ADORATION OF THE SACRAMENT: A term of the Roman Catholic Church, where, in consequence of the doctrine of transubatantiatiop which affirms the presence of Christ in the Eucharist under the species of bread and wine, divine worship is paid to the Sacrament of the altar, a worship that includes adoration. This adoration is manifested in various ways, especially in genuflexions and, if the Sacrament be solemnly exposed, in prostrations. Certain forms of devotion are intended to promote adoration of the Sacrament, notably the ceremony called Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, the Forty Hours Devotion, and the practise of perpetual adoration which secures the presence of adorers before the altar at all hours of the day and night. A congregation of priests the Society of Priests of the Most Holy Sacrament, is devoted particularly to the worship of Christ on the altar. JOHN T. CREAGH.

AD QUERCUM, SYNODUS. See CHRysosmom. ADRAMMELECH, a-dram'el-ec: 1. Name of a deity worshiped with child-sacrifice by the colonists whom Sargon, king of Assyria, transplanted from Sepharvaim to Samaria (II Kings xvii. 31; cf. xviii. 34; Isa. xxxvi. 19, xxxvii.- 13). Since Sepharvaim is probably the Syrian city Shabara'in, mentioned in a Babylonian chronicle as having been destroyed by Shalmaneser IV., the god Adrammelech is no doubt a Syrian divinity. The name has been explained as meaning " Adar the prince,"

" splendor of the king," and " fire-king," while others think that the original reading was " Adadmelech." Since the name is Aramaic, the last is to be preferred.

2. According to II Kings xix. 37 and Isa. xxxvii. 38, Adrammelech was the name of the son and murderer of the Assyrian king Sennacherib. The form corresponds to the " Adramelus " of Abydenus in the Armenian chronicle of Eusebius (ed. A. Sch6ne, i., Berlin, 1875, p. 35) and the " Ardumuzanus " of Alexander Polyhistor (p. 27).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: (1) Schrader, KAT, ii. 408, 450; P. Scholz. Gdteendienat and Zauberwesen bei den alien Hebraern, pp.

401-405, Ratiebon, 1877. (2) H. Winekler, Der M6rder Sanheriba, in ZA, ii. (1887) 392-396.

ADRIAN: Author of an extant Introduction to the Holy Scriptures, written in Greek. He was evidently a Greek-speaking Syrian; but nothing is to be learned of his life from the book. There is no doubt, however, that he is identical with the monk and presbyter Adrian to whom St. Nilus addressed three letters (ii. 60, iii. 118, 266, in MPG, lxxix. 225-227, 437, 516-517), and who lived in the first half of the fifth century. This work is no introduction in the modern sense, but a piece of Biblical rhetoric and didactics, aiming to explain the figurative phraseology of the Scriptures, especially of the Old Testament, from numerous examples. It closes with hints for correct exegesis. The hermeneutical and exegetical principles of the author are those of the Antiochian school. F. Gosaling edited the Greek text with German translation and an introduction (Berlin, 1887).

G. KRtGER. BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Merx, Redo vom Auslegen, pp. 64-67, Halls, 1879. ADRIAN: The name of six popes.

Adrian I.: Pope 772-795. A Roman of noble birth, he entered the clerical state under Paul I., and was ordained deacon by Stephen III., whom he succeeded Feb. 1, 772, not, apparently, by as unanimous a choice as the official record of his election asserts; for soon afterward he encountered vehement opposition from the Lombard party in Rome led by Paul Afiarta. His adherence to the Frankish faction, his hesitation to crown the sons of Karlman, who had fled to Pavia, and thus to set them up as pretenders against Charlemagne, and the imprisonment of Afiarta by Archbishop Leo of Ravenna at his orders incited the Lombard king Desiderius to invade the Roman territory, and finally to march on Rome itself. Adrian appealed for help to Charlemagne, who arrived in Italy in Sept., 773, and forced Desiderius to shut himself up in Pavia.

During the siege of that town, which lasted till the following June, Charlemagne suddenly appeared unannounced in Rome. Adrian, though alarmed, gave him a brilliant reception. On Apr. 6 a meeting took place in St. Peter's, at which, according to the Vita Hadriani, the emperor

Aided by was exhorted by the pope to confirm Charle- the donation of his father, Pepin, magne. and did so, even making some ad ditions of territory. This donation, which rests solely upon the authority of the Vita



(xli.-xliii.), if substantiated, has a great importance for the development of the temporal sovereignty of the popes. The question has received much attention, and its literature is scarcely exceeded in bulk by that of any other medieval controversy. No sure and universally recognized result, however, has been reached. Some modern historians (Sybel, Ranke, Martens) consider the story a pure invention; others (Ficker, Duchesne) accept it; and a middle theory of partial interpolation has also been upheld (Saheffer-Boichorst). All that can be maintained with certainty is that Charlemagne gave -a promise of a donation, and the geographical delimitations give rise to difficult problems.

In the years immediately following Charlemagne's return from Italy, his friendly relations with Adrian were disturbed by more than one

Disagree- occurrence. Archbishop Leo of Raments venna seized some cities from the with Charle- pope, who complained to Charlemagne; magne. but Leo visited the Frankish court to defend himself, and met with a not unfavorable reception. Charlemagne's keen insight can not have failed to read imperfectly masked covetousness between the lines of Adrian's repeated requests for the final fulfilment of the promise of 774; e.g., in the hope held out of a heavenly reward if he should enlarge the Church's possessions; in the profuse congratulations on his victory over the Saxons, which was attributed to the intercession of St. Peter, grateful for the restitution of his domain; in the comparison drawn by Adrian between Charlemagne and " the most God-fearing emperor Constantine the Great," who " out of his great liberality exalted the Church of God in Rome and gave her power in Hesperia [Italy] "-expressiont which have caused a subordinate controversy as to whether the so-called Donation of Constantine (q.v.) is referred to. How far Adrian's consciousness of his own importance had grown is evident from the fact that while in the beginning of his reign he had dated his public documents by the years of the Greek emperors, from the end of 781 he dated them by the years of his own pontificate.

Yet Adrian could not afford to despise the Greeks; they joined the Lombard dukes of Benevento and Spoleto, and forced him once more

Charle- to turn for help to Charlemagne, who magne made a short descent into Italy in Again 776, put down the revolt of the Helps. duke of Friuli against both him and the pope, but did nothing more until 780. In 781 he visited Rome again when his sons were anointed as kings-Pepin of Italy and Louis of Aquitaine. Charlemagne came to Italy for the fourth time in 786 to crush Arichis of Benevento, and Adrian succeeded in obtaining from him ad ditional territory in southern Italy. But various misunderstandings in Adrian's last years gave rise to a report that Charlemagne and Offa of Mercia had taken counsel together with a view to the pope's deposition. The iconoclastic controversy (see IMAGES AND IMAGE-WORSHIP, II., § 3 ) brought fresh humiliations from Charlemagne and from the Greek emperor Constantine VI. and his mother, the em press Irene. When the last-named was taking steps Adoration Adrian

to restore the veneration of images in the Eastern Church she requested Adrian to be present in person at a general council soon to be held, or at least to send suitable legates (785). In his reply, after commending Irene and her son for their determination respecting the images, Adrian asked for a restitution of the territory taken from the Roman see by the iconoclastic emperor Leo III. in 732, as well as of its patriarchal rights in Calabria, Sicily, and the Illyrian provinces which Leo had suppressed. At the same time he renewed the protest made by Gregory the Great against the assumption of the title of universalis patriarchs by the Patriarch of Constantinople.

When, however, the council met at Nicaea in 787, while it removed the prohibition of images, it paid no attention to any of these demands. The acts of this council, which Adrian sent to Charlemagne in 790, provoked the emperor's vigorous opposition, and led ultimately to the drawing up

of the Caroline Books (q.v.), in which Coun- the position of the Frankish Church cil of with reference to both the Roman and Niceea in the Greek was made plain, and the 787. decisions of the Council of Nicaea were disavowed. Although Adrian, after re ceiving a copy, took up the defense of the council with vehemence, Charlemagne had the contention of the Caroline Books confirmed at the Synod of Frankfort in 794. It may, however, have been some consolation to Adrian's legates that the same synod publicly condemned Adoptionism (q.v.), against which the Roman as well as the Frankish Church had been struggling. Adrian died not long after (Dec. 25, 795).

Throughout his long pontificate Adrian had been too exclusively dominated by the one idea of gaining as much advantage as possible in lands and privileges from the strife between the Franks and Lombards.. He rendered no slight services to the city of Rome, rebuilding the walls and aqueducts, and restoring and adorning the churches. His was not a strong personality, however, and he never succeeded in exercising a dominant or even a strongly felt influence upon the policy of western

Europe. (CARL MIRBT.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Vita Hadriani, in L1ber pontihcalis, ed. Duehesne, i. 488-b23; Einhard, Vita CaroLi, in MGH, Script., ii. (1829) 428-483; Vita CaroLi, ed. G. Wait:, in Script.;or. Germ... 4th ed., 1880; also in Jaffd, Repeats, iv., Eng. tranal. in Thatcher and McNeal, Source Book, pp. 3$-45; Colitis Carodini epiatoLa, in Jaffd, I.e. iv. and in MPL, xcvi.; 'one of Adrian's letters, in verse, dated 774, in MGH, Poet. lit. arvi Carob, i. (1881) 90-91; Jaff_, Reperata, i. 289-308, Leipeio, 1886; De sancta Hadriano papa 1 an 111 Nottantula· in editions Mutinensi, in ASB, July, viii. 843-849 ; P. T. Hall, Donwho CaroLi Maqni, Copenhagen. 1838; T. D. Mack, De donations a Carob Mapno, Monster, 1881; J. Ficker, Forechunpen our Reiche- and Rechta-Geachiehta Italiena, ii. 329 aqq., 347 eqq., Innsbruck, 1889; A. O. Legge, Orovith of the Temporal Power of the Papacy, London, 1870; W. Wattenbsah, Gaachichfs die rlhniachen Papatthums. PP. 47 sqq.. Berlin, 1878; O. Kuhl, Der Verkehr Karla lea Grosaen mit Papat Hadrian 1., K6nigaberg,1879; R. Genelin, Dos Schenkunpaverapreehen and die SeherJcunp Pippins, Vienna. 1880; W. Martens, Die rrhniaehe Frape unlsr Pippin and Karl dam Grown, pp. 129 eqq., 388-387, Stuttgart, 1881; idem, Die Beeetaung du pBpatZichen 3tuhles enter den Kaiaern Heinrich 111. and IV., Freiburg, 1888; idem, Beleuchtunp der nsueaten Kontrosersen fiber die r6mieehe Fraps



unter Pippin and Karl den Grossen, Munich, 1898; H. von Bybe1, Die Schenkunpen der Karolinper an die PSpste, in Kleine historische Schriflen, iii. 65-115, Stuttgart, 1881; Liber Pontifrcalis, ad. Duohesne, i., pp. eeaxiv.-owdiii., Paris, 1884; J. von Pfiugk-Harttung, Acta pontificum Romanorum inedita, ii. 22 aqq., Stuttgart, 1884; P. $eheffer-Boiohoret, Pippins and Karla des Grossen Schenkunpsversprechung, pp. 193-212, Innsbruck, 1884; L. von Ranks, Weltgeschichte, v., part 1, p. 117. Leipsic, 1885; 6. Abel, Jahrbucher des frankischen Reiches unter Karl dem Groseen, i. 768-788, Leipsic, 1883 (and ii. 789814, by B. $imson, 1888), and for donation of Charlemagne, ib. i. 159 aqq.; P. Kehr, Die sopenannte karolinpiaden Schenkunp von 774, in Sybe1's Historische Zeitachrift, lxx. (new eer.. 1893) xxxiv. 385-441; Hefele,Concilienpeschichte, vol. iii.; Eng. tranal., Vol. v.; Hauck, KD, vol. ii.; Mann, Popes, I., vol. ii. 395-497.

Adrian II.: Pope 867-872. He was the son of Talarus, of a Roman family which had already produced two popes, Stephen IV. (768-772) and Sergius II. (844-847). He was a married man before entering the clerical state. Gregory IV. made him a cardinal. His great benevolence won the hearts of the Romans, and he twice refused the papacy, after the death of Leo IV. (855) and of Benedict IIl. (858). A unanimous choice by both clergy and people, however, forced him at the age of seventy-five to accept it in succession to Nicholas I. (d. Nov. 13, 867). The election was confirmed by Emperor Louis II., and Adrian's consecration followed on Dec. 14.

His predecessor had left him a number of unfinished tasks. In the first place, it was necessary to arrive at a final decision concerning Forces a matter which had long rind deeply

Lothair II. troubled the Frankish Church; namely, to Take the matrimonial relations of King

Back His LOthair II. Adrian firmly insisted Wife. that Lothair should take back his legitimate wife Thietberga, at the same time releasing his mistress Walrade from the excommunication pronounced against her by Nicholas, at the request of Louis II., on condition that she should have nothing more to do with Lothair. The last-named visited Rome in 869 for the purpose of gaining the pope's consent to his divorce from Thietberga. Adrian promised no more than to call a new council to investigate the matter, but restored Lothair to communion after he had sworn that he had obeyed the command of Nicholas I. to break off his relations with Waltade. The king's sudden death at Piacenza on his homeward journey, a few weeks later, was considered to be a divine judgment. The efforts of the pope to enforce the claim of Louis II. to Lorraine were fruitless; immediately after Lothair's death his uncle, Charles the Bald, had himself crowned at Met z, though less than a year later he was forced by his brother, Louis the German, to divide the inheritance of Lothair in the treaty of Meersen (Aug. 8, 870).

