Prov. 3:8 ὀστá½³οις. Sir. 6:30 χρá½»σεος. Ps. 73:17 ἔαρ.


7. Feminine Forms of Movable Substantives. The form βασá½·λισσα for βασá½·λεια was not approved by Atticists. It is comon in the LXX, whereas βασá½·λεια does not occur. Cf. Acts 8:27. On the analogy of it we have Ἀρá½±βισσα in Job 42:17, φυλá½±κισσα in Song 1:6. The following also may be noted:—


γενá½³τις Wisd 7:12 A, τεχνῖτις 7:22, μá½»στις 8:4. ὑβρá½·στρια Jer. 27:31


8. Heteroclite Nouns.

αá¼°θá½±λη (Ex. 9:8, 10) for αá¼´θαλος, which does not occur.

ἅλων (Hos. 9:2), ἅωνος (Jdg. 15:5) for ἅλως, ἅλω. Cf. Mt. 3:12, Lk 3:17 τá½´ν ἅλωνα. In the LXX both ἅλων and ἅλως are of common gender. Thus Ruth 3:2 τὸν ἅλωνα, 3:14 τá½´ν ἅλωνα; Jug. 6:37 τῇ ἅλωνι; 1 Chr. 21:15 ἐν τá¿· ἅλῳ, 21:21 ἐκ τῆς ἅλω. Josephus (Ant. 5.9.3) has τῆς ἅλωος.

γá½µρους, γá½µρει for γá½µρως, γá½µρá¾³, but nominative always γῆρας. For γá½µρους, see Gen. 37:3; Ps. 70:9, 18; but in Gen 44:20 γá½µρως. For γá½µρει see Gen. 15:15, Ps. 91:15, Sir. 8:6, Dan. Ο´ 6:1. When one form is used, the other generally occurs as a variant. In Clement 1 Cor. 63:3 we have ἕως γá½µρους.

ἔλεος, τá½¹ for ἔλεος, ὁ. Plural τá½° ἐλá½³η (Ps. 16:7). The masculine form occurs in some dozen and a half passages (e.g. Ps. 83:11; Prov. 3:16, 14:22). In N.T. also and in the Apostolic Fathers the neuter is the prevailing form, e.g. 2 Tim 1:16, 18; Tit. 3:5; Hb. 4:16; Herm. Past. Vis. 2.2.3, 3.9.1, Sim. 4.2; 1 Clem. 9:1, 14:1; 2 Clem 3:1, 16:2; Barn. Ep. 15:2. In Mt. 9:13, 12:7, 23:23 the masculine form occurs, the two former being quotations from Hos. 6:6, where the LXX has the neuter.


ἔνεδρον (Jdg. 16:2) for ἐνá½³δρα. The former is quite common, the latter occurs only in Josh. 8:7, 9; Ps. 9:28.

λá½»χνος, τá½¹ (Dan. Ο´ 5:0).

νῖκος, τá½¹ (1 Esdras 3:9) for νá½·κη. Cp. 1 Cor 15:55, 57; Herm. Past. Mdt. 12.2.5.

σκá½¹τος, τá½¹ for ὁ, occurs in the best Attic prose as well as in the LXX (e.g. Is. 42:16) and in the N.T. (e.g. 1 Thes. 5:5). Cp. Barn Ep. 14:6, 18:1.

The N. T. and the Apostolic Fathers afford other instances of heteroclites, which do not occur in the LXX. Thus —

ζῆλος, τá½¹ (Phil. 3:6; 1 Clem. 4:8, 11, 13; 6:1, 2; 9:1; 63:2, but in 5:2, 5 διá½° ζῆλον; Ignat. Ad Tral. 4:2).

πλοῦς declined like βοῦς (Acts 27:9; Mart. S. Ign. 3 εá¼´χετο τοῦ πλοá½¹ς).

πλοῦτος, τá½¹ (2 Cor. 8:2; Eph. 1:7; 2:7; 3:8, 16; Phil. 4:19; Col. 1:27; 2:2).

τῦφος, τá½¹ (1 Clem. 13:1).


