H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar (First Edition)

Part 2, 275-285


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275.

stems in ευ, αυ, ου


singular

ὁ βασιλεύ-ς

ἡ γραῦ-ς

ἡ ναῦ-ς

ὁ, ἡ βοῦ-ς

king

old woman

ship

ox, cow

Nom.

βασιλεύ-ς

γραῦ-ς

ναῦ-ς

βοῦ-ς

Gen.

βασιλέ-ως

γρᾱ-ός

νε-ώς

βο-ός

Dat.

(βασιλέ-ι)

βασιλεῖ

γρᾱ-ΐ

νη-ΐ

βο-ΐ

Acc.

βασιλέ-ᾱ

γραῦ-ν

ναῦ-ν

βοῦ-ν

Voc.

βασιλεῦ

γραῦ

ναῦ

βοῦ

dual

N. A. V.

βασιλῆ

γρᾶ-ε

νῆ-ε

βό-ε

G. D.

βασιλέ-οιν

γρᾱ-οῖν

νε-οῖν

βο-οῖν

plural

N. V.

{

βασιλῆς, later 
βασιλεῖς

}

γρᾶ-ες

νῆ-ες

βό-ες

Gen.

βασιλέ-ων

γρᾱ-ῶν

νε-ῶν

βο-ῶν

Dat.

βασιλεῦ-σι(ν)

γραυ-σί(ν)

ναυ-σί(ν)

βου-σί(ν)

Acc.

βασιλέ-ᾱς

γραῦ-ς

ναῦ-ς

βοῦ-ς

Like βασιλεύς are declined the masculine oxytones ὁ ἱππεύς horseman, ὁ ἱερεύς priest, ὁ γονεύς parent, ὁ φονεύς murderer; like βοῦς is declined ὁ χοῦς threequart measure (but acc. χόᾱ and χόας).


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276. Substantives in -εύς preceded by a vowel may contract in the gen. and acc. sing. and pl. Thus, ἁλιεύς fisherman has gen. ἁλιέως or ἁλιῶς, acc. ἁλιέᾱ or ἁλιᾶ, gen. pl. ἁλιέων or ἁλιῶν, acc. pl. ἁλιέᾱς or ἁλιᾶς.  All other forms are regular. The contracted forms were in use in the fifth century, but in the fourth (especially after 350 B.C.) the open forms are common.  So are declined Εὐβοεύς Euboean from Εὐβοιεύς, Παιραιεύς Peiraeus, Πλαταιεύς Plataean.

277. Other Forms. a. In the drama from words in -εύς we find rarely -έᾰ in acc. sing., -έᾰς in acc. pl. -έος and -ῆος, -ῆες, -ῆας are occasionally found.

b. The nom. pl. in older Attic ended in -ῆς (βασιλῆς), derived either from -ῆες by contraction or from -έης (once on an inscription) by 34. -ῆς occurs on inscriptions till about 350 B.C., and is the form to be adopted in the texts of authors of the fifth century and in Plato. -έες occurs rarely, but is suspected. βασιλεῖς (regular on inscriptions after 329 B.C.) is from analogy to ἡδεῖς.

c. The acc. pl. βασιλεῖς was not used till the end of the fourth century. -ῆς (the nom. form) is used for the acc. in a few passages (251 b).

278. Stem Variation. Stems ending in ευ, αυ, ου lose υ before case endings beginning with a vowel, υ̯ passing into Ϝ(43). Stems in ευ show the pure form only in the vocative; other forms are derived from the stronger stem ηυ. ηυ and ᾱυ before a consonant become ευ, ᾰυ (40) as in βασιλεύς, βασιλεῦσι, ναῦς, ναυσί from βασιληυς, νᾱυς, etc. From βασιλῆ(Ϝ)-ος, -ῆ(Ϝ)-ι, -ῆ(Ϝ)-α, -ῆ(Ϝ)-ας come, by transfer of quantity (34), the Attic forms. So νεώς is derived from νη(Ϝ)-ός. In βασιλέων, νεῶν, ε is shortened from the η of βασιλήων, νηῶν by 39. βο-ός, etc. are from the stem βου- βοϜ-, cp. Lat. bovis.


stems in οι


279. Stems in οι, with nominative in -ώ, turn ι into unwritten ι ̯ (y) (43) before the endings beginning with a vowel. πειθώ persuasion is thus declined:

N. πειθώ. G. πειθοῦς (πειθό-ος).  D. πειθοῖ (πειθό-ι). A. πειθώ (πειθό-α). V. πειθοῖ. Dual and plural are wanting.


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So ἠχώ echo, εὐεστώ well-being, φειδώ sparing, Σαπφώ, Λητώ, Καλυψώ.  οι stems are chiefly used for women's names.

a. A stronger form of the stem is ωι, seen in the earlier form of the nominative (Σαπφῴ, Λητῴ). The accusative has the accent of the nominative.

b. When dual and plural occur, they are of the second declension: nom. λεχοί (late) from λεχώ woman in child-bed, acc. γοργούς from γοργώ gorgon.

c. ἡ εἰκών image, ἡ ἀηδών nightingale, properly from stems in ον, have certain forms from this declension (εἰκοῦς, εἰκώ, voc. ἀηδοῖ).


cases in -φιν


280.  Cases in -φι(ν). φι(ν) is often added to noun stems in Hom. to express the relations of the lost instrumental, locative, and ablative, both singular and (more commonly) plural; rarely to express the relations of the genitive and dative cases. From stems are made singulars, from ο stems singulars or plurals, from consonant stems almost always plurals. Except in θεό-φιν with the gods -φι(ν) is not added to a stem denoting a person. (a) Instrumental: βίη-φι by might, ἑτέρη-φι with the other (hand), δακρυό-φιν with tears; (b) Locative: θύρη-φι at the door, ὄρεσ-φι on the mountains; (c) Ablative:  κεφαλῆ-φιν from off the head; especially with prepositions, as ἐκ ποντό-φιν from off the sea, ἀπὸ ναῦ-φιν from the ships.


irregular declension


281. The gender in the singular and in the plural may not be the same: ὁ σῖτος grain, τὰ σῖτα; ὁ δεσμός chain, τὰ δεσμά chains (οἱ δεσμοί cases of imprisonment); τὸ στάδιον stade, race-course, pl. τὰ στάδια and οἱ στάδιοι.

282. Usually the irregularity consists in a word having two different stems.

a. Both stems have a common nominative singular: σκότος darkness, σκότου σκότῳ, etc. (like ἵππου ἵππῳ) or σκότους σκότει (like γένους γένει).  So τὸν Ἄθω, and τὸν Ἄθων from Ἄθως (238 d), τὸν Σωκράτη and τὸν Σωκράτην (264 b). These are called heteroclites (ἑτερόκλιτα differently declined).

N. Many compound proper names in -ης (especially names of foreigners) have forms of the 1 and 3 decl., as Τισσαφέρνης, -νους, -νῃ and -νει.  So Θεοκρίνη (voc.) in Demosth., Λεωνίδην and Λεωνίδεα in Hdt.

b. Certain cases are formed from another stem than that of the nom. singular: ὁ ὄνειρο-ς dream, gen. ὀνείρατ-ος (as if from τὸ ὄνειραρ), or (less freq.) ὀνείρου; so τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα and τὸν Ἀπόλλω (260), τοῦ υἱέος and τοῦ υἱοῦ (285, 27). These are called metaplastic forms (μεταπλασμός change of formation).

283. Defectives are substantives having, by reason of their meaning or use, only one number or only certain cases. Thus, sing. only:  ὁ ἀήρ air, ὁ αἰθήρ upper air; plur. only: τὰ Διονύ̄σια, τὰ Ὀλύμπια the Dionysiac (Olympic) festival, οἱ ἐτησίαι annual winds; in some cases only: ὦ μέλε my good sir or madam; ὄναρ dream; ὄφελος use only in nom.; λιβός λίβα from *λίψ stream, libation.

284. Indeclinables are substantives having one form for all cases:  τὸ χρεών, τοῦ χρεών, etc. fatality, τὸ ἄλφα alpha, τὸ λέγειν to speak, most cardinal numbers (τὸ δέκα ten), several foreign words, as Ἰακώβ Jacob, Δαβίδ David.


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285.

list of the principal irregular substantives


1. Ἄρης (ὁ) Ares, stems Ἀρεσ-, Ἀρευ- from ἈρεςϜ-. G. Ἄρεως (poet. Ἄρεος), D. Ἄρει, A. Ἄρη (poet. Ἄρεα), Ἄρην. Epic G. Ἄρηος, Ἄρεος, D. Ἄρηι, Ἄρεϊ, A. Ἄρηα, Ἄρην. Hdt. Ἄρεος, Ἄρει, Ἄρεα. Aeolic Ἄρευς, Ἄρευος, etc.