Adrian's attempts to interfere in Frankish affairs were stubbornly resisted by Hincmar of Reims (q.v.), who wrote (Epist., xxvii.), ostensibly as the opinions of certain men friendly to the WestFrankish king, that a pope could not be bishop and king at one and the same time; that Adrian's Predecessors had claimed to decide in ecclesiastical matters only; and that he who attempted to

excommunicate a Christian unjustly deprived himself of the power of the keys. When a synod at

Douzy near Sedan (Aug., 871) ex Opposed communicated Bishop Hincmar of Laon by on grave charges brought against him Hincmar both by the king and by his own of Reims. uncle, the more famous Hincmar, the pope allowed an appeal to a Roman council, and brought upon himself in consequence a still sterner warning from Charles the Bald by the pen of Hincmar of Reims (MPL, cxxiv. 881-896), with a threat of his personal appearance in Rome. Adrian executed an inglorious retreat. He wrote to Charles praising him for his virtues and his benefits to the Church, promised him the imperial crown on Louis's death, and offered the soothing explanation that earlier less pacific letters had been either extorted from him during sickness or falsified. In the matter of Hinemar of Laon, he made partial concessions, which were completed by his successor, John VIIL

Another conflict which Nicholas I. had left to Adrian, that with Photius, patriarch of Constan-

tinople, seemed likely to have a hapConflict pier issue, when Photius was conwith demned first by a Roman synod

Photius. (June 10, 869), and then by the general council at Constantinople in the same year, the papal legates taking a position which seemed to make good the claims of the Roman see. But Emperor Basil the Macedonian dealt these claims a severe blow when he caused the envoys of the Bulgarians (see BULOARIANs, CoNVERsION OF THE) to declare to the legates that their country belonged to the patriarchate not of Rome, but of Constantinople. Adrian's protests were in vain; a Greek archbishop appeared among the Bulgarians, and the Latin missionaries had to give place. Moravia, on the other hand, was firmly attached to Rome, Adrian allowing the use of a Slavic liturgy, and naming Methodius archbishop Of Sirmium. After a pontificate marked princi pally by defeat, Adrian died between Nov. 13 and Dec. 14, 872. (CART. MIRBT.) BIRLIOGRAPRY: The Letters of Adrian in Mansi, Collectio, xv..819820; in MPL, cxxii., exxix., and in Bouquet,

Recuail,vol.vii.; Vita Hadrianill., in Liberpontitwlia,ed. Duchesne, ii. 173-174, and in L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italirun $diptorm, III. ii. 306, 25 vols., Milan, 1723-51;

Ado, Chronicon in MGH, Script., ii. (1829) 315-326;

idem in MPL, exxiii.; Annales Puldensea, in MGH, Script., I. (1826) 375-395, and separately in Script. rer. Germ., ed. F. Kifrze Hanover, 1891; Hincmar, Annales, in MGH, Script., i. (1826) 455-515, and in MPL, cxxv.; Hinemar, Epiatolee in MPL, cmiv., cxxvi.; Regino, Chronicon, in MGH, Script., i. (1826)580 saq.; idem, in MPL, exxxii. (separately ed. F. Kurse. Hanover, 1890); P. JaffA, Repesta i. 368, 369, Leipsic 1885; Bower, Popes, ii. 267-282; F. Maaesen, Eine Reds des Papates Hadrian 11. von Jahre 869, du erate umfassende Benutzunp der falschen Decretalm in Sitzungaberichte der Wiener Akademie lxxii. (1872) 521; Hefele Conciliengeechinkta, vol. iv.; P. A. Lapotre, Hadrian 11. et les fauesee d& a7· in Reoue des questions hiatoriqaes, xavii. (1880) s99: B. Jungmann, Dieeertationes ltd in hiat.

iii., Ratiebon, 1882· Milman, Latin Christianity, iii. 35-80: H. $chr6re, Hinamar. Freiburg, 1884; J. J. Bohmer Repesta imperii, I. Die Repeaten des iaiser reiehs unto' don Karolinpern, pp. 751-918; idem, ed. E. MOhlbacher. i. 460 sqq., Innsbruck, 1889 Hauck, KD, ii. 557 sqq.. 699700; J. Langen, Geschickte der rtim-



iechen Kircht van Nikolaus 1. bia Gregor VIL, pp. 113-170, Bonn, 1892; E. MBhlbaeher, Deutsche Geachichte unter den Karolingern, 1896; E. Diimmler, Ifber eine Svnodalrede Papat Hadriane 11., Berlin, 1899; Treaty of Meeraen, Eng. tranal. in Thatcher and McNeal, Source Book, pp. 64-65.

Adrian III.: Pope 884-885. He was a Roman by birth, the son of Benedict. The story of severe punishments inflicted by him points to revolts in the city during his rule. The assertion of the untrustworthy Martinus Polonus that he decreed that a newly elected pope might proceed at once to consecration without waiting for imperial confirmation, and that the imperial crown should thenceforth be worn by an Italian prince, are confirmed by no contemporary evidence. He died near Modena Aug., 885, on his way to attend a diet at Worms on the invitation of Charles the Fat, and was buried at Nonantula. [He was the first pope to change his name on election, having previously been called Agapetus.] (CARL. MIRBT.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Epiatola, in Bouquet, Recueil, ix. 200, and in MPL, exxvi.; Bulla anni 885, in Neuea Arehiv der Geaellachaft fair et. d. Geachichte, xi. (1885) 374, 376; Vita, in Liber Pontificalia, ed. Duchesne, ii. (1892) 225, and in L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italiearum Saiptores, III. ii. 440-446, 25 vols., Milan, 1723-51; Annalea Puldenaea, in MGH, Script., i. (1826) 375-395 (separately in Script. rer. Germ., ed. F. Kurze, Hanover, 1891); Chronica Benedicti in MGH, Script., iii. (1839) 199; J. M. Watterich, Pontifcum Romanorum vito, i. 29, 650, 718, Leipsic, 1862; P. Jaff4, Regeata, i. 426-427; Bower, Popes, ii. 293-294; R. Baxmann. Die Politik der Pdpate von Gregor I. bia au/ Gregor VII., ii. 60 eqq., Elberfeld, 1869; E. DGmmler, Geachichte lea Oatirtinkiachen Reichea, ii. 247, 248, Berlin, 1888; J. Langen, Geschichte der r6miachen Kirche von Nikolaus 1. bis Gregor VIL, pp. 298 sqq., Bonn, 1892; T. R. v. Bickel, Die Vita Hadriani Nonantulana and die Diurnua Handachrift, in News Archiv der Geaellachaft fur a. d. Geaehichte, xviii. (1892) 109-133.

Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakapeare ; the only Englishman in the list of the popes): Pope 1154-59. He was born in England about the beginning of the twelfth century. He went to France as a boy, studied at Paris and Arles, enduring severe privations, and finally settled down in the monastery of St. Rufus near Avignon. Here he became prior, then abbot (1137), but met with bitter opposition from the monks when he attempted to introduce reforms. Eugenius III. made him cardinal bishop of Albano, and chose him (1152) for the difficult mission of regulating the relations of Norway and Sweden to the archbishopric of Lund. Returning to Rome, he was welcomed with high honors by Anastasius IV., whom he succeeded on Dec. 4, 1154.

His first troubles came through Arnold of Bres cia (q.v.), who, besides his ethical opposition to the hierarchy, aimed at reestablishing the Arnold of ancient sovereignty of Rome and its Brescia and independence of the papal see. Adrian Frederick strove to secure Arnold's banishment, Barbarossa. and succeeded in 1155 only by pro nouncing an interdict on the city. He made Arnold's capture and delivery to the ecclesi astical authorities a condition of crowning Frederick Barbarossa, who thus sacrificed a man who might have been a powerful auxiliary in his conflicts with this very pope. The first meeting between Frederick and Adrian (June 9, 1155) was marked by friction; but Frederick managed, in return for

substantial concessions, to secure his coronation nine days later. The Romans, however, whose subjection to the papal see the new emperor had promised to enforce, refused their recognition; and when Frederick left Rome, the pope and cardinals accompanied him, practically as fugitives. Frederick had also promised to subdue William I. of Sicily, and was inclined to carry out his promise, but the pressure of the German princes forced him to recross the Alps.

Adrian then attempted to pursue his conflict with William, and, by the aid of the latter's dis-

contented vassals, forced him to offer William I. terms. When, however, these were not of Sicily. accepted the king rallied his forces, the

tide turned, and Adrian was obliged to grant his opponent the investiture of Sicily, Apulia, and Capua, and to renounce important ecclesiastical prerogatives in Sicily (Treaty of Benevento June, 1156). In consequence of this settlement, he was enabled to return to Rome at the end of the year, but the emperor resented this apparent desertion of their alliance, as well as the injury to his suzerainty by the papal investiture. An open breach came when, at the Diet of Besangon, in Oct., 1157, the papal legates (one of them the future Alexander III.) delivered a letter from their chief which spoke of the conferring of the imperial crown by the ambiguous term bene ficium. The chancellor, Reginald, archbishop of Cologne, in his German rendering, gave it the sense of a fief of the papal see; and the legates thought it prudent to leave the assembly and retreat speedily to Rome.

Imperial letters spread the same indignation among the people; and when Adrian required the

prelates of Germany to obtain satis Rebuffed faction from Frederick for his treat by ment of the legates, he was met by Frederick the decided expression of their dis Barbarossa. approval of the offending phrase.

Adrian's position was rendered more difficult by the appearance of a Greek expedition in Italy and by a revolt in Rome; he offered the concession of a brief in which he explained the objectionable word in the innocent sense of " benefit." Frederick took this as a confession of weakness, and when he crossed the Alps to subdue the Lombard towns (1158), he required an oath of fealty to himself, as well as substantial support from the Italian bishops. Attaining the summit of his power with the conquest of Milan in September, two months later he had the imperial rights solemnly declared by the leading jurists of Bologna. This declaration constituted him the source of all secular power and dignity, and was a denial equally of the political claims of the papacy and of the aspirations of the Lombard towns. The breach with Adrian was still further widened by his hesitation to confirm the imperial nomination to the archbishopric of Ravenna; and an acute crisis was soon reached. An exchange of communications took place, whose manner was intended on both sides to be offensive; and Frederick was roused to a higher pitch of anger when the papal legates, besides accusing him of a breach of the treaty of Constance, demanded that he should thenceforth receive no oath of fealty from


Adrian THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 54 Advent the Italian bishops, that he should either restore the inheritance of Countess Matilda, Spoleto, Sardinia, Corsica, Ferrara, etc., to the Roman see, or pay a tribute for those lands, and that he should recognize the right of the successor of St. Peter to !nmplete and unlimited dominion in Rome. These claims he met by declaring roundly that on any strict interpretation of his rights the pope also would be bound to take the oath of fealty, and that all the latter's possessions were but imperial do mains held in consequence of Sylvester's investi ture by Constantine. Both the opponents sought for allies in the im pending struggle. Adrian, who was the sworn foe of the Roman republic and its Impending liberties, joined hands with the Lom Conflict bard communes who were struggling Stopped by for their own. The emperor, who Adrian's was doing his best to abolish com Death. munal liberty in the north of Italy, aided the Romans to uphold the prin ciples of Arnold of Brescia. Adrian was already taking counsel with the cardinals as to the advisa bility of pronouncing a sentence of excommunica tion against Frederick when death overtook him at Anagni Sept. 1, 1159. Adrian was a ruler who grasped clearly the ideal of a papacy striving for universal domination, and contended passionately for its accomplishment; but John of Salisbury (who, as ambassador of the king of England, had opportunity to study him at close range) records that there were moments when the terrible burden of his office weighed almost un bearably upon him. (CARL MIRBT.) BIBLIOGRAPHY: Epiatolas et privilepia, in Bouquet, Recueil, xv. 668-893; idem, in MPL, clxxxviii.; Bulbs, in Neues Archiv der Gesellachaft fiar g. d. Geschichte, ii. (1876) 211 213, xv. (1889) 203-206; Vita, in Libor PontifCalie, ed. Duehesne, 1892, ii. 388 eqq.; Otto of Frisengen, Geata Friderici I., in MGR, Script., xx. (1868) 403 sqq.; Raderi eue of Frisengen, Continuatio (of Otto's Gesta], ib. pp. 454 sqq.; Jaffd, Repesta, i.; J. M. Watterieh, Romano rum pontificum vitae, i. 323-336, Leipsic, 1823; Bower, Popes, 1845, ii. 487-502; R. Baby, Historical Sketch of Pope Adrian IV., London, 1849; H. Reuter, Gesehiehte Alexander's ill., vol. i., Leipsie, 1860; Fr. v. Raumer,Ge sehiehts der Hohenstaufen, ii., ib. 1871; Milman, Latin Christianity, London, 1883; DNB, i. 143-146; Hefele, ConcilienossMichte, v. 527-566; J. Laqgen, Geschichte der r6rniscAsn Kirche van Gregor VII. bin Innocens Ill., pp. 417-438, Bonn, 1893; Eng. tranel. of Letter to Barbarosaa (Sept. 20, 1157), Manifesto of Frederick 1., Letter to the German Bishops and their Letter to Adrian, and Letter to the Emperor (Feb., 1158), in E. F. Henderson, Seled His torical Docuof the Middle Apes, London, 1892; J. Jaetrow and G. Winter, Deutsche Geschichte in Zeitalter der Hohenstaufen, vol. i., Stuttgart, 1897; S. Malone , Adrian IV. and Ireland, London, 1899; O. J. Thatcher: Studies Concerning Adrian IV., Chicago, 1903; Hauck, KD, iv. 35, 199-227; Eng. transl. of Treaty of Con stana, Stirrup Episode, Treaty of Adrian IV. and William 01 Sicily, Letters of Adrian (1157-58), and Manifesto of Frederick l., in O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal, Source Book for Mediamal History, New York, 1905. Adrian V. (Ottobuono de' Fieschi): Pope 1276. He was the nephew of Innocent IV., and as car dinal deacon had been sent to England by Clement IV. to mediate between Henry III. and his barons. He was elected July 12, 1276, in a conclave on which Charles of Anjou had enforced all the rigor of the regulations of Gregory X.; and one of Adrian's first acts was to abrogate them as oppressive to the cardi-

nals. Before he could promulgate any new system, however, and even before he had been ordained priest, he died at Viterbo Aug. 18, 1276.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Chroust, Ein Brief Hadrians V., in Neues Archiv der Gesellschatt /4r 8. d. Geachichte, xx. (1894) 233

aqq.; Bower, Popes, iii. 24; A. Potthast, Repesta ponti- fcum Romanorum, ii. 1709, Berlin, 1875; Milman, Latin Christianity, vi. 134.

Adrian VI. (Adrian Rodenburgh or Dedel, more probably the latter): Pope 1522-23. He was born in Utrecht, was educated by the Brethren of the Common Life and at Louvain, and became professor and vice-chancellor of the university. During this period he composed several theological writings, including a commentary on the Sententice of Peter Lombard. In 1507 Emperor Maximilian I. appointed him tutor to his grandson, Charles of Spain, and in 1515 Ferdinand the Catholic made him bishop of Tortosa. In 1517 he was created cardinal by Leo X. When Charles was made German emperor and went to the Netherlands in 1520, he appointed Adrian regent of Spain. In 1522 the cardinals almost unanimously elected him pope.

The vexation of the Romans at the choice of a German, moreover a very simple man who was not inclined to continue the splendid traditions of the humanistic popes, lasted during his entire pontificate; more serious minds, however, looked forward to his reign with hope. In spite of the fact that he

consented to the condemnation of Friend Luther's writings by the Louvain

of theologians, and although as inquisitor Reform. general he had shown no clemency,

yet Erasmus saw in him the right pilot of the Church in those stormy times, and hoped that he would abolish many abuses in the Roman court. Luis de Vives addressed Adrian with his proposals for reform; and Pirkheimer complained to him of the opposition of the Dominicans to learning. Even in the college of cardinals, the few who favored a reformation looked up to him hopefully, and Xgidius of Viterbo (q.v.) transmitted to him a memorial which described the corruption of the Church and discussed the means of redress.

Adrian fulfilled these expectations. Concerning indulgences he even endeavored to find a way which might lead to a reconciliation with Luther's conception, viz., to make the effect of the indulgence dependent on the depth of repentance on evidence of it in a reformed life. But here Cardinal Cajetan asserted that the authority of the pope would suffer, since the chief agent would no longer be the pope, but the believer, and the majority agreed with the cardinal. Nothing was done in the matter, no dogma was revised, and the complaints of the Germans increased. Nevertheless, Adrian simplified his household, moneys given for Church purposes were no longer used for the support of scholars and artists, he sought to reform the

abuse of pluralities, and opposed simony and nepotism. His effort to influence Erasmus to write against Luther and to bring Zwingli b; a letter to his side shows his attitude toward the Reformation in Germany and Switzerland.


