H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar (First Edition)

Part 2, 286-290


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ADJECTIVES


ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS


286. Adjectives of Three Endings. Most adjectives of the vowel declension have three endings: -ος, -η (or -ᾱ), -ον.  The masculine and neuter are declined according to the second declension, the feminine according to the first.

a. When ε, ι, or ρ (30, 218) precedes -ος the feminine ends in -ᾱ, not in -η.  But adjectives in -οος (not preceded by ρ) have η.  Thus, ὄγδοος, ὀγδόη, ὄγδοον eighth, ἀθρόος, ἀθρόᾱ, ἀθρόον crowded. See 290 e.

287. ἀγαθός good, ἄξιος worthy, μακρός long are thus declined: 


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singular

Nom.

ἀγαθός

ἀγαθή

ἀγαθόν

ἄξιος

ἀξίᾱ

ἄξιον

μακρός

μακρά

μακρόν

Gen.

ἀγαθοῦ

ἀγαθῆς

ἀγαθοῦ

ἀξίου

ἀξίᾱς

ἀξίου

μακροῦ

μακρᾶς

μακροῦ

Dat.

ἀγαθῷ

ἀγαθῇ

ἀγαθῷ

ἀξίῳ

ἀξίᾳ

ἀξίῳ

μακρῷ

μακρᾷ

μακρῷ

Acc.

ἀγαθόν

ἀγαθήν

ἀγαθόν

ἄξιον

ἀξίᾱν

ἄξιον

μακρόν

μακράν

μακρόν

Voc.

ἀγαθέ

ἀγαθή

ἀγαθόν

ἄξιε

ἀξίᾱ

ἄξιον

μακρέ

μακρά

μακρόν

dual

N. A. V.

ἀγαθώ

ἀγαθά̄

ἀγαθώ

ἀξίω

ἀξίᾱ

ἀξίω

μακρώ

μακρά

μακρώ

G. D.

ἀγαθοῖν

ἀγαθαῖν

ἀγαθοῖν

ἀξίοιν

ἀξίαιν

ἀξίοιν

μακροῖν

μακραῖν

μακροῖν

plural

N. V.

ἀγαθοί

ἀγαθαί

ἀγαθά

ἄξιοι

ἄξιαι

ἄξια

μακροί

μακραί

μακρά

Gen.

ἀγαθῶν

ἀγαθῶν

ἀγαθῶν

ἀξίων

ἀξίων

ἀξίων

μακρῶν

μακρῶν

μακρῶν

Dat.

ἀγαθοῖς

ἀγαθαῖς

ἀγαθοῖς

ἀξίοις

ἀξίαις

ἀξίοις

μακροῖς

μακραῖς

μακροῖς

Acc.

ἀγαθούς

ἀγαθά̄ς

ἀγαθά

ἀξίους

ἀξίᾱς

ἄξια

μακρούς

μακράς

μακρά

ἐσθλός good, κακός bad, σοφός wise, κοῦφος, κούφη, κοῦφον light, δῆλος clear; ἀνδρεῖος, ἀνδρείᾱ, ἀνδρεῖον courageous, δίκαιος just, ὅμοιος like, αἰσχρός, αἰσχρά̄, αἰσχρόν base, ἐλεύθερος free; all participles in -ος and all superlatives.

a. The accent in the feminine nominative and genitive plural follows that of the masculine:  ἄξιαι, ἀξίων, not ἀξίαι, ἀξιῶν, as would be expected according to the rule for substantives (205), e.g. as in αἰτίᾱ cause, αἰτίαι, αἰτιῶν.

b. All adjectives and participles may use the masculine instead of the feminine dual forms:  τὼ ἀγαθὼ μητέρε the two good mothers.

288. Adjectives of Two Endings. Adjectives using the masculine for the feminine are called adjectives of two endings. Most such adjectives are compounds.

289. ἄδικος unjust (ἀ- without, δίκη justice), φρόνιμος prudent, and ἵ̄λεως propitious are declined thus:

singular

Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

ἄδικος

ἄδικον

φρόνιμος

φρόνιμον

ἵλεως

ἵλεων

Gen.

ἀδίκου

ἀδίκου

φρονίμου

φρονίμου

ἵλεω

ἵλεω

Dat.

ἀδίκῳ

ἀδίκῳ

φρυνίμῳ

φρονίμῳ

ἵλεῳ

ἵλεῳ

Acc.

ἄδικον

ἄδικον

φρόνιμον

φρόνιμον

ἵλεων

ἵλεων

Voc.

ἄδικε

ἄδικον

φρόνιμε

φρόνιμον

ἵλεως

ἵλεων


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dual

Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

Masc. and Fem.

