H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar (First Edition)

Part 2, 496-531


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verb-stem and present stem


496. From the verb-stem (or theme) the present stem is formed in several ways. All verbs are arranged in the present system according to the method of forming the present stem from the verbstem. Verbs are named according to the last letter of the verb-stem (376): 1. Vowel Verbs, 2. Liquid Verbs (including liquids and nasals), 3. Stop Verbs.

I. PRESENT SYSTEM

(PRESENT AND IMPERFECT ACTIVE AND MIDDLE)

497. The present stem is formed from the verb-stem in five different ways.  There are, therefore, five classes of present stems.  The verb-stem is sometimes the present stem, but usually it is strengthened in different ways.  A sixth class consists of irregular verbs, the present stem of which is not connected with the stem or stems of other tenses.

FIRST OR SIMPLE CLASS

498. Presents of the Simple Class are formed from the verb-stem with or without the thematic vowel.

499. (I) Presents with the thematic vowel (ω-verbs).  The present stem is made by adding the thematic vowel όε- to the verb-stem, as λύ̄-ω, παιδεύ-ω, παύ-ω, μέν-ω, πείθ-ω, φεύγ-ω, and the denominative verbs τῑμά-ω, φιλέ-ω, βασιλεύ-ω.  For the personal endings, see 463 ff.  For the derivation of many of these verbs, see 522.

500. The final vowel of the verb-stem is long in the present indicative, but either long or short in the other tense-stems, of the following verbs in -υω or -ιω.

1. a. Verbs in -υω generally have in Attic in the present; as λύ̄ω loose, δύ̄ω go under, θύ̄ω sacrifice (almost always), φύ̄ω make grow (usually).  Also in ἀλύ̄ω, ἀρτύ̄ω, βρενθύ̄ομαι, γηρύ̄ομαι, δακρύ̄ω (once ῠ), ἱδρύ̄ω, ἰσχύ̄ω, καττύ̄ω, κνύ̄ω,


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κωκύ̄ω, κωλύ̄ω (usually), μηνύ̄ω, ὀπύ̄ω (ὀπυίω), πτύ̄ω, ῥύ̄ομαι, στύ̄ομαι, τρύ̄ω, ὕ̄ει; possibly in εἰλύομαι, ἠμύω, μύω, ξύω, φλύω; ἐλινύω, μηρύομαι, πληθύω (once ῠ), φῑτύω. ὠρύω (ῡ̆) is doubtful.

b. -υω has υ short in ἀνύω, ἀρύω, βρύω, κλύω (but κλῦθι), μεθύω, and in all verbs in -νυω.

2. Attic has in primitive verbs in -ιω, as πρί̄ω, χρί̄ω, χλί̄ω, but in τίω.  Denominative verbs have ῑ; but ἐσθῐ́ω.

501. Several verbs with medial ῑ, ῡ in the present, show or ῑ, ῠ or in some other tense or tenses.  Thus, θλί̄βω press τέθλιφα, πνί̄γω choke ἐπνίγην, τρί̄βω rub τέτριφα ἐτρίβην, τύ̄φω raise smoke ἐτύφην, ψύ̄χω cool ἐψύχην.

502. Verb-stems having the weak grades α, ι, υ, show the strong grades η, ει, ευ in the present; as τήκ-ω (τᾰκ-) melt, λείπω (λιπ-) leave, φεύγω (φυγ-) flee.

a. To this class belong also λήθω, σήπω, τέθηπα am astonished, 2 aor. ἔταφον, ἀλείφω, (δέδοικα, 703), εἴκω (ἔοικα), (εἴωθα, 563 a), ἐρείκω, ἐρείπω, πείθω, στείβω, στείχω, φείδομαι; ἐρεύγομαι, κεύθω, πεύθομαι, τεύχω.