55 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Adrian Advent When the diet at Nuremberg was opened in Dec., 1522, he complained in a brief of the rise of heresy in Germany and asked the diet, since mild measures could not bti effectual, to employ the means formerly used against Huss. But in his instructions to his legate at the diet, Bishop Chiere gati, he took a different tone, and acknowledged that " wantonness," °' abuses," and " excesses " were found at the curia. This is the only instance where such a confession received official sanction. An answer was prepared by a committee, which took notice of the confession, refused His to execute the edict of Worms before Confession. an imprnvement was visible, and asked for the meeting of a council in a German city, promising to prevent Luther from publishing his polemical writings and to see to it that the preachers proclaimed the pure gospel, but " according to the teaching and interpretation of the Scriptures approved and revered by the Christian Church." Chieregati accepted neither this nor any other answer, but left Nuremberg in haste. In strict papal circles Adrian's confession has not yet been forgiven. He died at Rome Sept. 14, 1523. K. BENRATH. BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Burmannus, Hadrianw Vl. eive aualecta historica, Utrecht, 1727; G. Moringus, Vita Ha driani Vl., Louvain, 1536; Bower, Popes, iii. 299 302; L. P. Gachard, Correspondancs de Charles V. et d'Adrien Vl., Brussels, 1859; J. S. Brewer, Letters andPa pere . . o f the Reign o/ Henry V111., 4 vole., London, 1862 1901 (especially vol. iii.); G. A. Bergenroth, Calendar . . relating to the Negotiations between England and Spain, ii., London, 1866; idem, Supplement to vols. i. and ii. (1868); M. Brosch, Geschichte des Kirchenataatea, Vol. i., Hamburg, 1880; C. v. HSfler, Papst Hadrian V1., Vienna, 1880; A. Lapitre, Adrien Vl., Paris, 1880; L. v. Ranks, Deutsche Geechichte irn Zeitalkr der Reformation, ii., Leipsic, 1880; idem, Die rtimischen Pupate, i., ib. 1889; Eng. transl., i. 71-74, London, 1896; Milman, Latin Christianity; Hefele, Coneiliengeechichte, ix. 271-299; Creighton, Papacy, vi. 214-273. ADSQ: One of the more prominent of the reforming abbots of the tenth century. He be longed to a noble family in the Jura Mountains, became a monk at Luxeuil, and went later to the monastery of Montier-en-Der (120 m. ex.e. of Paris), in the diocese of Chalon"ur-Marie, reformed about 935 by the abbot Albert, whom he succeeded in 967 or 968. He laid the foundation for a splendid new basilica, remains of which are still standing (cf. Sackur, Die Clunitacenser, ii. 391), and under took to reform other monasteries, e.g., St. Benig nus at Dijon. Like his friends Abbo of Floury and Gerbert of Reims (cf. Havet, Les Leares de Gerbert, pp. 6, 74, Paris, 1889), he was interested in learning and investigation; and his library included the writings of Aristotle, Porphyry, Terence, Cwsar, and Vergil. He was often urged to write books, especially the lives of saints, and several works of this class by him may be found in ASM (ii. and iv.; copied in MPL, exxxvii. 597-700). The most famous of Adso's writings is the earliest, an Epistola ad Gerbergam reginam, de vita et tempore Antichristi, composed before 954, in which he opposes the prevalent notion that the appearance of Antichrist was near at hand. The work was much read, and suffered greatly from mutilations and interpolations (cf. MPL, ci. 1289-98); its original form has been restored by E. Sackur, in Sibyldinische Texts and Forachungen, pp. 104-113, Halle, 1898. S. M. DEIrraca.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The chief source for Adso's life is an addition of the eleventh century to his Vita S. Bercharii, the patron saint of Montier-en-Der, ch xi., in MPL, cxxxvii. 678-679, and in MGH, Script., iv. (1841) 488. Consult also the Histoire liu&aire de to France, vi. 471-492; A. Ebert, Allgemeine Geschichte der Litteratur des Mittelalters im Abendlande, iii. 472-484, Leipsic, 1887; and, especially. E. Saekur, Die Cluniacenaer. vol. i., Halle, 1892.


ADVERT: The first season of the church year. The celebration of Advent in the Western Church was instituted toward the close of the fifth century, in Gaul, Spain, and Italy [but traces of it are found in the Council of Saragossa, 380]. The term was first understood as referring to the birth of Christ, and so the Advent season was a time of preparation for Christmas. Since it commenced at different periods (e.g., at Milan with the Sunday after St. Martin [Nov. 11]; in Rome with the first in December), the number of Sundays in Advent differed in the individual churches. The term advent= was also taken in the wider sense of the coming of Christ in general; hence the lessons for Advent which refer to the second coming of Christ and the last judgment. With it was also connected the notion of the coming of the kingdom of heaven. Thus originated the idea of the triple coming "to man, in man, and against man" or, corresponding to the number four of the Sundays which afterward became general, the notion of the quadruple coming " in the flesh, in the mind, in death, in majesty." In the medieval church the Advent season was a time of fasting and repentance. Hence one finds in it the figure of John the Baptist, as the precursor of Christ and the preacher of repentance. The whole season from Advent to the octave of Epiphany was a tempus clausum (q.v.) until the Council of Trent, which took off the last week. In the Church of Rome Advent has still the character of a penitential season. The color of the vestments then worn is violet. This character of earnest and serious devotion appears in more preaching, teaching, and insistence upon attendance at communion. Fasting during Advent is not a general ordinance of the Church of Rome [being required only on all Fridays, the vigil of Christmas, and the three ember-days in the last week of the season].

With the adoption of the medieval church calendar, the Protestants also accepted the Advent season and Advent lessons. Thus the season retained its double character, preparation for the Christmas festival and contemplation of the different ways of the coming of Christ. Since it has become customary to separate the civil and ecclesiastical chronology and to distinguish between the civil and church years, the first Sunday of Advent has been dignified as the solemn beginning of the new church year. These various relations of the first Sunday of Advent and the whole Advent season explain the variety of the contents of the Advent hymns and prayers. Among Protestants also the Advent season has a twofold character, that of holy joy and of holy repentance. The first Sunday in Advent is no church festival in a


Advent Christians Advocatne Dei THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 56 full sense, but the relations referred to lift it and the succeeding Sundays above ordinary Sundays. See CHuRcH YEAR. W. CABPARI.

In the present usage of the West, the season begins on the nearest Sunday to St. Andrew's day (Nov. 30), whether before or after. In the Anglican prayer-book the service for the first Sunday emphasizes the second coming; that for the second, the Holy Scriptures; that for the third, the Christian ministry; while only the fourth relates specifically to the first coming. Advent in the Eastern Church begins on Nov. 14, thus making a season of forty days analogous to Lent.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The lectionaries in Liber comieue, i., Oxford, 1893, and in Sacramentarium Gelaeianum published in L. A. Muratori, Liturgia romanum vetus, vol. i., Venice, 1748, and in MPL, lxxiv.; Smaragdus, in MPL, oil.; Amalarius Metensis, De ecclesiaaticis ofcciis, ib. ev.; Berno of Reichenau, De celebrations adventus, MPL, cxlii.; Isidore of Seville, De o#'cciis, ed. Cochlaeus, Leipaie, 1534, and in M. de la Bigne, Magna biibliotheca veterum patrum, x., Paris, 1854; E. Martkne, De antiquie ecclesics ritibus, Rouen, 1700.


ADVENTISTS: The general name of a body embracing several branches, whose members look for the proximate personal coming of Christ. William Miller (q.v.), their founder, was a converted deist, who in 1816 joined the Baptist Church in Low Hampton, N. Y. He became a close student of the Bible, especially of the prophecies, and soon satisfied himself that the Advent was to be personal and premillennial, and that it was near at hand. He began these studies in 1818, but did not enter upon the work of the ministry until 1831. The year 1843 was the date agreed upon for the Advent; then, more specifically, Oct. 22, 1844, the failure of which divided a body of followers that had become quite numerous. In the year of his death (1849) they were estimated at 50,000. Many who had been drawn into the movement by the prevalent excitement left it, and returned to the churches from which they had withdrawn. After the second failure, Miller and some other leaders discouraged attempts to fix exact dates. On this question and on the doctrine of the immortality of the soul there have been divisions. There are now at least six distinct branches of Adventists, all of which agree that the second coming of Christ is to be personal and premillennial, and that it is near at hand. The Seventh-day Adventists and the Church of God are presbyterial, the others congregational in their polity. All practise immersion as the mode of baptism.

1. Evangelical Adventists: This is the oldest branch, indeed the original body. The members adopted their Declaration o f Principles in conference in Albany, N. Y., in 1845, and in 1858 formed the American Millennial Association to print and circulate literature on eschatology from their point of view. Their organ was the weekly paper The Signs o f the Tunes, which had been established in Boston in 1840; subsequently its name was changed to The Advent Herald and later still to Messiah's Herald, its present (1906) title. The paper has always been published in Boston. The Evangelical Adventists differ from all the other branches

in maintaining the consciousness of the dead in Hades and the eternal sufferings of the lost.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. F. Hill, The Saint's Inheritance, Boston, 1852; D. T. Taylor, The Reign of Christ, Peacedale, R. I., 1855, and Boston, 1889.

2. Seventh-day Adventists: This branch dates from 1845, in which year, at Washington, N. H., a body of Adventists adopted the belief that the seventh day of the week is the Sabbath for Christians and is obligatory upon them. In 1850 their chief organ, The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, was first issued at Battle Creek, Mich., which was made the headquarters of the body: and there in 1860 a publishing association, in 1862 a general annual conference, in 1866 a health institute, and in 1874 an educational society and a foreign mission board were established. In 1903 the publishing business and the general headquarters were removed to Washington, D. C. Their organ is now styled The Review and Herald. Besides the tenet which gives them their name they hold that man is not immortal, that the dead sleep in unconsciousness, and that the unsaved never awake. They practise foot-washing and accept the charismata, maintain a tithing system, and pay great attention to health and total abstinence. They accept Mrs. Ellen G. White as an inspired prophetess.. BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. N. Andrews, History of the Sabbath and`

First Day, Battle Creek, 1873 (3d ed., 1887); Life Sketches of Elder James White and his wife Mrs. Ellen G. White, 1880; J. N. Loughborough, Rise and Progress of the SeventhDay Adventists, ib. 1892.

3. Advent Christians: The organization under this name dates from 1861, when a general association was formed. The organ of these Adventists is The World's Crisis and Second Advent Messenger, published in Boston. Their creed is given in the Declaration of Principles, approved by the general conference of 1900. They believe that through sin man forfeited immortality and that only through faith in Christ can any live forever; that death is a condition of unconsciousness for all persons until the resurrection at Christ's second coming, when the righteous will enter an endless life upon this earth, and the rest will suffer complete extinction of being; that this coming is near; that church government should be congregational; that immersion is the only true baptism; and that Sunday is the Christian Sabbath.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. C. Wellcome, History o/ the Second Ad- vent Message, Yarmouth, Me., 1874.

4. Life and Advent Union: This may be said to have existed since 1848, but it was not until 1862 that it was organized, at Wilbraham. Mass., under the leadership of Elder George Stores. Its organ is The Herald of Life and of the Corning Kingdom, published at Springfield, Mass., weekly since 1862. It holds that all hope of another life is through Jesus Christ, and that only believers in him, who have manifested in their daily lives the fruits of the Spirit, attain to the resurrection of the dead, which will take place at Christ's coming, and that such coming will be personal, visible, and literal, and is impending. The Union holds four camp-meetings annually: two in Maine, one in Connecticut, which is the principal one, and one in Virginia.


57 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Advent ahAstians Advooatus Dei

BIHLmORAP87: O. $. Halsted, The Theology of the Bible, Newark, 1860; Discussion between Miles ()rant and J. T. Curry, Boston, 1863.

6. Church of God: This is a branch of the Seventh-day Adventists, which seceded in 1866 because its members denied that Mrs. Ellen Gould White was an inspired prophetess. Their organ is The Bible Advocate and Herald of the Coming Kingdom, published at Stanberry, Mo., which is their center. Like the parent body, the Church of God has tithes, sanatoriums, and a publishing house.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. F. Dugger, Points of Difference between the Church of God and Seventh-Day Adventists, Stanberry, Mo.; J. Brinkerhoff, Mrs. White's Visions. Comparison of the early Writings of Mrs. E. G. White with later Publica tions, showing the Suppressions made in them to deny their erroneous Teaching; D. Nield, The (food Priday Prob lem, showing from Scripture, Astronomy and History that the Crueif=ion of Christ took Place on Wednesday, and his Resurrection on Saturday.

6. Churches of God in Christ Jesus, popularly known as the Age-to-come Adventists: These have existed since 1851, when their organ, The Restitution (Plymouth, Ind.), was established, but they were not organized till 1888, when the general conference was formed. They believe in the restoration of Israel, the literal resurrection of the dead, the immortalization of the righteous, and the final destruction of the wicked, eternal life being through Christ alone.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. P. Weethee. The Coming Ape, Chicago, 1884.

The statistics of the Adventists are thus given by H. K. Carroll in The Christian Advocate for Jan. 25, 1906:


Evangelical................. Seventh-day.................

Advent Christians .. .... Life and Advent Union .. . . . . . Church of God Churches of God in Christ Jesus 54 Total Adventists 1,565 2,499 95,437

ADVERTISEMENTS OF ELIZABETH: Name commonly applied to the regulations promulgated in 1566 by Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, for the purpose, as alleged, of securing uniformity and decency in public worship, against the tendencies of the extreme Protestant party (see PURITANS, PURITANISM, 6). It is now generally admitted that, though they represented Elizabeth's policy in ritual matters, they never received her formal sanction. They assumed some importance in the ritual controversies of the nineteenth century, the High-church party conteL:ling that they were merely an archiepiscopal injunction enforcing an irreducible minimum of ritual, while their opponents attempted to show that they were a legal prescription of a positive kind, which made the surplice the only lawful vestment of the clergy in parish churches.

BIHLIOGRAPRY: The teat of the Advertisements is given in Gee and Hardy. Documents, pp. 467-475. Consult: J. Strype. Life and Acts of Matthew Parker, London, 1821; Church Quarterly Review, avii. (1881) b4--80.

ADVOCATE OF THE CHURCH (Lit. Advhcatua or DefCridOr Ecelesim): An officer charged with the secular affairs of as eccleiestical establishment,

CommuMinietere. Churches. nicanta.

34 30 1,147 486 1,707 80,471 912 810 26.500 00 19 9 3.68 2,872

more especially its defense, legal or armed. The beginnings of the office appear in the Roman empire. From the end of the fifth century there were defenaorea in Italy, charged with the protection of the poor and orphans as well as with the care of Church rights and property. In the Merovingian kingdom legal representatives of the churches had the title. In the Carlovingian period, in accordance with the effort to keep the clergy as far as possible from worldly affairs, bishops, abbots, and other ecclesiastics were required to have such an official. The development of the law of immunity made such advocali necessary-on the one hand, to uphold Church rights against the State and in court, on the other hand to perform judicial and police duties in ecclesiastical territory. The Carlovingian kings had the right of appointment, but sometimes waived it in individual cases. These officers were at first generally clerics, later laymen, and finally the office became hereditary. Often this advocate of the Church developed into a tyrant, keeping the establishment in absolute submission, despoiling and plundering it. He usurped the whole power of administration, limited the authority of the bishop to purely spiritual affairs, absorbed the tithes and all other revenues, and doled out to the clergy a mean modicum only. Innocent III. (1198-1216), however, succeeded in checking the growing importance of this institution, and soon the office itself disappeared.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. Happ. De adroocatia eeeleeiaatica. Bonn, 1870; H. Brunner, Deutsche Rechtageachiehte, ii. 302, Leip-

eic. 1892. ADVOCATES, CONSISTORIAL: Twelve lawyers who outrank all the advocates in the papal court. They trace their origin from the close of the sixth century, when Gregory the Great appointed seven defensores in the city of Rome to plead the cause of poor litigants who would otherwise be without legal counsel. Sixtus IV. increased the number by the addition of five junior advocates, but the memory of the historical origin of the body was preserved by reserving to the seven senior mem bers certain privileges, among them the right to constitute the college proper of conai$torial advo cates. This college at the present time is made up of two clerics and five laymen, one of the latter being dean. The name "consistorial" comes from the fact that their principal duties-presenting the claims of candidates for canonization and petition ing for the gallium-are performed in papal con S18t011ea. JOHN T. CREAUH. ADVOCATES OF ST. PETER: An associa tion of Roman Catholic jurists formed on the occasion of the episcopal jubilee of Pius IX. in 1876, for the purpose of asserting sad vindicating the rights and teaching of the Church and of the Holy See. The organization, which was blessed by Plus IX., received a signal mark of approbation from Leo XIII. in 1878, when its constitution was approved in a papal brief. From Rome, where its headquarters were established, it has spread into all the countries of Europe, but is unknown in the United Staten. JOHN T. CREAQH.




