H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar (First Edition)

Part 2, 211-227


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SUBSTANTIVES


FIRST DECLENSION (STEMS IN )


211. Stems in are masculine or feminine. The feminine nominative singular ends in -ᾱ, -ᾰ, or -η; the masculine nominative singular adds to the stem, and thus ends in -ᾱς or -ης.

212. Table of the union of the case endings (when there are any) with the final vowel of the stem.

Fem. Sing.

Masc. Sing.

Masc. Fem.Pl.

Masc. Fem. Dual

Nom.

ᾱ 

or

η

ᾱ-ς

η-ς

α-ι

N. A. V.

Gen.

ᾱ-ς

or η-ς

η-ς

ᾱ-ιο (Hom. ᾱ-ο)

ῶν (for έ-ων, ά̄-ων)

G. D.

α-ιν

Dat.

ᾱ-ι

or η-ι

η-ι

ᾱ-ι

η-ι

α-ις or α-ισι(ν)

a

Acc.

ᾱ 

or ᾰ-ν

η-ν

α̅-ν

η-ν

α̅ς (for ᾰ-νς)

Voc.

or

η

or η

α-ι

Observe the shortening of the stem in vocative singular and plural, in nominative and dative plural, and genitive and dative dual.


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213. Accent. For special rule of accent in the genitive plural, see 208. The genitive plural is always perispomenon since -ῶν is contracted from -έ-ων derived from original (and Hom.) -ά̄-ων (51). Final -αι is treated as short (169).

a. The form of the gen. pl. is taken from the pronominal adjective, i.e. (Hom.) θεά̄ων goddesses follows the analogy of (Hom.) τά̄ων (332 D.) for τᾱ- (ς)ων, cf. Lat. istā-rum deā-rum.

214. The dialects show various forms.

215. Dative Plural. The ending -αισι(ν) occurs in Attic poetry (δίκαισι from δίκη right, δεσπόταισι from δεσπότης lord).

a. Attic inscriptions to 420 B. C. have -ῃσι (written -ηισι), -ησι, and (after ε, ι, ρ) -ᾳσι (written -αισι) and -ᾱσι.  Thus, δραχμῇσι and δραχμῆσι drachmas, ταμίᾳσι and ταμίᾱσι stewards. -ησι and -ᾱσι are properly endings of the locative case (341).


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216.

I. FEMININES

singular

ἡ χώρᾱ

ἡ νί̄κη

ἡ φυγή

ἡ μοῖρα

ἡ γλῶττα

ἡ θάλαττα

(χωρᾱ-)

(νῑκᾱ-)

(φυγᾱ-)

(μοιρᾱ-)

(γλωττᾱ-)

(θαλαττᾱ-)

land

victory

flight

fate

tongue

sea

Nom.

χώρᾱ

νί̄κη

φυγή

μοῖρα

γλῶττα

θάλαττα

Gen.

χώρᾱς

νί̄κης

φυγῆς

μοίρᾱς

γλώττης

θαλάττης

Dat.

χώρᾳ

νί̄κῃ

φυγῇ

μοίρᾳ

γλῶττα-ν

θαλάττῃ

Acc.

χώρᾱ-ν

νί̄κη-ν

φυγή-ν

μοῖρα-ν

γλῶττα-ν

θάλαττα-ν

Voc.

χώρᾱ

νί̄κη

φυγή

μοῖρα

γλῶττα

θάλαττα

dual

N. A. V.

χώρᾱ

νί̄κᾱ

φυγά̄

μοίρᾱ

γλώττᾱ

θαλάττᾱ

G. D.

χώραιν

νί̄καιν

φυγαῖν

μοίραιν

γλώτταιν

θαλάτταιν

plural

N. V.

χῶραι

νῖκαι

φυγαί

μοῖραι

γλῶτται

θάλατται

Gen.

χωρῶν

νῑκῶν

φυγῶν

μοιρῶν

γλωττῶν

θαλαττῶν

Dat.

χώραις

νί̄καις

φυγαῖς

μοίραις

γλώτταις

θαλάτταις

Acc.