503. Present Stems in ο/ε- for ευο/ε-. The strong form ευ before the thematic vowel became εϜ (ευ) and then ε (20 a, 43) in the verbs θέω run θεύσομαι, νέω swim ἔνευσα, πλέω sail ἔπλευσα, πνέω breathe ἔπνευσα, ῥέω flow ῥεύσομαι, χέω pour κέχυκα, κέχυμαι, ἐχύθην.

504. (II) Presents without the thematic vowel (μι-verbs).  The personal ending is added directly to the verb-stem, which is often reduplicated.  The verb-stem shows different vowel grades, strong forms η, ω in the singular, weak forms ε (α), ο in the dual and plural.  Thus τί-θη-μι, τί-θε-μεν; ἵ-στη-μι for σι-στη-μι (= σι-στᾱ-μι), ἵ-στα-μεν; δί-δω-μι, δί-δο-μεν.

a. All verbs in μι (enumerated 723 ff) belong to this class except those in -νῡμι (523 f) and -νημι (523 g).

SECOND OR T CLASS (VERBS IN -πτω)

505. The present stem is formed by adding -τόε- to the verbstem, which ends in π, β, or φ.  The verb-stem is ascertained from the second aorist (if there is one) or from a word from the same root.


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κόπτω cut, verb-stem κοπ- in 2 aor. pass. ἐ-κόπ-ην.
βλάπτω injure,   "      " βλαβ-  "      "       " ἐ-βλάβ-ην.
καλύπτω cover,   "      " καλυβ-  "      "       " καλύβ-η hut.
ῥί̄πτω throw,   "      " ῥιφ-, ῥῑφ-  " 2 aor. pass. ἐ-ρρίφ-ην.

a. ἀστράπτω lightenχαλέπτω oppress may be from ι ̯ω (117, 507).

506. Some of the verbs of this class add ε in the present or other tenses, as ῥῑπτέω throwπεκτέω comb, τύπτω strike τυπήσω.

THIRD OR IOTA CLASS

507. The present stem is formed by adding -ι ̯ο/ε- to the verb-stem and by making the necessary euphonic changes (109-116).

presents in -ζω

508. Dental Verb-stems. Verb-stems in δ unite with ι ̯ to form presents in -ζω (116), as φράζω tell (φραδ-ι ̯ω), ἐλπίζω hope (ἐλπιδ-), κομίζω carry (κομιδ-ή a carrying), ὄζω smell (ὀδ-μή odour), καθέζομαι seat myself (ἕδ-ος seat).

a. σῴζω save (for σω-ιζω) forms its tenses partly from the verb-stem σω-, partly from the verb-stem σωι-.

509. Stems in γ. Some verbs in -ζω are derived from stems in γ preceded by a vowel; as ἁρπαζω seize for ἁρπαγ-ι ̯ω (cp. ἁρπαγ-ή seizure), κρά̄ζω cry out (2 aor. ἔκραγον).  See 116, other examples 623γIII.

a. νίζω wash makes its other tenses from the verb-stem νίβ- (fut. νίψω, cp. Hom. νίπτομαι).

510. A few verbs with stems in γγ lose one γ and have presents in -ζω; as κλάζω scream (κλαγγ-ή), fut. κλάγξω; σαλπίζω sound the trumpet ἐσάλπιγξα (also λύζω sob, πλάζω cause to wander).

511. ῥεγι ̯ω, ἐργι ̯ω yield ῥέζω do (poetic) and ἔρδω (Ionic and poetic). See 116.

512. Most verbs in -ζω are not formed from stems in δ or γ, but are due to analogy.  See 516, 623 γ III, 866. 6.

ii. presents in -ττω (ionic and later attic -σσω, 78)

513. Palatal Verb-stems. Stems ending in κ or χ unite with ι ̯ to form presents in -ττω (-σσω).

φυλάττω guard from φυλακ-ι ̯ω (φυλακ-ή guard (112)); κηρύ̄ττω proclaim from κηρῡκ-ι ̯ω (κῆρυξ, κήρῡκ-ος); ταράττω disturb from ταραχ-ι ̯ω (ταραχ-ή confusion).

a. πέττω cook is for πεκ-ι ̯ω; all other tenses are made from πεπ-.