ADVOWSON: In the Church of England, the right of nomination to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice, vested in the crown, the bishop, one of the universities, or a private person. Such nomination, or presentation, as it is called, is the rule in England, election by the congregation being almost unknown.

IEDITUUS, f-dit'ii-us: A term applied to a person having the care of ecclesiastical property. Among the Romans it described one who, with the local priest, if there was one, had charge of a temple. The Roman customs in regard to this office had their influence on the development of similar functions in the Christian Church. They were at first discharged by the ostiarius (q.v.), to whom the term adituus was sometimes applied (cf. Paulinus of Nola, Epist., Q. By degrees, as the major and minor orders developed, and Church property became more valuable, permanent subordinate officials were required to look after it. The functions and designations of these officials varied, however, in different provinces. The name cedituus fell into disuse, probably from its original association with heathen worship. It was employed in the Vulgate version of Ezek. xliv. 11; Hos. x. 5; Zeph. i. 4; and Durand (Rationale, ii. 5) says of the ostiarii that their functions resemble those of the aditui. In the Middle Ages the execution of the less dignified functions, which were thought incompatible with the clerical office, was committed more and more to subordinates, and by the end of that period almost entirely to laymen. The name tedituus was still used for these officials, being thus equivalent to the later sacristan. But this was principally in central Europe, especially in Germany, where conciliar decrees show that their duty was to ring the bells, to open and close the church, ate. In the more western countries the teditui became rather identified with the procuratores or provisores (qq.v.) who had charge of the ecclesiastical property, though this included in some degree the maintenance of the building and the provision of vestments, candles, incense, and the like. In America during the nineteenth century the name has been not infrequently employed in Roman Catholic ecclesiastical terminology for the trustees who administer the temporal concerns of a parish. (JOHANNES FICKER.)


EGIDIUS DE COLUMNA (Egidio Colonna): A ~'I pupil of Thomas Aquinas and reputed author of the bull Unam sanctam; b. at Rome 1245 (?); d. at Avignon 1316. He joined the Augustinian eremite monks, studied at Paris, and taught there for many years, being called Doctor fundatissimus. From 1292 to 1295 he was general of his order. In 1296 he was made archbishop of Bourges, but continued to reside in Rome. He defended the election of Bonifaee VIII. in his De renuntiatione papm, showing that the abdication of Celestine V. was not against the canon law, and followed the court to Avignon. His numerous writings (mostly unpublished) deal with philosophy (commentaries on Aristotle), exegesis (In Canticum Canticorum ; In epistolam ad Romanos), and dogmatics (In sentential L ongo_

bardi ; Quodltbeta). A portion of his work on ecclesiastical polity, De potentate eccleaiastica, was published in the Journal de l'inatruction publique (Paris, 1858). K. BENRATH.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. E. du Boulay, Hietoria univereilatia Pariaieneia, iii. 671-672, Paris, 1688; W. Cave, Scriptorum ecclteiaahcorum litteraria, ii. 339-341, Oxford, 1743; J. A. Fabricius, Bibliotheca Latina, i. 19-20, Florence, 1858; F. X. Kraus, dsgidiue von Rom, in Oeeterreichieche Vierteljahreeechrtft far katholieche Theologie, i. 1,33, Vienna, 1862; F. L[ajard], Gilles de Rome, religieux, Auguatin, theologian, in Hiatoire litteraire de la Francs, xxa. 421-568, Paris, 1888.

IEGIDIUS OF VITERBO: General and protector of the order of Augustinian eremite monks to which Luther belonged; d. as cardinal at Rome 1532. Of his many theological writings (for list cf. Fabri cius, B2bliotheca Latina, i., Florence, 1858, p. 23) but few have been published. His address at the open ing of the Lateran council of 1512 may be found in Hardouin (Conciliorum colleciio, vol. ix., Paris, 1715, p. 1576), and a memorial on the condition of the Church, which he presented to Pope Adrian VI., was published by C. H6fler (in the Abhandlungen of the Royal Bavarian Academy, hist. cl., iv., Mu nich, 1846, pp. 62-89). K. BENRATH. BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Kolde, Die deutsche Aupuetiner-Conpre- gation, Gotha, 1879. ELFRED, )ELFRIC. See ALFRED, ALFRIC. IENEAS, f-nf'cs, OF GAZA, gb'za: A pupil of the Neoplatonist Hierocles at Alexandria, and teacher of rhetoric at Gaza. Before 534 he wrote a dia logue, Theophrastus (in MPG, lxxxv. 865--1004), in which he opposes the doctrine of the preexistence of the soul, but asserts its immortality and the resurrection of the body; the perpetuity of the world is rejected. Twenty-five of his letters may be found in R. Hercher, Epistolographi Grmci, pp. 24-32, Paris, 1873, and several of his treatises are in M. de la Bigne, Bibliotheca veterum patrum, viii. (8 vols., Paris, 1609-10); Magna bibliotheca, v. 3 and xii. (15 vols., Paris, 1618-22); and Maxima bibliotheca veterum patrum, viii. (28 vols., Lyons, 1677-1707). G. KRfER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Wernsdorf, Dieputatio de ffnea Gasao, Naumburg, 1818· K. Seitz, Die Schule von Gaza, pp. 2327, Heidelberg, 1892; K. Krumbacher, Geachichte der byzantiniechen Litteratur, p. 432, Munich, 1897; G. $ehalkhauser, Xneaa won Gaza all Phidosoph, Erlangen, 1898.

XNEAS OF PARIS: Bishop of Paris 858-870; d. Dec. 27, 870. He is best known as the author of one of the controversial treatises against the Greeks called forth by the encyclical letters of Photius. His comprehensive Liber adversus Grwcos (in D'Achery, Spicilegum, Paris, i., 1723, 113-148; MPL, cxxj. 681-762; cf. MGII, Eptat., vi., 1902, p. 171, no. 22) deals with the procession of the Holy Ghost, the marriage of the clergy, fasting, the conaignatio infantium, the clerical tonsure, the Roman primacy, and the elevation of deacons to the see of Rome. He declares that the accusations brought by the Greeks against the Latins are " Superfluous questions having more relation to secular matters than to spiritual." [The work is mainly a collection of quotations or " Sentences," from Greek and Latin Fathers, the former trans-

lated.] (A. HAucK.)




APINUS, &pf'nus, JOHANNES (Johann Hoeck): The first Lutheran superintendent of Hamburg; b. at Ziesar or Ziegesar (29 m. e.n.e. of Magdeburg), in the march of Brandenburg, 1499; d. in Hamburg May 13, 1553. He was a diligent student as a boy, and was under Bugenhagen's instruction, probably while the latter was rector of the monastery of Belbuck. He took his bachelor's degree at Wittenberg in 1520; here he became the friend of Luther and Melanchthon. Then he had a school in Brandenburg, but was persecuted and imprisoned for his reforming activity, and had to leave home. Partly on account of the malice of his enemies, he adopted the modified form of the Greek word aipeinos (" lofty "), by which he is generally known, and which he claimed was a translation of his real name (Hoeck=hoch). He spent some time in Pomerania, in close relations with the leaders of the Reformation there. From about 1524 to 1528 he was in Stralsund, in charge of a school (probably private). The local authorities asked him to draw up an order of ecclesiastical discipline (Kirchen ordnung), which went into effect Nov. 5, 1525. In Oct., 1529, he succeeded Johann Boldewan as pastor of St. Peter's in Hamburg. He carried on vigorously the work of his teacher and friend, Bugenhagen, and was chiefly instrumental in introducing his order of discipline in Hamburg. His contest with the cathedral chapter, which still adhered to the old faith, gave occasion to the earliest of his extant writings, Pinacidion de Romans ecclesite imposluris (1530). On May 18, 1532 he was appointed to the highest office in the Lutheran Church of Hamburg, that of superintendent according to Bugenhagen's order of discipline. In 1534 he visited England at the request of Henry VIII., to advise him as to his divorce and as to the carrying forward of the Reformation there. He returned to Hamburg in the following January, and subsequently made numerous journeys as a representative of the city in important affairs. He took part in all the church movements of the time, and frequently had the deciding voice in disputed matters. Melanchthon considered his work on the interim (1548) the best that had been written, though it did not agree with his own views.

In all his writings tEpinus displays great theological learning and equal gentleness of temper. He gave weekly theological lectures, usually in Latin, which were attended by the preachers and other learned men, and spent much time on the Psalms, taking up especially the questions which at the moment were agitating men's minds. He is best known by the controversy which arose over his teaching as to the descent of Christ into Hades. In 1542, finding that the article of the creed on this subject was frequently explained as meaning no more than the going down into the grave; in his lecture on the sixteenth psalm, he put forward the view, already given in Luther's explanation of the Psalms, that Christ had really gone down into hell, to deliver men from its power. Garcmus, his successor at St. Peter's, called him to account for this teaching, but left Hamburg in the following

year and did not return until 1546. Meantime lEpinus's commentary on Ps. xvi. had been published by his assistant Johann Freder, so that his view was widely known.

The controversy became a public and a bitter one after Garcmus's return, and both sides sought to gain support from Wittenberg. Melanchthon could only say that there was no agreement among the doctors on this point, and counsel peace. Xpinus's opponents in Hamburg were so turbulent that their leaders were deprived of their offices and banished from the city in 1551. The principal monument of tEpinus's activity in Hamburg is his ordinances for the church there, which he drew up in 1539 at the request of the council. It was a necessary amplification of that of Bugenhagen, and seems to have remained in force until 1603.

(CARL BERTHEAU.) BIBLIOGRAPHY: N. Staphorst, Hamburgiache Kirrhenge-

schickte, Il. i., Hamburg, 1729; A. Greve, Memoria J. ATqrini inetaurata, ib. 1736; N. Wilekens, Hamburgiacher Ehrentempel, pp. 248-280, ib. 1770; F. H. R. Frank, Theologie der Konkordienformel, 4 vols., Erlangen, 1858-65; Schaff, Creeds, i. 296-298.

AERIUS, a-6'ri-us: Presbyter and director of the asylum for strangers, maimed, and incapable, in Sebaste in Pontus in the fourth century. He was one of the progressive men of the time who protested against the legalistic and hierarchic tendencies of the Church. Supporting his contention by the Scriptures, he objected to the inequality of presbyters and bishops, denied the value of prayers for the dead, and opposed strict ordinances concerning fasting, which he wished to leave more to individual judgment. About 360 he resigned his position. He had many followers, who constituted a party of " Aerians "; they were severely persecuted and soon disappeared. The only source is Epiphanius (Hwr., Lxxv.; cf. Gieseler, Church History, i., section 106, note 3), who treats him in a very partizan spirit. PHILIPP MEYER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Glas, Monograph on the Heresy of Aerius. Perth. 1745; C. W. F. Walch, Histarie der KeLweien, iii. 321 sqq., Leipsic, 1766. AETIUS. See ARIANmM, I., 3, § 6.

AFFRE, DENIS AUGUSTE: Archbishop of Paris; b. at St. Rome de Tam (55 m. n.w. of Montpellier), Aveyron, France, Sept. 27, 1793; d. at Paris June 27, 1848. He studied at the Seminary of St. Sulpice and taught theology there after having been ordained priest (1818); he became vicar-general of the diocese of Lugon 1821, of Amiens 1823, of Paris 1834, archbishop of Paris 1840. As archbishop he was zealous and faithful, and lost his life in the performance of duty. During the revolution of 1848, hoping to induce the insurgents to lay down their arms, he mounted a barricade at the Faubourg St. Antoine and attempted to address the mob, but had hardly begun to speak when he was struck by a musket ball and mortally wounded. He was one of the founders of La France chrttienne (1820), wrote much for it and other periodicals, and published several treatises of value on educational, historical, and religious subjects.

BIBLIOGRA PRY: P. M. Cruice, Vie de D. A. A fire, Paris. 1841! (abridgod, 1850); E. Castan, Hietoira de la vie et de la mart de Mgr. D. A. Atlre, ib. 1858.



APRA, SAINT: An early female martyr, concerning whom all that can be confidently asserted is that she suffered at Augsburg. This fact is attested by Venantius Fortunatus (Vita Martini, iv. 642-643) and the mention of her name in the older martyrologies,, and there is no reason to question it since the importance of Augsburg makes the early introduction of Christianity there probable. Her Acta (ed. B. Krusch, MGH, Script., Rer. Merov., iii., 1896, 41-64) consist of two independent parts, Conversio and Passio, of which the latter is

I. The Continent as a Whole. 1. Geographical Description. 2. The Races of Africa. 3. The Opening of Africa.

the older. It is said that she was dedicated by her mother to the service of Venus and lived an immoral life in Augsburg until she was converted by a bishop and deacon, who, in time of persecution, took refuge in her house, not knowing her character. She boldly confessed her faith in a general onslaught on the Christians and died by fire Aug. 5.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rettberg. AD, i. 144-149; Friedrich, RD, i. 186-199, 427-430, ii. 853-854; L. Duaheene, Ste. Afra d'Aupabourg, in Bulletin critique, ii. (1897) 301-305.

AFRICA. The Prohibition of the Slave-Trade

Later Explorations and the Partition of Africa (§ 4).

The Arabs and Portuguese (¢ 1). 4. Religion and Missions. The General European Invasion (§ 2). Native Religions (§ I).

I. The Continent as a Whole: 1. Geographical Description: Africa extends southward from the Mediterranean Sea nearly 5,000 miles. The equator crosses it nearly in the middle of its length; but by far the greater part of its mass lies north of the equator, the breadth of the continent from Cape Verde to Cape Guardafui being about 4,600 miles. Its area is about 11,500,000 sq. miles; and the adjacent islands add to this 239,000 more. Easily accessible to Europe by the Mediterranean Sea through 2,000 miles of its northern coast, and touching Asia at the Isthmus of Suez, this continent has ever invited investigation, and has received notable influences from both of its active neighbors. The Sahara Desert, however, severing the Mediterranean coast regions from the southern and equatorial regions of the continent, has proved for centuries a bar to extended intercourse. " Had it not been for the River Nile," says Sir H. H. Johnston, " the negro and the Caucasian might have existed apart even longer without coming into contact." In fact, the great rivers of Africa are quite as important as aide to foreign intercourse in these days as the Desert has been an obstruction to it in the past. The greatest of the African rivers are the Nile, the Kongo, the Niger, and the Zambesi. Closely connected with the rivers, again, are the great lakes of central Africa, namely, Victoria, Tanganyika, and Nyassa, which belong, respectively, to the Nile, the Kongo, and the Zambesi systems. A further characteristic of the continent, noteworthy for all who seek entrance to its interior districts, is the insalubrity, one might say the deadliness, of the climate of its coasts both east and west throughout its tropical zone. The low-lying coast regions, extending in some cases 200 miles inland are sown with the graves of white men, germs of strange and fatal fevers lying in wait as it were for all strangers who venture to set foot unprepared upon that bleak and seething soil. The greatest mountains of Africa are all in its east central section. KilimaNjaro in German East Africa, east of the Victoria Nyanza, is 19,600 feet high; Mweru, close by, is about 16,000 feet; and Ruwenzori, west of the Victoria Nyanza and on the border of the Kongo Independent State, is over 20,000 feet. Among the high lands of the interior the most notable

Mohammedanism (¢ 2). Protestant Missions (¢ 3). Colonists and Missions (§ 4). The "Ethiopian Movement" (¢ b). II. The Political Divisions of Africa III. African Islands.

section is a broad causeway of elevated plateaux which stretches from Abyssinia southward almost to Cape Colony, and which offers to the white man an almost ideal residence at a height of from 5,000 to 6,000 feet through a long range that is hardly broken save by the Zambesi River.

