H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar (First Edition)

Part 2, 393-399


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126

REMARKS ON THE CONTRACTED VERBS

393. In the present optative active there are two forms: (1) that with the modal sign -ιη-, having in the 1 sing., and -σαν in the 3 pl.; (2) that with the modal sign -ῑ-, having -μι in the 1 sing., and -εν in the 3 pl. The first form is more common in the singular, the second in the dual and plural.

τῑμῴην (rarely τῑμῷμι), τῑμῷτον (rarely τῑμῴητον), τῑμῷμεν (rarely τῑμῴημεν), ποιοίην (rarely ποιοῖμι), ποιοῖτον (rarely ποιοίητον), ποιοῖμεν (rarely ποιοίημεν), δηλοίην (rarely δηλοῖμι), δηλοῖτον (rarely δηλοίητον), δηλοῖμεν (rarely δηλοίημεν).

394. Ten verbs in -αω show η where we expect ᾱ.  These are διψῶ thirst, ζῶ live, πεινῶ hunger, κνῶ scrape, νῶ spin (rare), σμῶ wash, χοῶ give oracles, χοῶ am eager for (rare), χρῶμαι use, and ψῶ rub.  See 641,


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395. ζῶ live and χρῶμαι use are inflected as follows in the present indicative, subjunctive and imperative and in the imperfect.

Indic. and Subj.

Imperative

Imperfect

S.  1.

ζῶ

χρῶμαι

ἔζων

ἐχρώμην

2.

ζῇς

χρῇ

ζῆ

χρῶ

ἔζης

ἐχρῶ

3.

ζῇ

χρῆται

ζήτω

χρήσθω

ἔζη

ἐχρῆτο

D.  2.

ζῆτον

χρῆσθον

ζῆτον

χρῆσθον

ἐζῆτον

ἐχρῆσθον

3.

ζῆτον

χρῆσθον

ζήτων

χρήσθων

ἐζήτην

ἐχρήσθην

P.  1.

ζῶμεν

χρῶμεθα

ἐζῶμεν

ἐχρώμεθα

2.

ζῆτε

χρῆσθε

ζῆτε

χρῆσθε

ἐζῆτε

ἐχρῆσθε

3.

ζῶσι

χρῶνται

ζώντων

χρήσθων

ἔζων

ἐχρῶντο

Infinitive:  ζῆν, χρῆσθαι

Participle:  ζῶν, χρώμενος

396. καίω burn, κλαίω weep, do not contract the forms in which ι has disappeared (38).  Thus, κά̄ω, κά̄εις, κά̄ει, κά̄ομεν, κά̄ετε, κά̄ουσι.

397. Verbs in -εω of two syllables do not contract ε with ο or ω.  The present and imperfect indicative of πλέω sail are inflected as follows.

πλέω πλέομεν ἔπλεον ἐπλέομον
πλεῖς πλεῖτον πλεῖτε ἔπλεις ἐπλεῖτον ἐπλεῖτε
πλεῖ πλεῖτον πλέουσι ἔπλει ἐπλείτην ἔπλεον

and so πλέω, πλέοιμι, πλεῖ, πλεῖν, πλέων, πλέουσα, πλέον.  In like manner θέω run, πνέω breathe.

a. δέω need has δεῖς, δεῖ it is necessary, δέῃ, δέοι, δεῖν, τὸ δέον what is necessary; δέομαι want, request, has δέει, δεῖται, δεόμεθα, δέωμαι.  But δέω bind is usually an exception, making δεῖς, δεῖ, δοῦμεν, ἔδουν bound, τὸ δοῦν that which binds, δοῦμαι, δοῦνται, but δεόμενον, δέον appear in some writers.

b. ξέω scrape contracts.  βδέω, ξέω and τρέω have lost ς; πλέω, θέω, πνέω have lost υ̯Ϝ; δέω need is for δευσω; δέω bind is for δει ̯ω.

398. Two verbs in -οω, ἱδρόω sweat, ῥῑγόω shiver, may have ω and instead of ον and οι.  See 641.

Thus, indic. ῥῑγῶ, ῥῑγῷς, ῥῑγῷ (or ῥῑγοῖ), opt. ῥῑγῴην, inf. ῥῑγῶν (or ῥῑγοῦν), part. ῥῑγῶν.  So ἱδρῶσι, opt. ἱδρώῃ (or ἱδροῑ), part. ἱδρῶν (or ἱδροῦν).

a. λούω wash, when it drops its υ (43), contracts like δηλόω.  Thus, λούω, λούεις, λούει, but λοῦμεν (for λο(ι ̯)ο-μεν), λοῦτε, λοῦσι; and so in other forms, as ἔλου, λοῦται, λοῦσθαι, λούμενος.

b. οἵομαι think (imperfect ᾠόμην) has the parallel forms οἶμαι (ᾤμην).

399. Movable ν is never (in Attic) added to the contracted 3 sing. imperfect (ἐποίει, not ἐποίειν).

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