χώρᾱς

νί̄κᾱς

φυγά̄ς

μοίρᾱς

γλώττᾱς

θαλάττᾱς

ὥρᾱ season, ἡμέρᾱ day, σκιά̄ shadow, μάχη battle, τέχνη art, γνώμη judgment, τῑμή honor, ἀρετή virtue, μοῦσα muse, πρῶρα prow, ἅμαξα wagon, δόξα opinion.

217. Rules. a. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a vowel (σκιά̄ shadow) or ρ (μοῖρα), alpha is kept throughout the singular.

b. If the nominative singular ends in alpha preceded by a consonant not ρ, alpha is changed to η in the genitive and dative singular.

c. If the nominative singular ends in η, η is kept in all the cases of the singular.

d. When the genitive singular has -ης, final α of the nominative singular is always short; when the genitive singular has -ᾱς, the final α is generally long.

Feminines fall into two classes:

218. (I) Feminines with or η in all the cases of the singular.

After ε, ι, or ρ, ᾱ appears in all the cases of the singular, as in γενεά̄ race, οἰκίᾱ house, χώρᾱ land. Otherwise, η throughout the singular, as νί̄κη victory.

a. After ο, we find both and η, as στοά̄ porch, βοή shout, ἀκοή hearing, ὁͅοή current, ῥόᾱ pomegranate. After ρ we have η in κόρη girl, δέρη neck (31).

219(II) Feminines with in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular. The quantity of the vowel is generally shown by the accent (163, 164).

In this class are included:

1. Substantives having σ (ξ, ψ, ττ, or σς), ζ, λλ, or αιν before the final α show in nom., accus., and voc. sing., and η in gen. and dat. sing. Thus,


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μοῦσα muse, μούσης, μούσῃ, ἅμαξα wagon, τράπεζα table, γλῶττα tongue, ῥίζα root, ἅμιλλα contest, λέαινα lioness. Others are τόλμα daring, δίαιτα mode of life, ἄκανθα thorn, μυῖα fly.

2. Substantives in in nom., accus., and voc. sing., and in gen. and dat. sing.

a. Substantives in -εια and -τρια denoting females, as βασίλεια queen (but βασιλείᾱ kingdom), ψάλτρια female harper; so the fem. of adj. in -υς, as γλυκύς, γλυκεῖα sweet.

b. Abstracts in -εια and -οια from adjectives in -ης and -οος, as ἀλήθεια truth (from ἀληθής true), εὔνοια good will (from εὔνους, εὔνοος kind, 290).

c. Most substantives in -ρα after a diphthong or ῡ, as μοῖρα fate, γέφῡρα bridge.

220Exceptions to 219, 1κόρση temple (later κόρρη), ἕρση dew; to 2 b:  in Attic poetry, ἀληθείᾱ, εὐνοίᾱ, ἀγνοίᾱ ignorance, which owe their to the influence of the genitive and dative ἀληθείᾱς, ἀληθείᾳ, etc.

221Most, if not all, of the substantives in are formed by the addition of the suffix ι ̯α or ια (20); thus, γλῶττα from γλωχ-ι ̯α (cp. γλωχῖν-ες points), γέφῡρα from γεφυρ-ι ̯α, δότειρα giver from δοτερ-ι ̯α (and so φέρουσα bearing from φεροντι ̯α), μοῖρα from μορ-ι ̯α, ψάλτρ-ια.

222.

II. MASCULINES

singular

ὁ νεᾱνίᾱς

ὁ πολί̄της

ὁ κριτής

Ἀτρείδης

(νεᾱνιᾱ-)

(πολῑτᾱ-)

(κριτᾱ-)

(Ἀτρειδᾱ-)

young man

citizen

judge

son of Atreus

Nom

νεᾱνίᾱ-ς

πολί̄τη-ς

κριτή-ς

Ἀτρείδη-ς

Gen.

νεᾱνίου

πολί̄του

κριτοῦ

Ἀτρείδου

Dat.

νεᾱνίᾱͅ

πολί̄τῃ

κριτῇ

Ἀτρείδῃ

Acc.

νεᾱνίᾱ-ν

πολί̄τη-ν

κριτή-ν

Ἀτρείδη-ν

Voc.