9. Verbal Nouns in -μα.

a. The Abundance of verbal nouns in – μα is characteristic of Hellenistic Greek from Aristotle onwards. The following instances from the LXX are taken at random—


ἀγνá½¹ημα Gen. 43:12 (6 times in all).

ἀνá½¹μημα 1 Ki. [1 Sam.] 25:28 (17 times in all).

διχοτá½¹μημα Gen. 15:11 (5 times in all).

κατá½±λειμμα Gen. 45:7 (20 times in all).

ὕψωμα . . . γαυρá½·αμα . . . καá½»χημα Judith 15:9


b. A point better worth noting is the preference for the short radical vowl in their formation, e.g. —


ἀνá½±θεμα Lvt. 27:28 etc. So in the N.T. Acts 23:14; Rom. 9:3; 1 Cor. 12:3, 16:22; Gal. 1:8, 9. In Judith 16:19 we have the classical form ἀνá½±θημα. For the short vowel in the LXX, cp. θá½³μα, ἔκθεμα, ἐπá½·θεμα, παρá½±θεμα, πρá½¹σθεμα, σá½»νθεμα.

ἀφαá½·ρεμα Ex. 29:27; Lvt. 7:4, 24 etc.

ἄφεμα 1 Mac. 9:28. So κá½±θεμα, Is. 3:19, Ezk. 16:11.

Gen. 25:6 etc. So in N.T.

εὕρεμα Sir. 20:9; 29:4.

ἕψεμα Gen. 25:29 etc.

σá½»στεμα Gen. 1:10 etc. So ἄνá½±στεμα. In Judith 12:9 ἀνá½±στημα.

χá½»μα (for) 2 Mac. 2:24.


10. Non-Attic Forms of Substantives.

ἀλá½½πηκας accusative plural (Jdg. 15:4) for ἀλá½½πεκας.

ἄρκος (1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:34) for ἄρκτος, which does not occur. Cp. Rev. 13:2 ἄρκου.

δῖνα (Job 13:11; 28:10) for δá½·νη.

ἔυστρον (Dt. 18:3) for ἤνυστρον. So in Jos. Ant. 4.4.4.

ἐπαοιδá½¹ς (Ex. 7:11) for ἐπῳδá½¹ς, which does not occur.

κλá½·βανος (Ex. 7:28) for κρá½·βανος. So also in N.T.

μá½¹λιβος (Ex. 15:10), the Homeric form, for μá½¹λυβδος.

ταμεῖον (Ex. 7:28: Jdg. 3:24, 15:1, 16:12) for ταμιεῖον, which also occurs frequently. The shorter form is common in the Papyri.

ὑψεá½·α (Tob. 8:21) for ὑγá½·εια. In later Greek generally ὑγεá½·α is usual, but the fuller form prevails in the LXX.

χεá½·μαρρος (1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:40) for χειμá½±ρρους.


11. Non-Attic Forms of Adjectives.

εὐθá½µς, εὐθá½³ς, for εὐθá½»ς, εὐθεῖα, εὐθá½», which also occurs frequently.

á¼¥μισυς, -υ is an adjective of two terminations in the LXX. ἡμá½·σεια does not occur. Cp. Nb. 34:14 τὸ á¼¥μισυ φυλῆς Μανασσá½µ with Jos. Ant. 4.7.3 καὶ τῆς Μανασσá½·τιδος ἡμá½·σεια.

χá½±λκειος, -α, -ον, the Homeric form, occurs in Jdg. 16:21, 1 Esd. 1:38, 5 times in Job, and in Sir. 28:20 for χαλκοῦς, χαλκῆ, χαλκοῦν, which is very common.

ἀργυρικá½¹ς 1 Esd. 8:24 only. Cp. Aristeas.37, who has also ἐλαϊκá½¹ς, σιτικá½¹ς, χαριστικá½¹ς (112, 37, 227).

αá¼°σχυντηρá½¹ς Sir. 26:15, 35:10, 42:1 only.

σιγηρá½¹ς Prov. 18:18, Sir. 26:14 only.

κλεψιμαῖος Tob. 2:13 only.

Θνησιμαῖος often used in the neuter for ‘a corpse,’ e.g. 3 K. [2 Kings} 13:25.


