H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar Notes

Part 1 263-285

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

264 D. 1. Hom. uses the open or the closed forms according to convenience. -ευς occurs in the gen. of a few words in -ος (βέλευς); -εων is often a monosyllable (60), as is the accus. sing. and pl. -εα from nom. -ης or -ος. Hdt. has open -εος, -εα, -εες (?), -εα. In the dat. pl. Hom. has βέλεσσι, βέλεσι, and βελέεσσι (250 D. 2) from βέλος missile.

2. Stems in ας are generally uncontracted in Hom. (γήραος, γήραϊ), but we find -αι in the dat. sing., κρεῶν and κρειῶν in the gen. pl. In the nom. and acc. pl. α is short (γέρᾰ), and this is sometimes the case even in Attic poetry (κρέᾰ).  The explanation is obscure (γέρᾰ does not stand for γέρα').  Hom. has δέπασσι and δεπάεσσι (δέπας cup).

3. In Hom. and Hdt. several words in -ας show ε for α before a vowel (cp. ὁρέω in Hdt. for ὁράω). Hom.οὖδας ground, οὔδεος, οὔδεϊ and οὔδει; κῶας fleece, κώεα, κώεσι; Hdt.γέρας, γέρεος, but κρέας, κρέως, κρεῶν.  In Attic poetry:  βρέτας image, βρέτεος, βρέτει, etc. Cp. 258 D.

 

 

 

 

265 D. Hom. has κλέα (for κλέα'?), and from -κλῆς:  -ῆος, -ῆι; Hdt.-έος (for -έεος), -έϊ, -εᾰ.  For -ῆος, -ῆα the open -έεος, -έεα may be read. Attic poetry often has the open forms -έης (also in prose inscrip.), -έει, -εες.

 

 

 

 

266 D. Hom. and Ion. ἡ ἠώς dawn (ἠοσ-) is inflected like αἰδώς. For αἰδοῦς, ἠῶα we may read αἰδόος, ἠόα and some other open forms in Hom. The Attic form ἕως is declined according to 238; but the accus. is ἕω (238 d). Hom. has ἱδρόα from ἱδρώς sweat (usually a τ stem). Cp. 257 D.

 

 

 

 

267 D. Hom. has ἥρωϊ (for ἥρῳ read ἡρω̆ϊ), ἥρωα (or ἥρω'), ἥρωες ἥρωας, Μίνωα and Μίνω.  Hdt. has the gen. Μίνω and Μίνωος.  the acc. πάτρων, ἥρων, but μήτρωα.

268 D. 1. ι stems. a. Doric, Aeolic, and New Ionic retain the ι stem without variation in all cases: πόλις, πόλιος, πόλῑ (from πολι-ι) and rarely πόλει in Hdt., πόλιν, πόλι, πόλιες, πολίων, πόλισι, πόλῑς from πόλινς (Cretan), and πόλιας.

b. Hom. has πόλις, πόλιος, πόλῑ, πόλει or -ιϊ (for which some read πόλῑ, as κόνῑ; πόσεϊ is correct) and πτόλεϊ, πόλιν, πόλι; pl. πόλιες, πολίων, πόλεσι (some read instead πόλισι) or πολίεσσι (250 D. 2) ἐπάλξεσιν, πόλῑς or πόλιας (πόλεις appears in some texts).

c. Hom. has also forms with η:  πόληος, πόληι, πόληες, πόληας.

2. υ stems. a. Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic have the open forms πήχεες, ἄστεϊ, ἄστεα; in the gen. sing. -ος, never -ως (πήχεος, ἄστεος). In the dat. sing. of words of more than one syllable Hom. has -υϊ or -υι, as νέκυι (νέκυς corpse), but Hdt. does not show -υι.

b. The gen. pl. has the regular accent (πηχέων, ἀστέων). On the dat. πελέκεσσι, νέκυσσι, πίτυσσι (some would read νέκῡσι, πίτῡσι), νεκύεσσι, see 250 D. 2. Hom. has accus. ἰχθῦς and ἰχθύας, Hdt. has ἰχθύας very rarely.

 

 

 

 

274 D. Hom. has ὄϊς, ὀΐος and οἰός, ὄϊν, ὄϊες, ὀΐων and οἰῶν, ὀΐεσσι (οἴεσσι ο 386) and ὄεσσι, ὄϊς(ῑ).