H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar Notes

Part 1 27-76

 

 

 

 

28 D. Metrical lengthening. Many words, which would otherwise not fit into the verse, show in the Epic ει for ε, ου (rarely οι ) for ο, and ᾱ, ῑ, ῡ for α, ι, υ.  Thus, εἰνάλιος in the sea for ἐνάλιος, εἰαρινός vernal for ἐαρινός, ὑπείροχος eminent for ὑπέροχος, εἰληλυθα have come for ἐλήλυθα, οὐλόμενος destructive, accursed for ὀλόμενος, οὔρεα mountains from ὅρος, Οὐλύμοιο of Olympus from Ὄλυμπος. ο before a vowel appears as οι in πνοιή breath. Similarly, ἠγόθεος very holy for ἀγάθεος; but ἠνεμόεις windy (from ἄνεμος ) has the η of ὑπήνεμος under the wind (29), and τιθήμενος placing (for τιθέμενος ) borrows j from τίθημι.

A short syllable under the rhythmic accent (`ictus') is lengthened metrically: (1) in words having three or more short syllables: the first of three shorts (οὐλόμενος), the second of four shorts (ὑπείροχος), the third of five shorts (ἀπερείσια boundless); (2) in words in which the short ictus syllable is followed by two longs and a short (Οὐλύμποιο).  A short syllable not under the rhythmic accent is lengthened when it is preceded and followed by a long; thus, any vowel preceded by Ϝ (πνείω breathe = πνεϜω), ι or υ before a vowel (προθῡμί̄ῃσι zeal).

 

 

 

30 D. 1. Doric and Aeolic retain original ᾱ, as in μᾶλον apple (cp. Lat. malum, Att. μῆλον), κᾶρυξ herald (Att. κῆρυξ).  But Doric and Aeolic have original η when η interchanges with ε, as in τίθημι I place, τίθεμεν we place, μά̄τηρ μᾱτέρα mother, ποιμήν ποιμένι shepherd.

2. Ionic has η after ε, ι, and ρ.  Thus, γενεή, σκιή, ἡμέρη.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33 D. α for ε:  ἱαρός sacred, Ἄρταμις (for  Ἄρτεμις), τράπω turn Dor.; ε for α:  θέρσος courage Aeol., ἔρσην male, ὀρέω see, τέσερρες four ( = τέταρρες) Ion.; α for ο:  διᾱκατίοι (for διᾱκόσιοι) 200 Dor., ὑπά under Aeol.; ο for α: στρότος (στρατός) army, ὄν (ἀνά) up Aeol., τέτορες (τεπτταρες) four Dor.; ε for η: ἔσσων inferior (ἤττων) Ion.; ε for ο:  Ἀπέλλων Dor. (also Ἀπόλλων); ε for ει:  μέζων greater Ion.; ε for ι: κέρνᾱν mix (= κιρνάναι for κεραννύναι) Aeol.; ι for ε:  ἱστίν hearth Ion., ἱστίᾱ Dor. (for ἑστίᾱ), χρύσιος (χρύσεος) golden Aeol., θιός god Boeot., κοσμίω arrange Dor.; υ for α:  πίσυρες four (τέταρρες) Hom.; υ for ο: ὄνυμα name Dor., Aeol., ἀπύ from Aeol.; ω for ου: ὦν accordingly Ion., Dor.

 

 

 

 

 

34 D. Often in Ionic: Ἀτρεΐδεω from earlier Ἀτρεΐδᾱο son of Atreus, ἱκέτεω from ἱκέτᾱο suppliant. This εω generally makes a single syllable in poetry (60). The ηο intermediate between ᾱο and εω is rarely found. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37 D. 1. Ionic agrees with Attic except where the omitted consonant was Ϝ, which in Attic disappeared after a consonant without causing lengthening. Thus, ξεῖνος for ξένος stranger, εἵνεκα on account of (also in Dem.) for ἕνεκα, οὖρος boundary for ὄρος, κοῦρος boy for κόρος, μοῦνος alone for μόνος.  These forms are also used generally in poetry.

2. Doric generally lengthens ε and ο to η and ω:  ξῆνος, ὦρος, κῶρος, μῶνος.  So μῶσα muse from μονσα for μοντι̯α, τώς for τόνς the, ἠμί am for ἐσμι, χηλίοι 1000 for χεσλιοι, Ionic χείλιοι.  (In some Doric dialects Ϝ drops as in Attic (ξένος, ὄρος); and ανς, ονς may become ᾰς, ος:  δεσπότᾰς lords, τός the.)