2. The Races of Africa: The puzzle of the races in Africa which the casual visitor classes under the comprehensive term negroea is insoluble at this day. But the key to the puzzle may probably be found in the repeated mingling of Asiatic and European blood in varying degrees and at divers distinct epochs with the blood of the African of the projecting jaw and the woolly locks. The history of Africa is practically the history of Egypt and then of her Carthaginian rival until well toward the Christian era. Only then did the Mediterranean coast of North Africa begin to have a tale of its own. The mention of this is significant; it suggests the repeated entrance of Asiatica into Africa through the whole period when Egypt was a world power, and of various aorta of Europeans into North Africa during a thousand years before the Mohammedan era.

The races now inhabiting Africa are a perpetual subject of discussion and theory because of the difficulty of accounting for the resemblances as well as the differences between them. Along the Mediterranean coast of North Africa the Arab race rules; but in all the countries of this coast from the west frontier of Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean the Berber race forms the larger part of the population, sad even extends into the Sahara. A little further south, negroes of a low and degraded type are found on the west of the Nile; and they appear at different points throughout the continent as far west as the Atlantic coast. In Egypt the larger part of the

population is a mixture of Arabs with the ancient Egyptian race, commonly classed as Haulitea. This name distinguishes this people from the Semitic races, without throwing light on their origin.

Arabs appear also at intervals along, the coast of East Africa as far south as Portuguese East Africa in considerable numbers. In the northern section of this coast, along with the Arabs is found a race of negroes commonly called Nubians, the result apparently of mixtures of Arab, Egyptian, and



negro races. Abyssinia, the Somali coast, and the Galla country contain a large block of people of the Hamite race, divided into groups, however, by language as well as by religion. Along the Upper Nile as far as the borders of Uganda and eastward well toward the coast are found tribes of another type of negroes generally called the Nilotic group. The negroes of the western part of Africa north of the equator are not all of the degraded type that appears along the western coast. The Fulahs are of an entirely different race, resembling the Hamites, excepting in language. The Mandingoes of the interior of Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast, are also of a higher type, although their languages show no traces of northern or Asiatic influence.

Throughout Africa north of the equator small detached bodies of Arabs are found at different points; and in general the religious control of this whole great region is with the Mohammedans. For this reason north Africa is frequently spoken of as " Mohammedan Africa." It should be borne in mind, nevertheless, that throughout the region, many pagan tribes exist under Mohammedan rulers. South of the equator, generally speaking, the inhabitants of central Africa,. and indeed to the borders of Cape Colony, are of the Bantu stock, often warlike and of a much higher type of intelligence than the negroes of the western coast. In the southwestern part of the continent are remnants of the Hottentots and Bushmen, once numerous in Cape Colony, while throughout Cape Colony proper the natives are known as " colored people," and represent a residue of mixtures of races during centuries. A considerable number of Dutch and of British are found in South Africa; and Portuguese, as well as many Portuguese half-breeds, are numerous in Angola and Portuguese East Africa. European colonists are slowly entering the country on all sides and from all nations, but more than half of the continent can never be a fit residence for Europeans and must remain in the hands of the negro races.

This mixture of races stands in the place of a historical record concerning the people of Africa. Neither the Africans nor any others can read the record. It is the misfortune of the people of this continent to have no history except as appendages to the outside world; and the whole mass of allusions to them in ancient history has the vague quality of tradition. Even the Roman records lack precision, and remain generalities which throw little light on the history of the actual people of the continent.

3. The Opening of Africa: The Mohammedan conquest, beginning about 640, added little to knowledge of the continent, although the

1. The Arabs in time gave to the rest of Arabs and

Portu- the world information about the fertile guese. negro land beyond the desert in the un limited region to which they gave the name Sudan," the Country of the Blacks." Eight hundred years later the Portuguese undertook a won derful series of explorations of the African coasts, which between 1446 and 1510 began the process of stamping the continent as a possession of Europe.

Portugal named every important feature of the African coast as though she owned the whole continent, which in fact she did as far as the coasts were concerned. She ruled the west coast and the Cape of Good Hope from Lisbon, and the east coast, as a part of India, from Goa; and there were none but the Arabs to dispute her sway. She introduced missions also into her African possessions. But, after the fashion of the times, a mission had no objections to raise against maltreatment of the people to whom the land belonged.

At last in the seventeenth century began what may be called the third period of the opening of

Africa, the Arab invasion and the Por e. The tuguese occupation having been the

General first and second. The characteristic uropean of this third period was a rush by every

European nation that could handle ships to make the most money possible out of a vast territory whose inhabitants had not the ability to object. The Dutch took the Cape of Good Hope; and the British, the French, and the Spaniards all gained foothold in different parts of the western coast, and imprinted the nature of their enterprises upon the region by names which persist to this day; such as the " Gold Coast," the " Ivory Coast," the " Grain [of Paradise] Coast " and the " Slave Coast." When the slave-trade began, in the seventeenth century, the Germans, the Swedes, and the Danes also made haste to acquire territory whence they could despoil the continent. North Africa, however, remained in the fierce grip of Islam. The history of Africa was still a history of outsiders working their will upon the country. At the end of the eighteenth century the nations of the lesser European powers had all been dispossessed. Portugal held to her ancient acquisitions about the mouths of the Kongo and the Zambesi and began to try to discover what lay back of these; Great Britain had replaced the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope, thus securing an extensive region in which white men could live and thrive; while France and Spain had some small settlements on the northern part of the west coast of the continent.

The slave-trade, during nearly 200 years as far as Europe is concerned, and during uncounted centuries as concerns the Asiatic countries, sums up history for the African people. They know little else of their past; but they know that. That fearful traffic transported Africa westward, until from the Ohio River in the United States away southward to the valley of the Amazon in Brazil and throughout the West Indies, the population became strongly and often predominantly African.

A fourth era beans for Africa with the prohibition of the slave-trade by Denmark, Great Britain,

Holland, France. and Sweden (1792- 3. Prohi- 1819). It was the slave-trade and its bit ion of the horrors which turned Protestant mis slave- sionary activity toward Africa in the Trade. earliest days of the nineteenth cen-

tury; and it was the discussion which preceded the prohibition of slave-trading which suggested the beginning of a systematic exploration of Africa.


Africa THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 82 A fifth period of African history is that of effective exploration of the interior by Europeans 4. Later between 1840 and 1875. In this Eaplora- period the missionary Livingstone tione preceded Stanley. But Stanley, fol and the long Burton and Speke and Grant Partition and Cameron and seeking to find Liv of Africa. g

ingstone, turned the attention of the world to the vast commercial value of Africa. A sixth period is the period of partition, beginning when Great Britain, after taking possession of many of the best territories in the southern part of the continent, occupied Egypt in 1882. In the eager rush of the European powers which followed, the great continent, has been parceled out as a gold-field is parceled out by prospectors who protect by men with guns the stakes they have hastily driven into the soil, and who only then sit down to estimate the value of what they have secured in the scramble. So to the present day the history of Africa is a history of what outsiders have done in the continent rather than of what the people of the country have done or thought or planned.

4. Religion and Missions: A rapid survey of the modern political divisions of Africa will be given

under the name of each. It seems 1. Native well, however, to make here a few

Religions. general remarks upon some religious and social peculiarities of the people of the continent as a whole. The religion of Africa in its untouched and natural condition is not properly idolatrous. There is almost always some sense of a supreme being, who is a spirit, and from whom all power has originally proceeded. The actual religious observances of the people, however, except where they have been affected by Mohammedanism or by Christianity, are forms of spirit-worship connected with the use of fetishes (see FETTsmsnr).

Mohammedanism has become an indigenous religion in Africa. It rules absolutely the religious

thought of nine-tenths of the people 2· Xo- of the northern parts of the continent, hammed- and controls in a less degree millions

south of the Sahara from Nile to the Niger. As a civilizing force Mohammedanism has value. The first thing the awakened negro does under Mohammedan influence is to obtain a decent robe wherewith to cover himself. Islam wherever it goes ends cannibalism. Its scheme of religious motive in life is to commend religion by making it " easy " to those who find restraint hard. It teaches a certain proportion of the people to recite Arabic litanies of praise to God, and to read Arabic; but to the great mass of the negroes its effect includes neither knowledge of Arabic nor information on the dogmas of Islam. It encourages war in a positive and very read sense; its slaveraids know no amelioration through the change from the tenth to the twentieth century; and they are barely less brutalizing than the man-eating raids which they have displaced. The weakness of Mohammedanism as a civilizing force is that it can not raise men to a level higher than the old Arabian civilization which it is proud to represent. And it is a fact of the deepest meaning, from the missionary point of view, that negroes who have

become Mohammedans are equipped with an assurance of righteousness and knowledge which makes them almost impervious to Christian instruction.

The Protestant missions, on the other hand, bring to their converts the Christian civilization

of the twentieth century with its 8. Prote®- blessings and enlightenment. The t

Missions. belief that the commonest man will

be elevated by study of the Bible, makes the literary culture of African languages a first principle in every mission. More than 100 of the tribal dialects have been reduced to writing, and have been given an elementary Biblical study apparatus which improves as the capacity of the people develops. In the process the language itself becomes in some degree purified, and its words enriched by more profound meanings, until the language receives power to express feelings. In South Africa hundreds of native Protestant churches lead independent ecclesiastical lives under native pastors. It is perhaps too soon to claim that anything is proved by the moderate successes of a century of Protestant missions; but at least it is not out of place to emphasize the wide difference of aim between the two great branches of the Christian Church now working for the regeneration of the tribes of Africa.

African missions encounter difficulty from the European colonists. Their aim is quite different from that of the colonists. This alone would make friction and mutual opposition probable. But

the aim of the colonist is sometimes 4. Colo- aggressively opposed to that of the mis-

anions. sionary. That aim was frankly stated by the German Koloniale Zeitschrift early in 1904 as follows: " We have acquired this colony not for the evangelization of the blacks, not primarily for their well-being, but for us whites. Whoever hinders our object must be put out of the way." Such assumption of the right of might is found not only in German Southwest Africa; but in the Portuguese colonies, where the slave trade is still brutally active; in some of the French colonies, where the cruelties of the local adminis tration broke De Brazza's heart; and in the Kongo Independent State, where mutilations and other cruelties mark the Belgian rubber trade and are glossed over by the assurance that the cutting off of hands is an old native custom. The same spirit often appears in British colonies in Africa, but there 'it is repressed by the government. Where the colonist acts on the " might is right " principle the missionary works a stony soil.

The colonist has had occasion from the very beginning of missions in Africa to complain that

one effect of them is to make the people 6. The self-assertive. This is not a fault, "Ethiopian

Move- Provided the self-assertion does not meat." pass the limits of mutual right. Dur-

ing the last five or six years a movement among the native Christians of South Africa has attracted much attention. It is what is known as the " Ethiopian movement." Its watchword is " Africa for the Africans "; and its aim is to place all African churches under strictly African leader-



ship. There is a political sound in some of the utterances of the " Ethiopian " leaders; and the local governments are on the alert to check any developments along that line, more especially since American Africans have taken a hand in the movement. There appears to be some connection between this movement and the revolt of the tribes in the south of German Southwest Africa. Whatever the final outcome, it appears certain that as the African tribes learn to think for themselves they must assert their manhood; and, however foolish and futile some of the manifestations of this growing manhood may be, the fact itself is a token that ought to be welcomed. Through it Africa may yet have a history of its own.

II. The Political Divisions of Africa: Abyssinia: The only Christian country of Africa which resisted the Mohammedan irruption. It consists for the most part of a mountain knot in which rise the Atbara River and the Blue Nile, and lies between the Egyptian Sudan and the Red Sea. Area about 150,000 sq. miles; population about 3,500,000; religion, a debased form of the Coptic Church with over 3,000,000 adherents. There are also between 60,000 and 100,000 Jews (called Falashas, " exiles "), and about 50,000 Mohammedans, besides 300,000 pagans. The prevailing language is the Amharic with dialects in different sections. The sacred books of the church are in Ethiopic or Geez. The Gallas in the south have a language of their own. In 1490 Portuguese explorers introduced the Roman Catholic religion into Abyssinia. In 1604 a Jesuit mission was established which finally won the adhesion of the emperor. Intrigues led to their expulsion after about thirty years. The Carmelites and Augustinians also engaged in the work, but with no lasting results; the mission was entirely abandoned in 1797. All attempts to reestablish Roman Catholic missions were thwarted until the early part of the nineteenth century. The Lazarists succeeded about 1830 in gaining a foothold in various provinces. They were again expelled from the interior provinces, and now have their headquarters in the Italian territory of Eritrea (see below). A strong missionary advance into Harrar is also being made from Jibuti.

The earliest effort to establish a Protestant mission in Abyssinia was that of Peter Heyling, a law student of Liibeck. He went there in 1640, won favor with the Abyssinian court circles, and began to translate the Bible into colloquial Amharic. He was captured by Turks in 1652, and, refusing to become a Mohammedan, was decapitated, leaving no trace of his work. In 1752 Christian Frederick William Hocker, a Moravian physician, began a persistent effort to establish a mission in Abyssinia. But the mission got no further than Egypt, and was recalled after the death of Hocker in 1782. In 1830 the Church Missionary Society established a mission in Abyssinia, which was broken up in 1838. Later the London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews sent missionaries to the Falashas. Suspicions of political designs hampered the missionaries; and in 1863 they were imprisoned by the emperor. A British military expedition stormed Magdala, the capital, in 1868

and freed the captives; but the mission was not again undertaken. In 1866 the Swedish National Missionary Society began a mission in the border of the province of Tigre, near Massowah. For fifteen years the mission made little progress, suffering through the hostility of the people and through attacks of disease. Then the earliest converts were baptized, the first a Galls slave, and next a Mohammedan. In 1904 the society had ten stations in Eritrea (see below) and had succeeded in sending, with the consent of -the authorities, native preachers into the southern Galls country west of Gojam. The Bible has a limited circulation in Abyssinia in several versions. The old Ethiopic Church version has been revised, and printed by the British Bible Society. The whole Bible has been translated into Amharic (1824), and into the southern Galls dialect (1898). The New Testament has been rendered (1830) into the Tigr6 dialect of the Geez, and single Gospels into Falasha, into two Galla dialects, and into Bogos. See ABYSSINIA AND THE ABYSSINIAN CHURCH.

Algeria: A French possession in northern Africa extending southward from the Mediterranean a somewhat uncertain distance into the Desert of Sahara. Area about 184,474 sq. miles; population about 4,739,000. The Algerian Sahara has about 198,000 sq. miles in addition, with a population estimated at 62,000. Although Algeria is regarded as a part of France, it still remains a Mohammedan country. The Mohammedan population is rather vaguely estimated at about 4,100,000, considerable uncertainty existing as to the number of inhabitants of the military district in the hinterland. The Christian population of Algeria is chiefly Roman Catholic (527,000). There are also about 25,000 Greeks, Armenians, and Copts, and about 30,000 Protestants. The number of Jews is 57,000. The language of the country outside of the European colonies is Arabic with several dialects of the Berber language known here as Kabyle (i.e. " tribesman "). Algeria forms an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church, and is the seat of the Algerian Missionary Society organized through the energetic efforts of Cardinal Lavigerie (q.v.), for missionary enterprises on the edge of the Sahara and in Senegambia and other African districts as far south as Lake Tanganyika. Protestant missionary enterprises are represented in Algeria by the following: two French societies working among the Jews; Miss Trotter's educational mission; the Plymouth Brethren, who have ten missionaries in different cities in Algeria, but publish no statistics; a small Swedish mission; and the North Africa mission, which occupies four stations and carries on a number of small schools for Mohammedans. None of these missions has a very large following among the natives. In fact missionaries are not allowed by the French authorities to engage in open evangelization among Mohammedans. The Arabic version of the Bible has a limited circulation in Algeria. A colloquial version of some of the Gospels has been prepared for the use of the common people who have difficulty in understanding the classical Arabic. Some parts of the Bible have



been translated into the Kabyle dialect; and this version, too, has a steady though small circulation. A painful historical interest attaches to the town of Bugia in Algeria. as the scene of the martyrdom in 1315 of Raymond Lully (q.v.), the missionary to the Mohammedans.