2. ἀρήν (ὁ, ἡ) lamb, sheep, stems ἀρεν-, ἀρν-, ἀρνα-. Thus, ἀρν-ός, ἀρν-ί, ἄρν-α, ἄρν-ες, ἀρν-ῶν, ἀρνά-σι (Hom. ἄρν-εσσι), ἄρν-ας (declined like a subst. in -ηρ). Nom. ἀρήν occurs on inscript. but ἀμνός (2 decl.) is commonly used.

4. γέλως (ὁ) laughter, γέλωτ-ος, etc. Attic poets A. γέλωτα or γέλων. Hom. has D. γέλῳ, A. γέλω, γέλων or γέλοι (?) from Aeol. γέλος. Cp. 257 D.

5. γόνυ (τό) knee, γόνατ-ος, etc. Ionic and poetic γούνατ-ος, γούνατ-ι, etc. Epic also γουν-ός, γουν-ί, γοῦν-α, pl. γούν-ων, γούν-εσσι (250 D. 2). The forms in ου are from γονϜ- (37 D. 1, 253 c); cf. Lat. genu.

6. γυνή (ἡ) woman, γυναικ-ός, γυναικ-ί, γυναῖκ-α, γύναι (133); dual γυναῖκ-ε, γυναικ-οῖν; pl. γυναῖκ-ες, γυναικ-ῶν, γυναιξί, γυναῖκ-ας.  The gen. and dat. of all numbers accent the last syllable (cp. ἀνήρ). Comic poets have A. γυνήν, γυνάς, N. pl. γυναί.

7. δάκρυον (τό) tear, δακρύου, etc., in prose and poetry. δάκρυ (τό) is usually poetic, D. pl. δάκρυσι.

8. δένδρον (τό) tree, δένδρου, etc. Also D. sing. δένδρει, pl. δένδρη, δένδρεσι. Hdt. has δένδρον, δένδρεον and δένδρος.

9. δέος (τό) fear (δεεσ-), δέους, δέει. Hom. δείους, 55 D. Cp. 265.

10. δόρυ (τό) spear, δόρατ-ος, δόρατ-ι, pl. δόρατ-α, etc. Poetic δορ-ός, δορ-ί (also in prose) and δόρ-ει (like ἄστει). Ionic and poetic δούρατ-ος, etc., Epic also δουρ-ός δουρ-ί, dual δοῦρ-ε, pl. δοῦρ-α, δούρ-ων, δούρ-εσσι (250 D. 2). The forms with ου are from δορϜ- (37 D. 1).

11. ἔρως (ὁ) love, ἔρωτ-ος, etc. Poetical ἔρος, ἔρῳ, ἔρον. Cp. 257 D.

12. Ζεύς (ὁ) Zeus, Δι-ός, Δι-ί, Δί-α, Ζεῦ.  Ζεύς is from Διευς, Δι-ός, etc., from ΔιϜ-.  Ionic and poetic Ζηνός, Ζηνί, Ζῆνα.

14. κάρᾱ (τό) head (poetic) used in Attic only in N. A. V. sing., but dat. κάρᾳ.  Other cases are from the stem κρᾱτ-, G. κρᾱτ-ός, D. κρᾱ-τί; also τὸ κρᾶτ-α N. A. sing., κρᾶτ-ας A. pl.

Epic shows the stems κρᾱατ-, κρᾱτ-, καρηατ-, καρητ-. N. κάρη, G. κρά̄ατος, κρᾱτός, καρήατος, κάρητος, D. κρά̄ατι, κρᾱτί, καρήατι, κάρητι, A. κάρ. N. pl. κάρᾱ, κρά̄ατα, καρήατα, and κάρηνα, G. κρά̄των, καρήνων, D. κρᾱσί, A. κρᾶτα.

15. κύων: (ὁ, ἡ) dog, κυν-ός, κυν-, κύν-α, κύον; κύν-ε, κυν-οῖν; κύν-ες, κυν-ῶν, κυσί, κύν-ας.