Neut.

N. A. V.

ἀδίκω

ἀδίκω

φρονίμω

φρονίμω

ἵλεω

ἵλεω

G. D.

ἀδίκοιν

ἀδίκοιν

φρονίμοιν

φρονίμοιν

ἵλεῳ

ἵλεῳν

plural

N. V.

ἄδικοι

ἄδικα

φρόνιμοι

φρόνιμα

ἵλεῳ

ἵλεα

Gen.

ἀδίκων

ἀδίκων

φρονίμων

φρονίμων

ἵλεων

ἵλεων

Dat.

ἀδίκοις

ἀδίκοις

φρονίμοις

φρονίμοις

ἵλεῳς

ἵλεῳς

Acc.

ἀδίκους

ἄδικα

φρονίμους

φρόνιμα

ἵλεως

ἵλεα

a. Like ἄδικος are declined the compounded ἄ-λογος irrational, ἄ-τῑμος dishonoured, ἀ-χρεῖος useless, ἔμ-πειρος experienced, ἐπί-φθονος envious, εὔ-ξενος hospitable, ὑπ-ήκοος obedient.  Like φρόνιμος are declined the uncompounded βάρβαρος barbarian, ἥσυχος quiet, ἥμερος tame, λάλος talkative.

b. Like ἴλεως are declined other adjectives of the Attic declension (237), as ἄκερως without horns, ἀξιόχρεως serviceable.  For the accent, see 163 a. Adjectives in -ως, -ων have in the neut. pl., but ἔκπλεω occurs in Xenophon.

c. πλέως full has three endings:  πλέως, πλέᾱ, πλέων, pl. πλέῳ, πλέαι, πλέα, but most compounds, such as ἔμπλεως quite full, have the fem. like the masc. σῶς safe has usually sing. N. σῶς masc., fem. (rarely σᾶ), σῶν neut., A. σῶν; plur. N. σῷ masc., fem., σᾶ neut., A. σῶς masc., fem., σᾶ neut. Other cases are supplied by σῶος, σώᾱ, σῶον.  σῶον also occurs in the accusative.

d. In poetry, and sometimes in prose, adjectives commonly of two endings have a feminine form, as πάτριος paternal, βίαιος violent; and those commonly of three endings have no feminine, as ἀναγκαῖος necessary, φίλιος friendly.

290. Contracted Adjectives. Most adjectives in -εος and -οος are contracted. Examples:  χρύ̄σεος golden, ἀργύρεος of silver, ἁπλόος simple (feminine ἁπλέᾱ).

singular

N. V.

(χρύ̄σεος)

χρῡσοῦς

(χρῡσέᾱ)

χρῡσῆ

(χρύ̄σεον)

χρῡσοῦν

Gen.

(χρῡσέου)

χρῡσοῦ

(χρῡσέᾱς)

χρῡσῆς

(χρῡσέου)

χρῡσοῦ

Dat.

(χρῡσέῳ)

χρῡσῷ

(χρῡσέᾳ)

χρῡσῇ

(χρῡσέῳ)

χρῡσῷ

Acc.

(χρύ̄σεον)

χρῡσοῦν

(χρῡσέᾱν)

χρῡσῆν

(χρύ̄σεον)

χρῡσοῦν

dual

N. A. V.

(χρῡσέω)

χρῡσώ

(χρῡσέᾱ)

χρῡσᾶ

(χρῡσέω)

χρῡσώ

G. D.

(χρῡσέοιν)

χρῡσοῖν

(χρῡσέαιν)

χρῡσαῖν

(χρῡσέοιν)

χρῡσοῖν

plural

N. V.

(χρύ̄σεοι)

χρῡσοῖ

(χρύ̄σεαι)

χρῡσαῖ

(χρύ̄σεα)

χρῡσᾶ

Gen.

(χρῡσέων)

χρῡσῶν

(χρῡσέων)

χρῡσῶν

(χρῡσέων)

χρῡσῶν

Dat.

(χρῡσέοις)

χρῡσοῖς

(χρῡσέαις)

χρῡσαῖς

(χρῡσέοις)

χρῡσοῖς

Acc.

(χρῡσέους)

χρῡσοῦς

(χρῡσέᾱς)

χρῡσᾶς

(χρύ̄σεα)

χρῡσᾶ


76

singular

N. V.

(ἀργύρεος)

ἀργυροῦς

(ἀργυρέᾱ)

ἀργυρᾶ

(ἀργύρεον)

ἀργυροῦν

Gen.