Angola: A colony of Portugal in West Africa, with a coast-line extending from the mouth of the Kongo River to the borders of German Southwest Africa. It extends into the interior to the Kongo Independent State. Area 484,000 sq. miles; population about 4,000,000, of whom 1,000,000 are rated as Roman Catholics. The Portuguese carried Roman Catholic missions to Angola in the last quarter of the fifteenth century, and a century later established a full ecclesiastical hierarchy in the old kingdom of Kongo, which lay on the left bank of the Kongo. Large numbers of the people of the old kingdom were converted to Christianity, even the king of the Kongo tribes being baptized in 1490. The residence of the king was at the place now known as San Salvador, in the northern part of Angola. This was the seat of the first Roman Catholic bishops. The residence of the bishop was afterward removed to St. Paul de Loanda on the coast, and the buildings at San Salvador fell into ruin as well as the human edifice of the Church in that region. During a hundred years or more the Church gave its blessing to the slave-trade, even the missionaries engaging in it and the bishop encouraging it. This confusion of missionary and mercantile enterprises perhaps accounts for the little progress made by early Christianity in Angola. The present Roman Catholic missionary force is in connection with the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and Sacred Heart of Mary, the mission being connected with the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon (Ulysippo).

Protestant missions in Angola were commenced in 1879 by the Baptist Missionary Society of England, which occupied San Salvador and the northern part of the Loanda district as a part of its Kongo mission. The American Board opened a mission partly supported by Canadian Congregationalists, in the Benguela district in 1880. In 1882 the Livingstone Inland Mission (English) established a station, in connection with its Kongo mission, in Portuguese territory at Mukimvika on the left bank of the Kongo. This mission was turned over to the American Baptist Missionary Union two years later. In 1886 Bishop William Taylor (q.v.) opened seven missionary stations in the district of Loanda, which are now carried on by the American Methodist Episcopal Church. The Plymouth Brethren also have a mission in Angola, and the Swiss Phil-African Mission under Heli Chatelain has a single station in Benguela, called Lincoln. All of these missions make use of education, industrial training, and medical aid to the suffering as instruments for evangelizing and elevating the people. Together these various Protestant missions report (1904) 65 missionaries (men and women),142 native workers, 50 schools of all classes, 4,235 pupils, with about 4,000 reputed Christians. These Protestant missions have the commendation of the higher and the secret execration of the

lower Portuguese officials; they are also hampered by the open hostility of the Portuguese traders and colonists; but they are encouraged by the growing desire of the natives to learn to read and to be men. The native tribes of the interior are numerous, and often separated by barriers of language, although chiefly of Bantu stock. Parts of the Bible have been translated into the Kimbundu, and the Umbundu dialects, and printed respectively at the presses of the Methodist Episcopal and the American Board missions.

Basutoland: A native protectorate in South Africa, governed by native chiefs under a British commissioner. It lies north of Cape .Colony, with the Orange River Colony and Natal forming its other boundaries. Area 10,293 sq. miles; population (1904) 348,500, of whom 900 are whites. No white colonists are admitted to this territory. The Basutos belong to the Bantu race; and their language is closely allied to the Zulu-Kafir language. About 300,000 of the people are pagans; about 40,000 are Protestant Christians; and about 5,000 are Roman Catholics. The capital of the territory it Maseru, where the British commissioner resides. The Protestant missions in Basutoland are maintained by the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, which entered the country under Rolland and Semue in 1833, and by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, which began its work in 1875. These two societies have about twenty-eight principal stations and more than 200 outstations with schools, seminaries, printing establishments, etc. The Roman Catholic missions are erected into a prefecture apostolic. They have 6,000 converts. The missions are carried on by Oblates of Mary the Immaculate. Statistics are difficult to obtain, since the reports do not separate work in Basutoland from that of the Orange River Colony and Griqualand. The Bible has been translated by Casalis and Mabille of the Paris mission into the language of the Basutos, generally spoken of as Suto or Leesuto (1837). There is also quite a Christian literature in the same language.

Bechuanaland Protectorate: A British protectorate in South Africa; lying between the Molopo River and the Zambesi, with German Southwest Africa on the west, and Transvaal and Rhodesia on the east. Area 275,000 sq. miles much of it being desert; population (1904) 119,772, besides 1,000 whites. It is governed by native chiefs, Khama, Sebele, and Bathoen, each ruling his own tribe. The British commissioner, who supervises all, lives at Mafeking.

The country is traversed by the railway leading from Cape Town northward. Among the regulations is one which forbids the granting of licenses to sell liquor. Somewhat over 100,000 of the people are pagans, and about 15,000 are Christians. The Bible has been translated into the language of the chief tribes, which is called Chuan or Sechuan (1831) and single Gospels into Matabele and Mashona. Roman Catholic missions in this territory are under the charge of the Jesuits connected with the Zambesi mission. Statistics are very difficult to obtain, but the Roman Catholic Church seems to have about 3,000 adherents. Protestant missions are



carried on by the London Missionary Society, which extended its work to this territory in 1862, and by the Hermannsburg Missionary Society of Germany, which entered the territory in 1864. It is difficult to obtain the exact statistics of either of these societies, since the mission reports of both cover land beyond the borders of the Bechuanaland Protectorate. It is estimated, however, that the number of their adherents is not far from 12,000.

British East Africa Protectorate: A territory under British control in the eastern part of Africa, includingcoast landsten miles widenominally belonging to Zanzibar. The protectorate extends inland to the borders of Uganda. Area about 200,000 sq. miles. While the coast regions are on the whole not healthful, there is a broad belt of highland 300 miles back from the coast which is most suitable for European habitation; and it was upon this belt of highland that the British government invited the Hebrew Zionists to establish a colony. A railway has been constructed from Mombasa to Kisumu on the Victoria, Nyanza. The population is estimated at 4,000,000, of whom 500 are Europeans and about 25,000 Hindus, Chinese, Goanese, and other Asiatics. Many Arabs are found in the coast districts, especially in the northern part of the territory; and with them are the mixed race called by the Arabs Suahili (" coast people "). Inland the larger part of the population is of the Bantu race; but there are some powerful tribes like the Masai and Nandi who are of Nilotic stock. In the northern part of the country Gallas and Somalis are found. The capital, Mombasa, has had a checkered history. It was founded by the Arabs, who were in possession when the Portuguese arrived in 1498. The Portuguese continued in power with various vicissitudes until their colony was destroyed 200 years later by the Arabs. The actual British acquisition of this territory dates from 1886 to 1890.

Roman Catholic missions were established on this coast by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century, the stations being treated as an outlying district of the ecclesiastical province of Goa on the west coast of India. The missions followed the fortunes of the Portuguese occupation. They were reestab. lished in 1860 at Zanzibar. Protestant missions began with the arrival of Johann Ludwig Krapf, of the Church Missionary Society, in 1844. They were followed by the United Methodist Free Church in 1861, the Leipsic Missionary Society in 1886, the Neukirchen Missionary Institute in 1887, the Scandinavian Alliance Mission of North America in 1892, and the African Inland Mission, an American enterprise, in 1895. The Church of Scotland Foreign Missions Committee is preparing to enter the country also. All of these societies together report 172 missionaries, 92 stations and outstations with schools and hospitals, and about 11,000 adherents. The languages of the tribes of this territory differ greatly from each other; and several versions of the Bible will have to be prepared for them. A beginning has been made in translating the Gospels into the Suahili, Nandi, Masai, Somali, and Galls languages.

The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, lying off the coast of German East Africa, politically belong I.-5

to this territory. Area of the two islands 1,020 sq. miles; population 200,000, including 10,000 East Indians and about 200 Europeans. Zanzibar has played an important part in the history of East and Central Africa since the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the region was occupied by Arabs of Muscat. It became a great center of African trade, including the slave-trade. The domains of the Sultan of Zanzibar extended along the whole coast from Mozambique nearly to the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the influence of Great Britain has been gradually increasing, and so leading up to the present protectorate. Germany obtained the southern part of the possessions of Zanzibar on the mainland; Italy bought in 1905 its possession on the Somali coast; and a strip ten miles wide on the coast of British East Africa alone remains to the sultan of all his domains on the mainland, he himself being under the tutelage of a British official. Zanzibar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, with missions conducted by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, in both islands and on the mainland. The mission has about 3,500 adherents. There are ten stations. Schools and hospitals, conducted by Roman Catholic sisters, have been built in the city of Zanzibar. Protestant missions are represented by the Universities Mission which, after abandoning the Shir6 country in 1861, moved its headquarters to the city of Zanzibar. Here Bishops William George Tozer, Edward Steere, and Charles Alan Smythies prepared the way for advance into the interior. The mission has a very fine cathedral and hospitals and schools in the island of Zanzibar, besides a line of stations on the mainland in German East Africa, which extends to Lake Nyassa. What has already been said of versions of the Bible in British East Africa applies to Zanzibar also. The city of Zanzibar itself is a Babel of all African nations and tribes.

Cane Colony: A British colony occupying the southern part of the African continent; bounded on the north by German Southwest Africa, Bechuanaland, the Orange River Colony, Basutoland, and Natal. The colony was founded by the Dutch in 1652, was taken by the British in 1796, was again given up to Holland in 1803, was reoccupied by the British in 1806, and, finally, was ceded to Great Britain in 1814. Area (1904), including native states and Walfisch Bay on the coast of German Southwest Africa, 276,995 sq. miles; population (1904) 2,405,552, of whom 580,380 are white, and 1,825,172 are colored. Of the colored population about 250,000 are a mixture of various races; 15,000 are Malays; and the rest are Hottentots, Kafirs, Fingoes, Bechuanas, etc. About 1,118,000 of the population are Protestants; 23,000 are Roman Catholics; 20,000 are Mohammedans; 4,000 are Jews; while 1,226,000 are pagans. Roman Catholic missions were represented in the colony before the English occupation, by two priests riding in Cape Town. In 1806, when the British captured the colony, these priests were expelled. Sixteen years later two priests were again stationed at Cape Town, without liberty, however, to go into the surrounding country. The existing



mission in the colony did not commence until 1837, when Raymond Griffith arrived. He had been an Irish Dominican monk, was appointed vicar apostolic and consecrated bishop by the Archbishop of Dublin, Aug. 24, 1837. Roman Catholic missions now occupy about 100 stations and outstations in the colony. There are two vicariates and a prefecture apostolic.

Protestant Christians do not seem to have worked among the native population during the Dutch period. In 1737 the Moravian George Schmidt was sent to Cape Town, at the request of certain ministers in Holland, to try to benefit the Hottentots and the Bushmen. His success only served to anger the colonists; and he was sent back to Europe in 1742. Fifty years later, in 1792, the Moravians were permitted to reopen their mission in Cape Colony and it has been continued and expanded until the present time, now extending to the east and west. From 1822 to 1867 it had charge of the leper settlement at Hemel en Aarde and Robben Island. About 20,000 native Christians are connected with the Moravian mission. The London Missionary Society began a mission in Cape Colony in 1799 with Vanderkemp as its first missionary, and with such men as Moffat, Livingstone, Philip, and Mackenzie as his successors in a long and brilliant history which through many pains has added some 70,000 natives to the Christians body within the colony. , The society has moved its missions northward into Bechuanaland and Rhodesia, one single station being still retained at Hankey in Cape Colony as an educational center. The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society of England commenced a mission in the colony in the year 1814 with Barnabas Shaw as its first missionary. This mission afterward spread over the whole of the colony, and extended into Natal, Transvaal, Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia. The care of the native congregations within the colony now rests with the South African Methodist Church, which has connected with it native Christians to the number of 113,600. The Glasgow Missionary Society in 1821 sent two missionaries into Kaffraria which has since been annexed to Cape Colony. The Scottish missions have been greatly extended and are now conducted under the United Free Church of Scotland, having given to missionary history such names as Ross and James Stewart, the latter called by the British High Commissioner " the biggest human " in the region. They extend through Kaffraria into Natal and have a native following of some 30,000. Their most prominent work is in the great educational establishments of Lovedale and Blythwood, which have tested and proved the ability of the Kafir-Zulu race to become civilized and useful. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel began a mission in Cape Colony in 1821. This mission is now practically merged into the diocesan work of the Anglican Church which reports some 20,000 baptized native Christians. The Paris Missionary Society felt its way into Basutoland from a station at Tulbagh (1830). The Berlin Missionary Society (1834) with 38 stations and 10,000 adherents, and the Rhenish (1829) and the Hermannsburg (1854) missionary

societies of Germany also have extensive and successful missions in Cape Colony. The African Methodist Episcopal Church, the National Baptist Convention, the Seventh-day Adventists, all from the United States, the Plymouth Brethren, and the Salvation Army are also engaged in missionary work at various points in this great colony.

Among the achievements of missions must be reckoned the success of the Rev. Dr. John Philip of the London Missionary Society in securing attention on the part of the government to the infringement of ordinary rights of natives in the midst of a rush of colonists inclined to regard the natives as mere obstacles to be removed. Dr. Philip was calumniated and persecuted; but the authorities finally understood that righteous treatment of the blacks is a necessity to the prosperity of the colony. The appearance in recent years of the " Ethiopian movement " (see above, I., 4, § 5) has aroused much suspicion; nevertheless, the authorities aim to secure justice to all, and more and more rely on missions to raise the moral standard of the negro community. See CAPE COLONY.

Central Atkioa Protectorate (British): Aterritory lying west and south of Lake Nyassa, and popularly called Nyassaland. Its southern portion includes the Shir6 highlands and extends southward along the Shird River as far as to the mouth of the Ruo. Area 40,980 sq. miles; population estimated at 990,000. Religion chiefly fetish-worship. About 300,000 of the people are Mohammedans, and about 18,000 are Christians. There is, however, no regular census, and these figures are mere estimates. Europeans living in the protectorate number about 500; and there are about 200 East Indians connected with the military establishment. The language of the Angoni hillmen is a dialect of Zulu; that of the lake people is in several dialects of which that known as Nyanja (" lake "), is becoming prevalent; that of the eastern part of the Shim district is Yao.

Lake Nyassa was discovered by Dr. Livingstone in 1859. The country then was a select huntingground of Arab slave-raiders from Zanzibar and of the Portuguese from the Zambesi. Until 1895, when the slave-raids were stopped by the British authorities, it is said that about 20,000 men, women, and children each year were seized and made to carry ivory to the coast. There they were sold along with the ivory which they had painfully borne for 500 miles. Into such an environment missionaries went at the instance of Livingstone, risking, and with disheartening frequency sacrificing, life because they believed that the people could be saved by teaching them the principles of manhood. The Arabs and the Yao savages were against them, the climate sapped their strength, and even wild beasts attacked them. Yet the missionaries won the day, with their Bible, their practical lessons in kindliness, and with their schools, their industrial training, and their high moral principles. The story of the founding of the protectorate is a story of heroism and of the power of the Bible which the devoted missionaries gave to a people whose very speech was illiterate.