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514. Several verbs showing forms in γ seem to unite γ with ι ̯ to form presents in -ττω (-σσω.)  Thus ἀλλάττω change, μάττω knead, πλήττω strike (with the 2 aorists passive ἠλλάγ-ην, ἐμάγ-ην, ἐπλήγ-ην), πρά̄ττω do (2 perf. πέπρᾱγα, 571), τάττω arrange (τᾱγ-ός commander).

a. So δράττομαι grasp, νάττω compress (515 b), νύττω push, πτύσσω fold, σάττω load, σῡρίττω pipe, σφάττω kill, φράττω fenceπρά̄ττω has the late perf. πέπρᾱχα.

515. Some presents in -ττω (-σσω) are formed from stems in τ, θ like those from κ, χ.

Poet. ἐρέσσω row (ἐρέτ-ης rower) aor. ἤρεσα; poet. κορύσσω arm (κόρυς κόρυθ-ος helmet), imperf. ἐκόρυσσε.

a. So also βλίττω take honey, πάττω sprinkle, πτίττω pound, and perhaps πλάττω form; also ἀφάσσω Hdt., and poetic ̄μάσσω, λαφύσσω, λίσσομαι.

b. νάττω compress (ναγ-, ναδ-) ἔναξα, νένασμαι and νέναγμαι.  Cp. 514 a.

516. Formations by Analogy. a. As γ ̈ ι ̯ and δ + ι ̯ unite to form ζ, none of the verbs in -ττω can be derived from -γι ̯ω or -δι ̯ω.  Since the future and aorist of verbs in -ζω might often seem to be derived from stems in κ, χ, or τ, θ, uncertainty arose as to these tenses:  thus the future σφάξω (σφαγ-σω) from Epic σφάζω slay (σφαγ-ι̯ω) was confused in formation with φυλάξω (φυλακ-σω), and a present σφάττω was constructed like φυλάττω.  Similarly, Attic ἁρπάσω (-ομαι) for Epic ἁρπάξω; and so in place of (poetic) ἁρμόζω fit (ἁρμοδ-) the form ἁρμόττω was constructed.

iii.  liquid and nasal stems

517. (I) Presents in -λλω are formed from verb-stems in λ, to which ι ̯ is assimilated (110).  Thus, ἀγγέλλω announce (ἀγγελ-ι ̯ω), στέλλω send (στελ-ι ̯ω).

518. (II) Presents in -αινω and -αιρω are formed from verb-stems in -αν and -αρ, the ι ̯ being thrown back to unite with the vowel of the verb-stem (111).  Thus, φαίνω show (φαν-ι ̯ω), ὀνομαίνω name (ὀνομαν-ι ̯ω), χαίρω rejoice (χαρ-ι ̯ω).

a. Many verbs add -ι ̯ω to the weak form of the stem, as ὀνομαίν-ω for ὀνομαν-ι ̯ω from ὀνομν̥-ι ̯ω, cp. nomen (35 b).

b. Hom. has κῡδαίνω and κῡδάνω honour, μελαίνω blacken and μελάνω grow blackὀλισθαίνω slip is late for ὀλισθάνω.

c. The ending αινω has been attached, by analogy, in θερμαίνω make hot, etc. (620 III, 866.7). Likewise -ῡνω (519) in poetic ἀρτύ̄νω prepare, parallel to ἀρτύ̄ω (in composition), by analogy to βαρύ̄νω weigh down, ἡδύ̄νω sweeten.


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519. (III) Presents in -εινω, -ειρω, -ῑνω, -ῑρω, -ῡνω, and -ῑρω are formed from stems in εν, ερ, ῐν, ῐρ, ῠν, ῠρ with ι ̯ο/ε- added.  Here ι ̯ disappears and the vowel preceding ν or ρ is lengthened by compensation to ει; ι to ῑ; υ to ῡ).  See 37 a, 111.