12. Comparison of Adjectives.


ἀγαθá½½τερος (Jdg. 11:25, 15:2) is perhaps an instance of that tendency to regularisation in the later stages of a language, which results from its being spoken by foreigners.

αá¼°σχρá½¹τερος (Gen. 41:19) is good Greek, though not Attic. Ἀισχá½·ων does not seem to occur in the LXX.

ἐγγá½·ων and ἔγγιστος are usual in the LXX, e.g. Ruth 3:12, 3 K. [2 Kings} 20:2, Ἐγγá½»τερος does not seem to occur at all, and ἐγγá½»τατος only in Job 6:15, 19:14.

πλησιá½³στερον adv. for πλησιαá½·τερον (4 Mac. 12:3).


13. Pronouns. a. Classical Greek has no equivalent for our unemphatic pronoun ‘he.’ One cannot say exactly ‘he said’ in the Attic idiom. Αὐτὸς ἔφη is something more, and ἔφη something less, for it may equally mean ‘she said.’ The Greek of the LXX gets over this difficulty by the use of αὐτá½¹ς as an unemphatic pronoun of the 3d person.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:42 καὶ εἶδεν Γολιá½°δ τὸν Δαυεὶδ καὶ á¼ τá½·μασεν αὐτá½¹ν, ὅτι αὐτὸς ἦν παιδá½±ριον καὶ αὐτὸς πυρρá½±κης μετá½° κá½±λλους ὀφθαλμῶν.


In the above the repeated αὐτá½¹ς is simply the nominative of the αὐτá½¹ν preceding. In a classical writer αὐτá½¹ς so used would necessarily refer to Goliath himself. For other instances see Gen. 3:15, 16, 39:23: Nb. 17:5, 22:22: Jdg. 13:5, 16, 14:4, 17: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:2, 18:16. Winer denied that this use of αὐτá½¹ς is to be found in the N.T. But here we must dissent from his authority. See Mt. 5:5 and following: Lk. 6:20: 1 Cor. 7:12.


b. As usual in later Greek the compound reflexive pronoun of the 3d person is used for those of the 1st and 2d.

Gen. 43:22 καὶ ἀργá½»ριον ἕτερον á¼ νá½³γκαμεν μεθ’ á¼‘αυτῶν. Dt. 3:7 καὶ τá½° σκῦλα τῶν πá½¹λεων ἐπρονομεá½»σαμεν ἑαὐτοῖς. 1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:8 ἐκλá½³ξασθε ἑαυτοῖς ἄνδρα.


So also in Aristeas 3, 213, 217, 228 (ἑαυτá½¹ν = σεαυτá½¹ν), 248. This usage had already begun in the best Attic. Take for instance -


Plat. Phoedo 91 C ὅπως μá½´ ἐγá½½... ἅμα ἑαυτá½¹ν τε καὶ ὑμᾶς ἐξαπατá½µσας, 78 B δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἐρá½³σθαι ἑαὐτοá½»ς, 101 D σὺ δá½² δεδιá½¼ς ἄν... τá½´ν ἑαὐτοῦ σκιá½±ν.


Instances abound in N.T.

Acts 23:14 ἀνεθεματá½·σαμεν ἑαὐτοá½»ς, 5:35 προσá½³χετε ἑαὐτοῖς.


c. A feature more peculiar to LXX Greek is the use of the personal pronoun along with the reflexive, like the English ‘me myself,’ ‘you yourselves,’ etc.

Ex. 6:7 καὶ λá½µμψομαι ἐμαυτá¿· ὑμᾶς λαὸν ἐμοá½·, 20:23 οὐ ποιá½µσετε ὑμῖν ἑαὐτοῖς.


So also Dt. 4:16, 23: Josh. 22:16.

As there is nothing in the Hebrew to warrant this duplication of the pronoun, it may be set down as a piece of colloquial Greek.


d. The use of á¼´διος as a mere possessive pronoun is common to the LXX with the N.T. e.g. -


Job 7:10 οá½δ’ οὐ μá½´ ἐπιστρá½³ψῃ εá¼°ς τὸν á¼´διον οἶκον. Mt. 22:5 ἀπῆλθον, ὁ μá½²ν εá¼°ς τὸν á¼´διον ἀγρá½¹ν, ὁ δá½² ἐπὶ τá½´ν ἐμπορá½·αν αὐτοῦ.