The Universities Mission, established at Living. stone's request, entered the Shir6 territory under



Bishop Charles Frederick Mackenzie in 1861. The hostility of the slave-raiders and the rigors of the climate broke up the mission for a time, but it is now thoroughly established at Likoma Island 'in Lake Nyassa, and in some sixty villages on the east shore of the lake and among the Yao tribesmen in the eastern part of the Shird district. The Livingstonia Mission of the Free Church of Scotland, entered the country in 1875 and established its headquarters first at Cape Maclear at the south end of the lake, moving afterward to high land well toward the northern end of the lake, where the Livingstonia Institution now stands in a most salubrious spot overlooking the western shore. This mission has about 240 stations and outstations. The schools, printing-house, hospitals, and industrial training establishments of this mission are noteworthy for completeness and beneficent influence quite as much as for their conquest of the chaos which existed when the missionaries arrived on the field. The Church of Scotland founded a mission in the Shiro highlands in 1876. The site was chosen because the missionaries were too ill and exhausted to go farther than the little group of native huts which seemed a haven of rest. Close by that miserable village has arisen about the mission the little town of Blantyre, whose postoffice is now a recognized station of the Universal Postal Union. This mission has about forty stations and outstations and a fine group of schools and hospitals. The Zambesi Industrial Mission has taken up a large tract of land lying to the northwest of Blantyre and is teaching the natives to cultivate coffee and other valuable crops. It has about thirty schools in connection with its various settlements. The South African (Dutch) Ministers' Union of Cape Town established a mission in 1901 in the Angoni hill-country west of Lake Nyassa. It has seven stations and is winning favor among the people. All of these missions have been greatly aided by a commercial enterprise known as the African Lakes Corporation, formed in 1878 by Scottish business men with the definite purpose of cooperating with the missions in civilizing the people of the protectorate. It has organized a regular steamboat service on the lake and the Shim River to the coast at Chinde, and is at last on a paying business basis. The formal establishment of the British protectorate over the lake district took place in 1891. It is one of the marks of progress in the civilization of the tribes of the region that in 1904 a large section of the fierce Angoni tribe voluntarily accepted British control and British regulations. The missions named above have about 190 missionaries (men and women), 985 native preachers and teachers, 25,000 children in their schools, and about 16,000 professing Christians on their rolls. Several of the languages of the protectorate have been reduced to writing and the Bible is in process of publication in the Nyanja, several dialects of which, the Yao, the Konde, and the Tong, are now being unified. The Angoni tribe, in the western part of the protectorate, being of Zulu race, are able to use the Zulu Bible, of which a considerable number of copies are brought from South Africa every year.

Nyassaland is carried on the lists of the Roman Catholic Church as a provicariate confided to the care of the Algerian Missionary Society. But beyond 10 missionaries, 2 schools, and 1,000 adherents little can be learned of the progress of the mission.

Dahomey: A French possession in West Africa having a coast-line of seventy miles between Togoland and the British colony of Lagos, and extending northward to the French territory of Senegambia and the Niger. The French gained their first footing on this coast in 1851, Area 60,000 sq. miles; population estimated at about 1,000,000, commonly of unmixed. negro stock: Capital, Porto Novo on the coast. About sixty miles of railway have been built and 400 miles are projected. It is worth noting that of the whole value of the annual imports into Dahomey one-fourth represents the liquor traffic. A Roman Catholic mission has existed for some years under the direction of the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa. There are twenty-two missionaries and fifteen schools. The number of the Roman Catholics in the mission is estimated at about 5,000. The only Protestant mission is that of the Wesleyan Missionary Society with a central station at Porto Novo. It has two missionaries who are of French nationality and it occupies ten outstations in the interior. The number of professing Protestant Christians is about 1,000.

Egypt: A tributary province of the Turkish empire lying on the Mediterranean Sea east of Tripoli, and touching Arabia on the east at the Isthmus of Suez. Area (excluding the Sudan) about 400,000 sq. miles, of which the Nile Valley and Delta, comprising the most of the cultivated and inhabited land, cover only about 13,000 sq. miles. The country is ruled by a hereditary prince called the Khedive, under British tutelage and control. Population (1897) 9,734,405. Capital, Cairo. The Mohammedan population of Egypt numbers about 8,979,000. Of the Christians 648,000 belong to the Oriental Churches, 608,000 being connected with the Coptic or Old Egyptian Church. There are also 56,000 Roman Catholics and 27,000 Protestants. About 25,000 of the population are Jews. The Roman Catholic establishments in Egypt date from the beginning of the seventeenth century, being at that time connected with the orders in charge of the holy places at Jerusalem. The present apostolic vicariate of Egypt was established in 1839. Roman Catholic missions in Egypt are under the minor Franciscan friars and the Lyons Seminary for Missions. There are also Lazarists, Jesuits, and Sisters of the Order of the Good Shepherd, Sisters of the Order of the Mother of God, Sisters of the Order of San Carlo Borromeo, and Sisters of Our Lady of Sion. There are about ninety schools, besides orphanages, hospitals, and other benevolent establishments. Protestant missions are carried on by the American United Presbyterian Mission (1854), the Church Missionary Society ('m its present form 1882), the North Africa Mission, the Egypt General Mission, the Church of Scotland Committee on Missions to the Jews, the London Jews Society, the American Seventh-day Adventist



Medical Missions, the (German) Sudan Pioneer Mission, and the (German) Deaconesses of Kaiserswerth (1857). The United Presbyterian Mission is the largest of these missions, occupying stations throughout the Nile Valley and in the Sudan. All together these missions report 166 stations and outstations, 154 missionaries, with . 515 native workers, 171 schools, with over 14,000 pupils and students, ten hospitals and dispensaries, two publishing houses, and about 26,000 adherents. Under British control religious liberty is more or less assured. As a consequence Mohammedans are also included in small numbers among the mission converts. The Church Missionary Society's mission publishes a weekly paper in Arabic and English expressly for Mohammedans. The Bible in Arabic, translated and printed at the expense of the American Bible Society in Beirut, is circulated throughout Egpyt, Arabic being the language of the people. See EGYPT.

Eritrea: An Italian possession in Africa extending 670 miles along the coast of the Red Sea and inland to Abyssinia and the Egyptian Sudan. Area about 85,500 sq. miles; population (estimated) 450,000, of whom about 3,000 are Europeans. The capital is Asmara. The native population of Eritrea is chiefly nomadic. In religion more than 100,000 may be reckoned Mohammedans; 17,000, Roman Catholic; 12,000, of the Eastern Churches; 1,000, Protestants; and 500, Jews. The remainder of the population is pagan, belonging to different races. Roman Catholic missionaries have made this region a basis of operations in Abyssinia for nearly three centuries, having been expelled from Abyssinia proper a number of times. Their central establishments are now at Massowah (Massaua) and Keran, where they have a hospital, schools, and two or three orphanages. Protestant missions in Eritrea also directed toward the Abyssinian population are carried on by the Swedish National Society. They have 10 stations on the borders of Tigr6 and in the province formerly known as Bogoa with about 15 schools, a hospital, a dispensary, and a small but growing band of evangelical Christians. The Swedish missions have done good service in securing a translation of the Bible into the Galls language (1898), and through trained native workers have succeeded in establishing themselves among the Galls people in the south of Abyssinia.

French Guinea: A territory forming a part of the newly organized administrative region known as French West Africa. It lies on. the coast between Portuguese Guinea and the British colony of Sierra Leone, extending inland some 400 miles to the district of Senegambia and the Niger. Area about 95,000 sq. miles; population estimated at 2,200,000. About 1,000,000 are Mohammedans; more than 1,000,000 are pagans; 1,000 are Roman Catholics, and 500 are Protestants. The capital is Konakry; from which place a railway is now under construction to the Niger River. French colonization in this district began as long ago as 1685, but its development has only been of recent date (1843). The government is undertaking in this, as in all other parts of French West Africa, to introduce

a uniform system of education. This, if carried out, will prove of inestimable advantage to the population. The Roman Catholic mission in French Guinea, is carried on by the Lyons Congregations of the Holy Ghost and of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. There are about 10 missionaries with 12 schools. A Protestant missionary enterprise, following one commenced in 1804 by the Church Missionary Society, is carried on in the Rio Pongas region by West Indian Christians aided by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The missionaries are colored men from the West Indies specially chosen for this work, which has been undertaken with the thought of making amends to Africa for the wrongs inflicted upon its people by England and her colonies. The New Testament has been translated into the Susu language (1858).

French Bongo: A French colonial possession which occupies the west coast of Africa between the Spanish possessions of the Rio Muni on the borders of the Kongo Independent State and Kamerun, and which extends inland to Lake Chad. The French occupation began in 1841 in a small colony on the Gabun River. Its extension to the Kongo River followed the explorations of De Brazza, between 1875 and 1880. Area about 450; 000 sq. miles; population estimated at from 8,000,000 upward. Capital, Libreville on the Gabun. Adjoining this territory in the Lake Chad region, Bagirmi, comprising some 20,000 sq. miles, and Wadai, with 170,000 sq. miles, in 1903 submitted to the French control. These two territories are strongly Mohammedan. French Kongo proper has about 3,500,000 Mohammedans in its northern sections, the remainder of the people being pagans of the usual African type. In race the people of the coast are not of the Bantu stock found in the interior.

Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary and the Algerian missionary order. The ecclesiastical center is Santa Maria on the Gabun, where is the vicariate, erected in 1842 under the name, at first, of " the apostolic vicariate of both Guineas." In the Roman Catholic mission there are about fifty priests and about thirty schools with about 5,000 adherents. Protestant missions were established in 1842 by missionaries of .the American Board. The mission was afterward transferred to the American Presbyterian Board (North), and later for political reasons the interior stations were passed over to the French missionaries of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society. Together these two mission& have 23 missionaries and about 1,200 adherents. The languages having been reduced to writing by missionaries, the Bible has been translated into Mpongwe (1850-74) and Benga (1858-88), and various parts have been translated into Dikele, Fang (also called by the French Pahouin), Bulu, and Galwa.

Gambia: A British colony and protectorate lying on both sides of the Gambia River, extending some 250 miles inland from its mouth and closely hemmed in by the French West African territory. The colony was commenced in 1662. Area, estimated

(1903), . 3,061 sq. miles; population, estimated



(1903), 163,781; capital, Bathurst on the Island of Saint Mary. There are about 90,000 Mohammedans in the colony, 56,000 pagans, 4,000 Roman Catholics, and 2,000 Protestant Christians. All of these figures, however, are estimates, excepting as to the colony proper. The Roman Catholic mission is under the care of the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa, and carries on two or three schools. The Protestant mission is carried on by the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society which entered the colony in 1821. It has 7 outstations, 4 schools, and about 2,000 adherents in the colony. The Society of Friends established a mission in this colony in 1822, and schools were carried on by Hannah Hilham until her death in 1832, when the mission was given up. The history of the Protestant missions here includes a very considerable loss of life among the missionaries, due to the unhealthfulness of the country. The Arabic Bible is used to a limited extent, and parts of the Bible have been translated also into the Wolof and Mandingo languages.

German East Africa: A German colony and sphere of influence lying on the east coast of Africa, between British East Africa and Portuguese East Africa, and extending inland to Lakes Nyassa and Tanganyika. Area about 384,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 7,000,000, including 1,437 Europeans. There are about 15,000 Arabs, Indians, Chinese, and other Asiatics in this territory. A railway has been built from Tanga on the coast about eighty miles inland to Korogwe; it is to be carried ultimately to Lake Tanganyika. In religion the people of the country are: pagans, about 6,500,000; Mohammedans, for the most part near the coast, 300,000; Hindus, Buddhists, etc., 12,000; Roman Catholics, 20,000; Protestants, 7,000. Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, the Trappists, -the Benedictines, and the Algerian Missionary Society. They have extensive establishments about the northern and eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika, and report 58 stations, 195 missionaries, 77 nuns, and 295 schools with 17,823 scholars. It is possible that a part of the figures here given refer to missions lying beyond the border of the Kongo Independent State. Ecclesiastical jurisdiction centers at Zanzibar. The Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society, the Universities Mission, the German East Africa Mission, the Leipsic Missionary Society, the Moravian Church, and the Berlin Missionary Society. The two last-named societies are active at the north end of Lake Nyassa; and the Moravians are extending stations thence northward. The Universities Mission has stations along the Rovuma River and on the eastern shore of Lake Nyassa. The Berlin society has a station at Dar-al-Salam on the Indian Ocean; and the other German societies have their stations mostly along the northern boundary and in the foothills of Mounts KilimaNjaro and Mweru. All these societies together report 60 central stations, 123 missionaries, and 230 schools with about 11,000 scholars. The Leipsic society has a printing-press, and publishes a newspaper at one of the Hilima-Njaro stations.

The Suahili version of the Bible is used along the coast (completed in 1892). The New Testament has been translated into Yao (1880) and Gogo (1887). Some of the Gospels have been translated into Bondei, Chagga, Kaguru, Nyamwezi, Sagalla, Shambale, and Sukuma, and the translation is progressing in several of these as the people acquire a taste for reading.

German Southwest Africa: A German colony and protectorate on the west coast of Africa, lying south of Angola and bounded on the east and south by Cape Colony and the Bechuanaland protectorate. Area 322,450 sq. miles; population about 200,000, composed of Namaquas (Hottentots) and Damaras, with Hereros and Ovambos in the north, who are of Bantu stock. The European population numbers 4,682. Walfisch Bay on this coast is a British possession belonging to Cape Colony. The seat of administration is Windhoek. The chief seaport is Swakopmund, whence a railway of 236 miles leads to Windhoek. The Hereros in the north and the Namaquas in the south have been at war against the German authorities since 1904, and the colony has suffered much in consequence. Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Oblates of Hanfeld, and the Oblates of St. Francis of Sales (Vienna). The latter have 2 missionaries and 4 nuns. The other missions have been disturbed by the war, and statistics are not given. Protestant missions are carried on by the Rhenish Missionary Society of Germany, and the Finland Missionary Society. Together these societies had about 16,000 adherents before the war; but recent statistics are lacking, a number of the stations having been destroyed. The Bible has been translated into Namaqua (1881), and the New Testament into Herero (1877). Some Gospels have been completed in Kuanyama and Ndonga (Ovambo).

Gold Coast Colony: A British crown colony and territory stretching for 350 miles along the Gulf of Guinea, in West Africa, between the Ivory Coast and Togoland. Area 119,260 sq. miles; population 1,500,000. About 32,000 of the people are Mohammedans; 35,000, Protestants; 6,000, Roman Catholics; and the rest are pagans of the animist type with deep veneration for fetishes. The Roman Catholic missions are connected with the Lyons Seminary for African Missions, and have 16 missionaries with 13 schools. Protestant missions were commenced in 1752 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. As a result of this mission an African, Philip Quaque, was taken to England, educated, ordained, and returning to the Gold Coast, preached there for some fifty years. The missions now existing are those of the Basel Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society (England), the National Baptist Convention '(U. S. A.), and, since 1905, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. These missions together report 875 places of regular worship, 82 missionaries (men and women), 1,088 native workers, 235 schools with 11 557 scholars, and 34,835 Christian adherents. The missions make steady progress; but, at the same time, they point out that Mohammedanism is also making progress among



the pagans. Kumassi, the former capital of Ashantiland, is now connected with the coast by a railway 168 miles long; and light steamers are used on the Volta River. An artificial harbor is being constructed at Sekondi, the coast terminal of the railway. The Bible has been translated into Akra (1844-65) and Otshi (1870). The New Testament has been translated into Fanti (1884) and Ew5 (1872). Progress has been made toward completing the Bible in both of these dialects.

Ivory Coast: A French territory included in the great administrative region known as French West Africa. It has its coast-line between Liberia and the British Gold Coast Colony, and extends inland to the territory of Senegambia and the Niger. The French first obtained possessions on this coast in 1843. Area 200,000 sq. miles; population about 3,000,000, of whom 300 are Europeans. In religion about 200,000 are Mohammedans; about 1,000, Roman Catholics; and the rest, pagans. The capital is Bingerville. A railway is being constructed inland from Bassani, of which 110 miles are nearly finished. The only missions in the country are carried on by the Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa (Roman Catholic). There are said to be 16 priests, who have 7 schools and some orphanages.