τείνω stretch (τεν-ι ̯ω), φθείρω destroy (φθερ-), κρί̄νω (κριν-), οἰκτί̄ρω pity (οἰκτιρ-) generally written οἰκτείρω, ἀμύ̄νω ward off (ἀμυν-), μαρτύ̄ρομαι call to witness (μαρτυρ-).

a. ὀφείλω (ὀφελ-) owe, am obliged is formed like τείνω, φθείρω in order to distinguish it from ὀφέλλω (ὀφελ-) increase formed regularly.  Hom. has usually Aeolic ὀφέλλω in the sense of ὀφείλω.  δείρω flay (δερ-ι ̯ω) is parallel to δέρ-ω (499).

520. Verb-stems in -αυ- for (αι ̯, -αϜ-). Two verbs with verb-stems in -αυ have presents in -αιω from -αιϜω out of Ϝ-ι ̯ω (38 a) : καίω burn (καυ-, καϜ-), fut. καύ-σω; and κλαίω weep (κλαυ-, κλαϜ-), fut. κλαύ-σομαι.  Others 624 b.

a. Attic prose often has κά̄ω and κλά̄ω, derived from αιϜ before ει (κά̄εις, and, with extended to the 1 person, κά̄ω).  Cp. 396.

521. Addition of ε. The following verbs add ε in one or more tense-stems other than the present:  βάλλω throw, καθίζω sit, κλαίω weep, ὄζω smell, ὀφείλω owe, am obliged, χαίρω rejoice.

522. Contracted Verbs and Some Verbs in -ιω, -υω. a. Verbs in -αω, -εω, -οω, which for convenience have been treated under the first class, properly belong here, ι ̯ (y) having been lost between vowels.  Thus, τῑμάω from τῑμα-ι ̯ω (τῑμᾱ-), οἰκέω dwell from οἰκε-ι ̯ω (οἰκε- alternate stem to οἰκο-, 229 b), δηλόω from δηλο-ι ̯ωSo in denominatives, as poetic μηνίω am wroth (μηνι-ι ̯ω), φῑτύ̄ω sow (φῑτυ-ι ̯ω).  Primitives in -ῑω, -ῡω are of uncertain origin.  Cp. 608, 624.

N. The rare spellings ἀλυίω, θυίω, μεθυίω, φυίω indicate their origin from -ι ̯ω.

b. So with stems in long vowels:  δρῶ do from δρᾱ-ι ̯ω, ζῶ live from ζη-ι ̯ω (cp. ζῆθι), χρῶ give oracles from χρη-ι ̯ω (2 pers. χρῇς, 394).

fourth or n class

523. The present stem of the N class is formed from the verbstem by the addition of a suffix containing ν.

a. -νόε- is added:  δάκ-νω bite, τέμ-νω cut.

So δύ̄νω, κάμνω, πί̄νω, πίτνω poet., τίνω, φθάνω, φθίνω.

b. -ανο/ε- is added:  αἰσθ-άν-ομαι perceive, ἁμαρτ-άν-ω err.

So αὐξάνω, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, οἰδάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω (526).

c. -ανο/ε- is added and a nasal (μ, ν, or γ nasal) inserted in the verb-stem: λα-μ-β-άν-ω (λαβ-) take, λα-ν-θ-άν-ω escape notice (λαθ-), τυ-γ-χ-άν-ω happen (τυχ-).