3. Aeolic has αις, εις (a genuine diphth.), οις from ανς, ενς, ονς.  Thus, παῖσα all (Cretan πάνσα, Att. πᾶσα, λύ̄οισι they loose from λύ̄οντι.  Elsewhere Aeol. prefers assimilated forms (ἔμεννα, ἔκλιννα, ξέννος, ἕννεκα, ὄρρος, ἔμμι, χέλλιοι).  But single ν, ρ are also found, as in κόρᾱ, μόνος.  Aeolic has φθέρρω, κλίννω, ὀλοφύρρω; cp. 37 a.

 

 

 

 

39 D. In the Ionic genitive of stems (214 D. 8) -εων is from -ηων out of -ᾱων.  So in Ionic βασιλέα from βασιλῆα king.  So even before a short vowel in Hom. ἤρω̆ος, ἤρω̆ι hero (cp. 148 D. 3).

 

 

 

43 D. So in Hdt. κέεται for κείεται lies, βαθέα for βαθεῖα deep

 

 

 

44 a. D. Cp. Hom. θεοί A 18 (one syllable). ι becomes ι ̯ in Hom. πόλιος (two syllables) Hom. Il. 21.567ι rarely disappears:  δῆμον for δήμιον belonging to the people M 213.

47 D. Hiatus is allowed in certain cases.

1. In epic poetry: a. After ι and υ : ἄξωνι, ἀμφίς, σύ ἐσσι.

b. After a long final syllable having the rhythmic accent: μοι ἐθέλουσα ().

c. When a long final syllable is shortened before an initial vowel (weak, or improper, hiatus): ἀτῇ ἐφ ὑψηλῇ ().

d. When the concurrent vowels are separated by the caesura; often after the fourth foot: ἀλλ ἀγ ἐμῶν ὀχέων ἐπιβήσεο, | ὀφρα ἴδηαι; very often between the short syllables of the third foot (the feminine caesura): as, αλλ ἀκέουσα κάθησο, | ἐμῷ δ ἐπιπείθεο μύθῳ; rarely after the first foot: αὐτὰρ ὁ ἔγνω A 333.

e. Where Ϝ has been lost.

2. In Attic poetry hiatus is allowable, as in 1 c, and after τί what? εὖ well, interjections, περὶ concerning, and in οὐδὲ (μηδὲ) εἷς (for οὐδείς, μηδείς no one).

 

 

 

 

50 D. ι + ι = ι occurs chiefly in the Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic dative singular of nouns in -ις (268 D.), as in πόλιι = πόλι; also in the optative, as in φθι-ι-τι = φθῖτο.

 
 

 

 

 

55 D. In Hom. δεῖος of fear from δέε(σ)-ος the first two vowels unite.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

59 D. Attic contracts more, Ionic less, than the other dialects. The laws of contraction often differ in the different dialects.

1. Ionic (Old and New) is distinguished by its absence of contraction. Thus, πλόος for πλοῦς voyage, τείχεα for τείχη walls, ὀστέα for ὀστᾶ bones, ἀοιδή for ᾠδή song, ἀεργός for ̄ργός idle. The Mss. of Hdt. generally leave εε, εη uncontracted; but this is probably erroneous in most cases. Ionic rarely contracts where Attic does not:  ὀγδώκοντα for ὀγδοήκοντα eighty.

2. εο, εω, εου generally remain open in all dialects except Attic. In Ionic εω is usually monosyllabic.  Ionic (and less often Doric) may contract εο, εου to ευ : σεῦ from σέο of thee, φιλεῦσι from φιλέουσι they love.

3. αο, ᾱο, αω, ᾱω contract to in Doric and Aeolic. Thus, Ἀτρειδᾱ from Ἀτρείδᾱο, Dor. γελᾶντι they laugh from γελάοντι, χωρᾶν from χωρά̄ων of countries. In Aeolic οᾱ = ᾱ in βᾱθόεντι (Ion. βωθόεντι) = Att. βοηθοῦντι aiding (dative).

4. Doric contracts αε to η; αη to η; αει, αῃ to ῃ.  Thus, νκη from νκαε conquer! ὁρῇ from ὁράει and ὁράῃ; but ᾱε = ᾱ (ἅλιος from ̄έλιος, Hom. ἡέλιος sun).

5. The Severer (and earlier) Doric contracts εε to η, and οε, οο to ω.  Thus, φιλήτω from φιλεέτω, δηλῶτε from δηλόετε, ἵππω from ἵππο-ο (230 D.); the Milder (and later) Doric and N. W. Greek contract to ει, and συ.  Aeolic agrees with the Severer Doric.