14. Numerals. a. δυσá½·(ν) is the regular form for the dative of δá½»ο. So also in N.T. e.g. Mt. 6:24, 22:40: Lk. 16:13: Acts 12:6. δυεῖν occurs in Job 13:20, δυοῖν in 4 Mac. 1:28, 15:2. Sometimes δá½»ο is indeclinable, e.g. Jdg. 16:28 τῶν δá½»ο ὀφθαλμῶν.


b. The following forms of numerals differ from those in classical use: -



δá½³κα δá½»ο Ex. 28:21: Josh. 21:40, 18:24: 1 Chr. 6:23, 15:10, 25:10ff. So in N.T. Acts 19:7, 24:11. Cp. Aristeas 97.

δá½³κα τρεῖς Gen. 17:25: Josh. 19:6.

δá½³κα τá½³σσαρες Josh. 15:36: Tob. 8:20. So in N.T. 2 Cor. 12:2, Gal. 2:1. Cp. Diog. Laert. 7.55.

δá½³κα πá½³ντε Ex. 27:15: Jdg. 8:10: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 19:17. So in N.T. Gal. 1:18.

δá½³κα ἕξ Gen. 46:18: Ex. 26:25: Josh. 15:41.

δá½³κα ἑπτá½± Gen. 37:2, 47:28.

δá½³κα ὀκτá½½ Gen. 46:22: Josh. 24:33b: Jdg. 3:14, 10:8, 20:44: 1 Chr. 12:31: 2 Chr. 11:21.


The above numerals occur also in the regular forms -


δá½½δεκα Gen. 5:8.

τρεῖς καὶ δá½³κα, τρισκαá½·δεκα Nb. 29:13, 14

τá½³σσαρες καὶ δá½³κα Nb. 16:49.

πá½³ντε καὶ δá½³κα Lvt. 27:7: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 9:10

ἑκκαá½·δεκα, ἓξ καὶ δá½³κα Nb. 31:40, 46, 52

ἑπτá½° καὶ δá½³κα Jer. 39:9.

ὀκτá½¼ καὶ δá½³κα 2 K. [2 Sam.] 8:13.

ἐννá½³α καὶ δá½³κα 2 K. [2 Sam.] 2:30 only.


c. The forms just given may be written separately or as one word. This led to the τá½³σσαρες in τεσσαρεσκαá½·δεκα becoming indeclinable, e.g. -


2 Chr. 25:5 υá¼±οὺς τεσσαρεσκαá½·δεκα.


The same license is extended in the LXX to δá½³κα τá½³σσαρες.

Nb. 29:29 ἀμνοὺς ἐνιαυσá½·ους δá½³κα τá½³σσαρες ἀμá½½μους.


The indeclinable use of τεσσαρεσκαá½·δεκα is not peculiar to the LXX.

Hdt. 7.36 τεσσαρεσκαá½·δεκα (τριá½µρεας). Epict. Ench. 40 ἀπὸ τεσσαρεσκαá½·δεκα ἐτῶν. Strabo p. 177, 4.1.1 προσá½³θηκε δá½² τεσσαρεσκαá½·δεκα ἔθνη, 189, 4.2.1 ἐθνῶν τεσσαρεσκαá½·δεκα.


d. The alternative expressions ὁ ει–ς καὶ εá¼°κοστá½¹ς (2 Chr. 24:17) and ὁ εá¼°κοστὸς πρῶτος (2 Chr. 25:28) are quite classical: but the following way of expressing days of the month may be noted -


Haggai 2:1 μιá¾· καὶ εá¼°κá½±δι τοῦ μηνá½¹ς. 1 Mac. 1:59 πá½³μπτῃ καὶ εá¼°κá½±δι τοῦ μηνá½¹ς. Cp. 4:59. 2 Mac. 10:5 τῇ πá½³μπτῃ καὶ εá¼°κá½±δι τοῦ αὐτοῦ μηνá½¹ς.

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