16. λᾶας (ὁ) stone, poetic also λᾶς, G. λᾶος (or λά̄ου), D. λᾶϊ̈, A. λᾶαν, λᾶα; dual λᾶε; pl. λᾶ-ες, λά̄-ων, λά̄-εσσι, λά̄-εσι.

17. μάρτυς (ὁ, ἡ) witness, μάρτυρ-ος, etc., but D. pl. μάρτυ-σι. Hom. has N. μάρτυρος, pl. μάρτυροι.

18. Οἰδίπους (ὁ) Oedipus, G. Οἰδίποδος, Οἰδίπου, Οἰδιπόδᾱ (Dor.), D. Οἰδίποδι, A. Οἰδίπουν, Οἰδιπόδᾱν, V. Οἰδίπους, Οἰδίπου.


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19. ὄνειρος (ὁ) and ὄνειρον (τό, Ionic and poetic) dream, ὀνείρου, etc., but also ὀνείρατ-ος, etc. τὸ ὄναρ only in N. A.

20. ὄρνῑς (ὁ, ἡ) bird (257). A. ὄρνῑθα and ὄρνῑν (247). Poetic ὄρνῐς, A. ὄρνῐν; pl. N. ὄρνεις, G. ὄρνεων, A. ὄρνεις or ὄρνῑς. Dor. G. ὄρνῑχ-ος, etc.

21. ὄσσε dual, two eyes, pl. G. ὄσσων, D. ὄσσοις (-οισι).

22. οὖς (τό) ear, ὠτ-ός, ὠτ-ί, pl. ὦτ-α, ὤτ-ων (252 a), ὠσί; from the stem ὠτ- contracted from οὐ(σ)ατ-, whence ὁ(υ̯)ατ-. οὖς is from ὀος, whence also the Doric nom. ὦς. Hom. G. οὔατ-ος, pl. οὔατ-α, οὔασι and ὠσί.

23. Πνύξ (ἡ) Pnyx (128), Πυκν-ός, Πυκν-, Πύκν-α, and also Πνυκ-ός, Πνυκ-ί, Πνύκ-α.

24. πρεσβευτής (ὁ) envoy has in the pl. usually the forms of the poetic πρέσβυς old man, properly an adj., old. Thus, N. sing. πρεσβευτής, G. πρεσβευτοῦ, etc., N. pl. πρέσβεις, G. πρέσβεων, D. πρέσβεσι, A. πρέσβεις (rarely πρεσβευταί, etc.). πρέσβυς meaning old man is poetic in the sing. (A. πρέσβυν, V. πρέσβυ) and pl. (πρέσβεις); meaning envoy πρέσβυς is poetic and rare in the sing. (dual πρεσβῆ from πρεσβεύς). πρεσβύ̄της old man is used in prose and poetry in all numbers.25πῦρ (τό) fire (πῠρ-, 254 b), πυρ-ός, πυρ-ί, pl. τὰ πυρά watch-fires, 2nd decl.

26. ὕδωρ (τό) water, ὕδατ-ος, ὕδατ-ι, pl. ὕδατ-α, ὑδάτ-ων, etc. Cp. 253 b.

27. υἱός (ὁ) son has three stems:  1. υἱο-, whence υἱοῦ, etc., according to the 2nd decl. 2. υἱυ-, whence υἱέος, υἱεῖ, dual υἱεῖ, υἱέοιν, pl. υἱεῖς, υἱέων, υἱέσι, υἱεῖς.  The stems υἱο- and υἱυ-, usually lose their ι (43): ὑοῦ, ὑέος, etc.  3. υἱ- in Hom. G. υἷος, D. υἷι, A. υἷα, dual υἷε, pl. υἷες, υἱάσι, υἷας.

28. χείρ (ἡ) hand, χειρ-ός, χειρ-ί, χεῖρ-α; dual χεῖρ-ε, χερ-οῖν; pl. χεῖρ-ες, χειρ-ῶν, χερ-σί, χεῖρ-ας.  Poetic also χερ-, χερ-ί, etc.; dual, χειρ-οῖν.  Att. inscr. have χειροῖν, χειρσί.  Hom. agrees with Att. prose and Hdt. except that he has also χερ-ί, χείρ-εσσι χείρ-εσι.

29. χρώς (ὁ) skin, χρωτ-ός, χρωτ-ί (but χρῷ in the phrase ἐν χρῷ), χρῶτα.  Poetic χρο-ός, χρο-ί, χρό-α, like αἰδώς, 266.


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