νεᾱνίᾱ

πολῖτα

κριτά

Ἀτρείδη

dual

N. A. V.

νεᾱνίᾱ

πολί̄τᾱ

κριτά̄

Ἀτρείδᾱ

G. D.

νεᾱνίαιν

πολί̄ταιν

κριταῖν

Ἀτρείδαιν

pluaral

N. V.

νεᾱνίαι

πολῖται

κριταί

Ἀτρεῖδαι

Gen.

νεᾱνιῶν

πολῑτῶν

κριτῶν

Ἀτρειδῶν

Dat.

νεᾱνίαις

πολί̄ταις

κριταῖς

Ἀτρείδαις

Acc.

νεᾱνίᾱς

πολί̄τᾱς

κριτά̄ς

Ἀτρείδᾱς

ταμίᾱς steward, Αἰνείᾱς Aeneas, ναύτης sailor, τοξότης bowman, στρατιώτης soldier, δεσπότης ruler, μαθητής pupil, ποιητής poet Πέρσης Persian.

223.  Accent. The vocative of δεσπότης lord is δέσποτα. 


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224 and η. In the final syllable of the singular appears after ε, ι, and ρ; otherwise we find η. Cp. 218.

a. Exceptions are compounds in -μέτρης: γεω-μέτρης measurer of land.

225.  Genitive singular. The form in -ου is borrowed from the genitive singular of the second declension. A few words in -ᾱς, generally names of persons not Greeks, have -ᾱ, the Doric genitive (214 D. 5): Ἀννίβᾱς Hannibal, gen. Ἀννίβᾱ.

226.  Vocative singular. Masculines in -ᾱς have the vocative in -ᾱ (νεᾱνίᾱ); those in -της have -ᾰ (πολῖτα), all others in -ης have -η (Ἀτρείδη, Κρονίδη son of Kronos) except names of nations and compounds: Πέρσᾰ Persian, Σκύθᾰ Scythian, γεω-μέτρᾰ (nom. γεω-μέτρης measurer of land), παιδο-τρίβᾰ gymnastic master.


CONTRACTS (FEMININES AND MASCULINES)


227. Contracts in or η from εᾱ or αᾱ have the circumflex in all the cases: nominative feminine -ᾶ, -ῆ, masculine -ᾶς, -ῆς.

singular

ἡ μνᾶ mina

ἡ σῡκῆ fig tree

ὁ Βορρᾶς Boreas

ὁ Ἑρμῆς Hermes

(μνᾱ- for

(σῡκη- for

(Βορρᾱ- for

(Ἑρμη- for

μναᾱ-)

σῡκεᾱ-)

Βορεᾱ- 117)

Ἑρμεᾱ-)

Nom.

μνᾶ

σῡκῆ

Βορρᾶ-ς

Ἑρμῆ-ς

Gen.

μνᾶς

σῡκῆς

Βορροῦ

Ἑρμοῦ

Dat.

μνᾷ

σῡκῇ

Βορρᾷ

Ἑρμῆ

Acc.

μνᾶ-ν

σῡκῆ-ν

Βορρᾶ-ν

Ἑρμῆ-ν

DUAL

N. A. V.

μνᾶ

σῡκᾶ

Ἑρμᾶ

G. D.

μναῖν

σῡκαῖν

Ἑρμαῖν

PLURAL

N. V.

μναῖ

σῡκαῖ

Ἑρμαῖ

Gen.

μνῶν

σῡκῶν

Ἑρμῶν

Dat.

μναῖς

σῡκαῖς

Ἑρμαῖς

Acc.

μνᾶς

σῡκᾶς

Ἑρμᾶς

The dual and plural of  Ἑρμῆς mean statues of Hermes.

Other examples: ἡ Ἀθηνᾶ Athena (from  Ἀθηνα (ι)ᾱ-), γῆ earth (γεᾱ- or γαᾱ-) with no plural in Attic, ἡ γαλῆ weasel (γαλεᾱ-), ἡ ἀδελφιδῆ niece (ἀδελφιδεᾱ-), ὁ Ἀπελλῆς Apelles (Ἀπελλεᾱ-).

 

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