So ἁνδάνω please (ἁδ-), θιγγάνω touch (θιγ-), κιγχάνω find (κιχ-), λαγχάνω obtain by lot (λαχ-), μανθάνω learn (μαθ-), πυνθάνομαι inquire (πυθ-).

d. -νεο/ε- is added:  βῡ-νέ-ω stop up (also βύω), ἱκ-νέ-ο-μαι come (also ̄κω),


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κυ-νέ-ω kiss, ἀμπ-ισχ-νέ-ο-μαι have on, ὑπ-ισχ-νέ-ο-μαι promise (cp. ἴ-σχ-ω for σι-σχ-ω, 493 a).

e. -υνόε- is added:  ἐλαύνω drive for ἐλα-νυ-ω.

f. -νυ (-ννυ after a short vowel) is added (second class of μι-verbs, 414): δείκ-νῡ-μι show (δεικ-, present stem δεικνῡ-), ζεύγ-νῡ-μι yoke (ζευγ-), ὄλλῡμι destroy (for ὀλ-νῡμι, 77 a); κερά-ννῡ-μι mix (κερα-), σκεδά-ννῡ-μι scatter (σκεδα-).  Others 729 ff.  Some of these verbs have presents in -υω (746).

N. 1. The forms in -ννῡμι spread from ἕννῡμι, σβέννῡμι, which are derived from ἑσ-νῡμι, σβεσ-νῡμι.

N. 2. Some verbs in -νω are formed from Ϝο/ε- for ι ̯ο/ε-; as Hom. τί̄νω, φθί̄νω, φθά̄νω, ἄ̄νομαι from τι-νϜ-ω, etc., (37 D. 1). Attic τῐ́νω, etc. dropped the Ϝ.

g. -να, -νη are added (third class of μι-verbs 412); as in (poetic) δάμ-νη-μι I conquer, δάμ-να-μεν we conquer (δαμ-), and in σκίδ-νη-μι (rare in prose for σκεδάννῡμι) scatter.  The verbs of this class are chiefly poetic (Epic), and most have alternative forms in -αω.  See 737.

In two further divisions there is a transition to the Iota Class.

h. -ινο/ε- for -ν-ι ̯ο/ε is added:  βαίνω go (βα-ν-ι̯ω), κερδαίνω gain (κερδα-ν-ι̯̯ω) τετραίνω bore (τετρα-ν-ιω).  So poetic ῥαίνω sprinkle.  For the added ν, cp. δάκ-ν-ω (523 a).  See 518 a.

i. -αινο/ε- for αν-ι̯ο/ε is added:  ὀσφραίνομαι smell (ὀσφραν-ι ̯ομαι), Hom. ἀλιταίνομαι sin (also ἀλιτραίνω).  See 518 a.

524. A short vowel of the verb-stem is lengthened in the case of some verbs to form one or more of the tense-stems other than the present.  Thus, λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take λήψομαι (ληβ-); δάκνω (δακ-) bite δήξω (δηκ-). So λαγχάνω, λανθάνω, τυγχάνω, πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-) inquire, fut. πεύσομαι (πευθ-).

a. ζεύγνῡμι yoke, πήγνῡμι fasten, ῥήγνῡμι break have the strong grade in all tenses except the 2 pass. system.  μείγνῡμι mix (commonly written μί̄γνῡμι) has μῐγ- only in the 2 perf. and 2 pass. systems.

525. Addition of ε and ο. a. Many verbs add ε to the verb-stem to form all the tenses except present, 2 aorist, and 2 perfect; as αἰσθάνομαι, ἁμαρτάνω, ἁνδάνω, αὐξάνω, ἀπεχθάνομαι, βλαστάνω, δαρθάνω, κιγχάνω, μανθάνω, ὀλισθάνω, ὀφλισκάνω. One or more tenses with ε added are formed by κερδαίνω, ὄλλῡμι, ὀσφραίνομαι, στόρνῡμι, τυγχάνω.

b. ὄμνῡμι swear has ὀμο- in all systems except the present and future, as ὤμοσα, ὀμώμοκα, but fut. ὀμοῦμαι from ὀμεομαι.

fifth or inceptive class (verbs in -σκω

526. The present stem is formed by adding the suffix -σκόε- to the verb-stem if it ends in a vowel; -ισκόε- if it ends in a consonant.  Thus, ἀρέ-σκω please, εὑρ-ίσκω find.

a. This class is called inceptive (or inchoative) because some of the verbs belonging to it have the sense of beginning or becoming (cp. Lat. -sco); as γηράσκω grow old.  But very few verbs have this meaning.

b. In θνῄσκω die, μιμνῄσκω remind, -ισκω was later added to verb-stems ending in a vowel.  The older forms are θνήσκω, μιμνήσκω.