(ἀργυρέου)

ἀργυροῦ

(ἀργυρέᾱς)

ἀργυρᾶς

(ἀργυρέου)

ἀργυροῦ

Dat.

(ἀργυρέῳ)

ἀργυρῷ

(ἀργυρέᾳ)

ἀργυρᾷ

(ἀργυρέῳ)

ἀργυρῷ

Acc.

(ἀργύρεον)

ἀργυροῦν

(ἀργυρέᾱν)

ἀργυρᾶν

(ἀργύρεον)

ἀργυροῦν

dual

N. A. V.

(ἀργυρέω)

ἀργυρώ

(ἀργυρέᾱ)

ἀργυρᾶ

(ἀργυρέω)

ἀργυρώ

G. D.

(ἀργυρέοιν)

ἀργυροῖν

(ἀργυρέαιν)

ἀργυραῖν

(ἀργυρέοιν)

ἀργυροῖν

plural

N. A.

(ἀργύρεοι)

ἀργυροῖ

(ἀργύρεαι)

ἀργυραῖ

(ἀργύρεα)

ἀργυρᾶ

Gen.

(ἀργυρέων)

ἀργυρῶν

(ἀργυρέων)

ἀργυρῶν

(ἀργυρέων)

ἀργυρῶν

Dat.

(ἀργυρέοις)

ἀργυροῖς

(ἀργυρέαις)

ἀργυραῖς

(ἀργυρέοις)

ἀργυροῖς

Acc.

(ἀργυρέους)

ἀργυροῦς

(ἀργυρέᾱς)

ἀργυρᾶς

(ἀργύρεα)

ἀργυρᾶ


singular

N. V.

(ἁπλόος)

ἁπλοῦς

(ἁπλέᾱ)

ἁπλῆ

(ἁπλόον)

ἁπλοῦν

Gen.

(ἁπλόου)

ἁπλοῦ

(ἁπλέᾱς)

ἁπλῆς

(ἁπλόου)

ἁπλοῦ

Dat.

(ἁπλόῳ)

ἁπλῷ

(ἁπλέᾳ)

ἁπλῇ

(ἁπλόῳ)

ἁπλῷ

Acc.

(ἁπλόον)

ἁπλοῦν

(ἁπλέᾱν)

ἁπλῆν

(ἁπλόον)

ἁπλοῦν

dual

N. A. V.

(ἁπλόω)

ἁπλώ

(ἁπλέᾱ)

ἁπλᾶ

(ἁπλόω)

ἁπλώ

G. D.

(ἁπλόοιν)

ἁπλοῖν

(ἁπλέαιν)

ἁπλαῖν

(ἁπλόοιν)

ἁπλοῖν

plural

N. V.

(ἁπλόοι)

ἁπλοῖ

(ἁπλέαι)

ἁπλαῖ

(ἁπλόα)

ἁπλᾶ

Gen.

(ἁπλόων)

ἁπλῶν

(ἁπλέων)

ἁπλῶν

(ἁπλόων)

ἁπλῶν

Dat.

(ἁπλόοις)

ἁπλοῖς

(ἁπλέαις)

ἁπλαῖς

(ἁπλόοις)

ἁπλοῖς

Acc.

(ἁπλόους)

ἁπλοῦς

(ἁπλέᾱς)

ἁπλᾶς

(ἁπλόοις)

ἁπλᾶ

a. So χαλκοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν brazen, φοινῑκοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν crimson, πορφυροῦς, -ᾶ, -οῦν dark red, σιδηροῦς, -ᾶ, -οῦν of iron, διπλοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν twofold, and other multiplicatives in -πλοῦς (354 b). Compounds of two endings (288):  εὔνους, -ουν (εὔνοος) well disposed, ἄπλους, -ουν (ἄπλοος) not navigable, εὔρους, -ουν (εὔροος) fair-flowing.  These have open οα in the neuter plural.

b. The vocative and dual of contracted adjectives are very rare.

c. Adjectives whose uncontracted form in the nom. sing. has the accent on the antepenult (χρύ̄σεος, πορφύρεος) take in the contracted form a circumflex on their last syllable (χρῡσοῦς, πορφυροῦς) by analogy to the gen. and dat. sing. The accent of the nom. dual masculine and neuter is also irregular (χρῡσώ, not χρῡσῶ).


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d. For peculiarities of contraction see 56ἁπλῆ is from ἁπλέᾱ, not from  ἁπλόη.

e. Some adjectives are not contracted:  ἀργαλέος difficult, κερδαλέος crafty, νέος young, ὄγδοος eighth, ἀθρόος crowded (usually).  (Here εο and οο were probably separated originally by Ϝ, 3.

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