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c. The verb-stem is often reduplicated in the present; as γι-γνώ-σκω know, βι-βρώ-σκω eat, δι-δρά̄-σκω run away.  Poetic ἀρ-αρ-ίσκω fit, poetic ἀπ-αφ-ίσκω deceive, have the form of Attic reduplication. μίσγω may stand for μι-(μ)σγω.

d. A stop consonant is dropped before -σκω (99); as δι-δά(κ)-σκω teach (cp. δι-δακ-τός), ἀλύ(κ)-σκω avoid, λά(κ)-σκω speakπάσχω suffer is for πα(θ)-σκω (126).

e. The present stem often shows the strong grades ω (weak ο) and or η (weak α).  See b, c.  Weak grades appear in φάσκω say, βόσκω feed.

f. On the iteratives in -σκω see 495.

527. The following verbs belong to this class (poetic and Ionic forms are starred):

a. Vowel stems:  ἀλδήσκω * (ἀλδη-), ἀναβιώσκομαι * (βιο-), ἀρέσκω (ἀρε-), βάσκω * (βα- for βṇ-, 35 b), βιβρώσκω (βρο-), βλώσκω * (μολ-, μλο-, βλο-, 130 D.), βόσκω (βο-), γενειάσκω (cp. γενειάω), γηράσκω (γηρα-), γιγνώσκω (γνο-), δεδίσκομαι frighten, διδρά̄σκω (δρα-), ἡβά̄σκω (ἡβα-), ἠλάσκω * (ἠλα-), θνῄσκω (θαν-, θνα-), θρῴσκω * (θορ-, θρο-), ἱ̄άσκομαι (ἱ̄λα-), κικλήσκω * (καλε-, κλη-), κυΐσκομαι * (κυ-), μεθύσκω (μεθυ-), μιμνῄσκω (μνα-), πιπίσκω * (πι-), πιπρά̄σκω (πρα-), πινύσκω * (πινυ-), πιφαύσκω * (φαυ-), τιτρώσκω (τρο-), φάσκω (φα-), χάσκω * (χα-).

b. Consonant stems:  ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-), ἀλύσκω * (ἀλυκ-), ἀμβλίσκω (ἀμβλ- ἀμβλο-), ἀμπλακίσκω * (ἀμπλακ-), ἀνᾱλίσκω (ἀν-ᾱλ-ο-), ἀπαφίσκω * (ἀπ-αφ-), ἀραρίσκω * (ἀρ-), δεδίσκομαι * welcome (δε-δικ-) and δηδίσκομαι (usually written δειδ-) welcome, διδάσκω (διδαχ-), ἐΐσκω (ἐϊκ-), ἐπαυρίσκω * (αὐρ-), εὑρίσκω (εὑρ-ε-), λάσκω * (λακ-), μίσγω * (μιγ-), ὀφλισκάνω (ὀφλ-ε-), πάσχω (παθ-), στερίσκω (στερ-ε-), τιτύσκομαι * (τι-τυκ-), ὑλάσκω * (ὑλακ-), χρηΐσκομαι * (χρη-).

528. Addition of ε and ο. στερίσκω deprive (cp. στέρομαι) makes all the other tense-stems from στερε-; εὑρίσκω has εὑρε- except in the present and 2 aorist. ἁλίσκομαι am captured (ἁλ-) adds ο in other tense-stems.

sixth or mixed class

529. This class includes some irregular verbs, one or more of whose tense-stems are quite different from others, as Eng. am, was, be, Lat. sum, fui.  For the full list of forms see the List of Verbs.

1. αἱρέω (αἱρε-, ἑλ-) take, fut. αἱρήσω, ᾕρηκα, etc., 2 aor. εἷλον.

2. εἶδον (Ϝιδ-, ἰδ-) saw, vidi, 2 aorist (with no present act.); 2 pf. οἶδα know (794). Middle εἴδομαι (poetic). εἶδον is used as 2 aor. of ὁράω (see below).

3. εἶπον (εἰπ-, ἐρ-, ῥε-) spoke, 2 aor. (no pres.); fut. (ἐρέω) ἐρῶ, perf. εἴ-ρη-κα, εἴρημαι, aor. pass. ἐρρήθην.  The stem ἐρ- is for Ϝερ-, seen in Lat. ver-bum. (Cp. 492.) ῥε- is for Ϝρε, hence εἴρημαι for Ϝε-Ϝρη-μαι.

4. ἔρχομαι (ἐρχ-, ἐλευθ-, ἐλυθ-, ἐλθ-), go.  Fut. ἐλεύσομαι (usually poet.), 2 perf. ἐλήλυθα, 2 aor. ἦλθον.  The Attic future is εἶμι shall go (774).  The imperf. and the moods of the pres. other than the indic. use the forms of εἶμι.


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5. ἐσθίω (ἐσθ-, ἐδ-, φαγ-) eat, fut. ἔδομαι (541), pf. ἐδήδοκα, -ἐδήδεσμαι, ἠδέσθην, 2 aor. ἔφαγον.

6. ὁράω (ὁρα-, ὀπ-, Ϝιδ-) see, fut. ὄψομαι, perf. ἑώρᾱκα or ἑόρᾱκα, perf. mid. ἑώρᾱμαι or ὦμμαι (ὠπ-μαι), ὤφθην, 2 aor. εἶδον (see 2 above).

7. πάσχω (παθ-, πενθ-) suffer, fut. πείσομαι for πενθ-σομαι (100), 2 pf. πέπονθα, 2 aor. ἔπαθον. (See 526 d.)

8. πί̄νω (πι-, πο-) drink, from πί̄-ν-ω (523 a), fut. πί̄ομαι (541), pf. πέπωκα, 2 aor. ἔπιον, imp. πῖθι (466. 1, a, 687).

9. τρέχω (τρεχ- for θρεχ- (125 g), δραμ-, δραμε-) run, fut. δραμοῦμαι, pf. δεδράμηκα, 2 aor. ἔδραμον.

10. φέρω (φερ-, οἰ-, ἐνεκ-, by reduplication and syncope ἐν-ενεκ and ἐνεγκ-) bear; fut. οἴσω, aor. ἤνεγκα, perf. ἐν-ήνοχ-α (446, 478), ἐν-ήνεγ-μαι, aor. pass. ἠνέχθην.

11. ὠνέομαι (ὠνε-, πρια-) buy, fut. ὠνήσομαι, perf. ἐώνημαι, ἐωνήθην.  For ἐωνησάμην the form ἐπριάμην is used.

530. Apart from the irregularities of Class VI, some verbs may, by the formation of the verb-stem, belong to more than one class, as βαίνω (III, IV), ὀσφραίνομαι (III, IV), ὀφλισκάνω (IV, V).

531. Many verbs have alternative forms, often of different classes, as κῡδάνω κῡδαίνω honour, ̄κω ίκά̄νω come, μελάν-ω grow black, μελαίνω (μελαν-ι ̯ω) blacken, κλάζω (κλαγγ-) κλαγγ-άν-ω scream, σφάζω σφάττω slay (516). Cp. also ἀνύω ἀνύτω accomplish, ἀρύω ἀρύτω draw water, Hom. ἐρύ̄κω, ἐρῡκάνω, ἐρῡκανάω restrain.  Cp. 866. 10.

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