Hamerun: A protectorate and colonial possession of Germany, occupying the west coast of Africa between French Kongo and Nigeria. Inland it extends in a northeasterly direction to Lake Chad. Area about 191,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 3,500,000, of whom (in 1904) 710 were whites. The native population is largely of the Bantu race, with tribes of Sudan negroes inland. Capital, Buea. The German annexation took place in 1884. Roman Catholic missions have been active in this region since 1889, and are in charge of the Pallotin Missionary Society of Limburg. They report 7 stations, 34 missionaries, 20 nuns, 2,418 pupils in their schools, and 3,780 Roman Catholic Christians. Protestant missions were commenced by Alfred Saker of the Baptist Missionary Society (England) in 1844, he having been expelled from Fernando Po by the Spanish, government. With the German colonization of Kamerun (1880·82) difficulties arose, and the Baptist mission was turned over to the Basel Missionary Society, T. J. Comber and G. Grenfell of the Baptist mission going south to found a mission on the Kongo. A considerable body of the native Baptists declined to accept the transfer, and the German Baptists of Berlin sent missionaries to care for them. The German Baptist mission reports 14 missionaries, 1,400 pupils, and 2,170 professed Christians. The Basel Society's mission, established in 1885, has extended inland, and reports (1905) 64 missionaries, 163 native workers, 6,452 pupils, and 6,422 professed Christians. The eagerness of the natives to learn to read is remarkable. The American Presbyterians (North) opened a mission in the southern part of the country in 1885-93, which has 30 missionaries, 27 stations and outstations, 15 schools, a hospital, and about 3,000 professing Christians. The entire Bible was translated into Dualla by the Baptista in 1868, and a version of

the New Testament in the same language, which others than Baptists can use, was issued in 1902. The Benga Bible, used in the Rio Muni colony, is circulated to some extent in the south of Kamerun, and parts of the Bible have been translated into Isuba and Bala.

Bongo Independent State: A region occupying in general the basin of the Kongo River and its tributaries in West Central Africa. It touches the seacoast by a narrow neck that extends along the right bank of the river to its mouth. The left bank is held by Portugal. By international agreement in 1885 the state was placed under the sovereignty of King Leopold II. of Belgium. H. M. Stanley, who first explored the region, was its first administrator. International resolutions declare the navigation of the Kongo and its branches free to all, and proclaim the suppression of the slave-trade and the protection of the native inhabitants. The region has highlands well adapted to the residence of Europeans, and its natural wealth, although but slightly developed, is probably very great. The state appears to be administered upon the ancient colonial theory of deriving revenue from it at all hazards. Great tracts of its territory have been passed over to trading companies, the first condition of whose concessions is an obligation to pay the king of Belgium from 40 to 45 per cent. of their gains. The result has been abuses. The trading companies are charged with forcing the natives to work, treating them in fact as slaves, flogging and killing or mutilating them when they fail to obey orders. Missionaries made facts of this nature known, and King Leopold appointed a commission to examine the situation, with the result that many terrible outrages were found to be habitually committed by the armed guards organized by the trading companies. The commission, while inclined to justify severe measures, as necessary to lead the natives to work, recommended that the trading companies be forbidden to use armed guards or to require forced labor from the people of the districts which they administer. There is some hope of an amelioration of conditions in consequence. The capital is Boma, at the mouth of the Kongo River.

The area of the state is estimated at about 900; 000 sq. miles; population estimated at from 15; 000,000 to 30,000,000. The white people number 2,483. For the most part the people of the Kongo are of the Bantu race. Every tribe has its own dialect, so that the number of dialects is considerable. Roman Catholic missions were established in the Kongo region in the latter part of the fifteenth century. It should be remembered, however, that these early missions were almost entirely in what is now still Portuguese territory. Nothing seems to have been undertaken at that time in the interior of what is now Kongo State. At the present time the Roman Catholic missions extend along the river and in the Ubangi district. They have founded a number of stations also in the Tanganyika region. Schools, industrial work, and agricultural operations are carried on with considerable success. Some of the natives have been trained by the missionaries in Europe as physicians, and render good



service as such. Statistics of the missions are not clearly given, but seem to show about 20,000 converts. Protestant missions in this region quickly followed the explorations of H. M. Stanley. The Livingstone Inland Mission from England commenced work on the lower Kongo in 1878, but their stations were shortly transferred to the American Baptist Missionary Union. The Baptist Missionary Society of England established a mission on the upper river in 1879 having for its pioneers Grenfell, Comber, and Bentley; the Plymouth Brethren, led by F. S. Arnot, in the Garenganze region in 1881; the Regions Beyond Missionary Union, in the Balolo district of the upper Kongo in 1889; the American Presbyterians (South), led by S. N. Lapsley, on the KassaiRiver in 1891; the Swedish Missionary Society on the right bank of the lower Kongo in 1882. These missionary societies have about 200 missionaries and nearly 1,000 native workers, with schools, hospitals, industrial establishments, including printing-houses, and about 15,000 adherents. Several missionary steamers ply on the great river. Educational work is rapidly expanding, the natives showing the greatest eagerness to learn to read. The Belgian commission of inquiry in its report (1905) paid a high tribute to the value of these missions in singling out the field of the Baptist Missionary Society as a district where the natives have been taught to work and are noticeably industrious. Several of the dialects of the region have been reduced to writing by the missionaries. The whole Bible has been printed in Fioti (completed 1904); the New Testament, in Kongo (1893); and parts of the New Testament, in the Teke, Labs, Bopoto, Bolegin, Bangi, Nsembe, and Balolo. These latter translations are more or less tentative, and will hardly be enlarged more rapidly than the increase of readers may demand. In the mean time the Fioti Bible can be understood by people using other dialects in ordinary speech.

Laos: A British colony and protectorate in Western Africa lying on the coast between Dahomey and Southern Nigeria, and extending inland to the French territories of the middle Niger. Area, including Yorubaland and the protectorate, 25; 450 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,500,000. The great mass of the population are pagan fetishworahipers. There are some 7,000 Mohammedans, 15,000 Roman Catholics, and 32,000 Protestants. A railway has been built from Lagos to Ibadaa in the Yoruba country, with a branch to Abeokuta: The Yoruba chiefs are allowed to govern their land under British supervision.

Roman Catholic missions are under the Lyons Seminary for African Missions. They report 27 priests, 24 schools, and several charitable institutions. The Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society and a native pastorate in cooperation with it; by the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society; by the Southern Baptist Convention (1856); and by the National Baptist Convention (U. S. A.). The whole Protestant missionary body has 189 stations and outstations, 55 missionaries (men and women), 317 native workers, 110 schools with 7,000 scholars, and 3 hospitals

and dispensaries. The government maintains Mohammedan and pagan schools, but the pupils availing themselves of this privilege of non-Christian education in 1902 were only 192. Abeokuta was evangelized in the first instance about 1842 by freed slaves who had been taught Christianity in Sierra Leone, 1,000 miles to the westward, and who led the people of the city to invite the Church Missionary Society to send missionaries there. This was done in 1846. A remarkable man connected with this mission in its early days was Samuel Crowther (q. v.), rescued as a boy from a Portuguese slaver, educated, and sent as a preacher to Abeokuta where he found his relatives. He afterward was consecrated bishop of the Niger in Canterbury Cathedral, and rendered admirable service to the mission during a long life. The assistant bishop of Yorubaland, now, is a full-blooded African. In 1903 the paramount chief of Abeokuta visited London to do homage to the king, and at the same time called at the offices of the Church Missionary Society and the Bible Society to express thanks for great services rendered to his people. The Bible has been translated into Yoruban (1850), and the New Testament into Hausa (1857). One of the Gospels has been tentatively translated into Igbira.

Liberia: An independent republic in Western Africa which has grown out of an effort to colonize freed slaves from America. The first settlement was made in 1822. The republican government was organized in 1847. The coast of the republic extends from Sierra Leone to the Ivory Coast Colony. The territory extends about 200 miles inland, and is hemmed in on the east by French territory. Only a region extending about 25 or 30 miles inland from the coast, however, is effectively administered by the republic. Area about 45,000 sq, miles; population (estimated) 2,000,000, about 20,000 of whom are of American origin. The language of the republic is English. Several native dialects are found among the tribes of the interior. It is estimated that there are about 850,000 Mohammedans and somewhat over 1,000; 000 pagans in Liberia, with about 500 Roman Catholics and 25,000 Protestant Christians. Roman Catholic missions are dependent upon their headquarters at Free Town in Sierra Leone. The missionaries belong to the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and Sacred Heart of Mary. Since 1903 there has been a separate missionary jurisdiction confided to the Marist Fathers. Protestant missions in Liberia were commenced by the American Baptist Convention through the Rev. Lott Carey, who went to Monrovia in 1822. After

disease had carried off many vietiM §Meig the

missionaries the mission was given up. The Presbyterian Church (North) established a mission in Liberia in 1833, which was also given up on account of the ravages of disease among the missionaries. The American Methodist Church etablished a mission at Monrovia in 1833, of which the Rev. Melville B. Cox was the pioneer. This mission is still carried on with a great measure of success. The American Protestant Episcopal

Church established a mission at Cape Palmas in



1834, with the Rev. John (afterward Bishop) Payne as one of the first missionaries. This mission is still carried on with considerable success, about twenty of the mission clergy being from the Grebo tribe of natives. The American Board established a mission at Cape Palmas in 1834, the Rev. J. L. Wilson being one of the earliest missionaries. On account of the unhealthfulness of the region the missionaries and a number of their adherents removed in 1842 to the Gabun district in what is now the French Kongo colony, transferring their buildings and other immovables in Liberia to the Protestant Episcopal Mission. The National Baptist Convention established a mission in Liberia in 1853, and the Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of North America also established a mission in 1860 which is doing good industrial work. These societies together report 92 missionaries and 182 native workers operating at 168 stations, with schools, hospitals, printing-presses, and industrial institutions. Parts of the New Testament have been translated into Grebo (1838). See LIBERIA.

xoroooo: An independent Mohammedan empire in Northwest Africa having a coast-line on the Mediterranean and on the Atlantic Ocean. The country is gradually falling under the direction of France. Area 219,000 sq. miles (the southern frontier, however, is not definitely fixed); population (estimated) 5,000,000, being composed of Berbers, Tuaregs, and Arabs. In name, at least, the greater part of the population is reckoned as Mohammedan. There are about 150,000 Jews and about 6,000 Christians of the Roman Catholic and Eastern churches, with a few Protestants. .fin apostolic prefecture of the Roman Catholics was established at Tangier in 1859, and under it are about forty priests in different cities of Morocco. Protestant missions are carried on by the North Africa Mission (1881), the Gospel Mission Union (U.S.A., 1894), and the Southern Morocco Mission (1888); besides some workers among the Jews in Tangier. There is little religious liberty in Morocco, and there seems to be but little growth of the Protestant community.

Natal: A British colony in South Africa lying on the eastern coast between Cape Colony and Portuguese East Africa. It is bounded inland by the Transvaal, the Orange River Colony, and Basutoland. Area 35,306 sq. miles; population (1903) 1,039,787. Of these, 877,388 are Zulu-Kafirs; 97,857, Asiatics; and 82,542, Europeans. About 850,000 of the population are pagans, 30,000 are Hindus, 14,000 are Mohammedans, 15,000 are Buddhists or Confucians, 22,000 are Roman Catholics, and 73,000 are Protestants. The country takes.its name from the whim of Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese navigator, who happened to arrive at the coast on Christmas day. Roman Catholic missions are under the care of the Oblates of Mary the Immaculate; they report 50 missionaries and 7 native clergy, with 55 schools and several orphanages and hospitals. Their ecclesiastical center is at Pietermaritzburg, the seat of a vicar apostolic. The local Anglican, Wesleyan, and Dutch Reformed congregations all carry on missionary work; and, besides these, the following

eleven missionary societies are at work in Natal: the American Board (1835), whose early missionaries were, Daniel Lindley, Robert Adams, Aldin and Lewis Grout, and Josiah Tyler; the United Free Church of Scotland; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, both of which entered Natal as an extension of work in Kaffraria; the Berlin Missionary Society; the Hermamusburg Missionary Society; the Norwegian Missionary Society; the Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant; the Free Methodists of North America; the South Africa General Mission; the National Baptist Convention; and the Plymouth Brethren. All these societies together report 192 stations and outstations, 106 missionaries (men and women), 612 native workers, 161 schools with 7,016 pupils, 2 hospitals, and one printing-house. Many of the native churches formerly connected with the older missions are now independent and self-supporting, and do not appear on the mission statistics because reckoned as churches of the country. Many of the tribal chiefs, who are pagans and polygamists of a rank order, but who nevertheless treat missionaries as benefactors, oppose the Christian Church with all their might as tending to make their " subjects " think for themselves and question the commands of hereditary despots. The British authorities are inclined to hamper the freedom of the missions on account of their suspicion of " Ethiopianism." At present a native preacher may not officiate in a church unless under the immediate supervision of a responsible white clergyman.

The Bible has been translated into Zulu (185183). This is one of the most important of the African versions published by the American Bible Society. It has a range of circulation extending to Lake Nyassa and into Bechuanaland.

Nigeria: A British territory and sphere of influence in West Africa lying on the coast between Lagos and Kamerun, and extending inland between the German and the French possessions as far as Lake Chad. It is divided into Northern and Southern Nigeria. Lagos with its protectorate is naturally a part of the region, but at present is separately administered. Area: Northern Nigeria, 315,000 sq. miles; Southern Nigeria, 49,700 sq. miles; population (estimated for the whole great region) 23,000,000. It is estimated that the Mohammedan part of the population numbers about 10,000,000, and the pagan part about 13,000,000. This is mere guesswork, since the country is not even explored. In all the coast regions the pagans, of the most degraded class of fetish-worshipers, predominate. In Northern Nigeria the Mohammedan element is the ruling one (under British restraint), but there are large sections occupied by pagan tribes. Christians are for the most part in Southern Nigeria., and their numbers are given as: Roman Catholics, 18,000; Protestants, 6,000. The seat of government in Northern Nigeria is Zungeru on the Kaduna River; that of Southern Nigeria is Old Calabar. Steamers ply on the Niger about 400 miles from its mouth. A railway is being constructed in Northern Nigeria from Zungeru toward Kano, a great trading center south of Lake Chad.



Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. Ten missionaries are reported with 6 schools. Protestant missions are those of the United Free Church of Scotland in the Calabar region in Southern Nigeria (1846) and of the Church Missionary Society in the Niger delta (1857) and in Northern Nigeria (1902, after a failure in 1890), the Qua Ibo Mission on the Qua River (1887), and the African Evangelistic Mission (1901) and the Sudan United Mission (1903) in Northern Nigeria. The missions in Northern Nigeria are still in the early stage, with little more to show than the names of Wilmot Brooke, J. A. Robinson, and W. R. S. Miller who sacrificed life for that land. In Southern Nigeria there are 82 missionaries (men and women), and 157 schools with 2,482 scholars. The Anglican bishop of this region is assisted by a bishop who is a full-blooded negro. The Bible has been translated into Efik (1862); and tentative translations of single Gospels have been made into Akunakuna, into three or four dialects of Ibo, into Idzo, and into Union. These are all dialects of Southern Nigeria. Gospels have been translated into the Igbira and Nup6 languages besides the Hausa language, all in Northern Nigeria.

Orange River Colony: A British possession in South Africa. It has the Transvaal on the north, Natal and Basutoland on the east, and Cape Colony on the west and south. During forty-six years it was the Orange Free State and was annexed to the British crown in May, 1900, in consequence of its participation in the Boer attack on the adjacent British colonies. Area 50,100 sq. miles; population (1904) 385,045, of whom 143,419 are whites and 241,626 are colored. Capital, Bloemfontein. About 220,000 of the inhabitants are pagans. The predominating Christian body is the Dutch Reformed Church. The whole number of Protestants is about 100,000; of Roman Catholics, 5,000. The country is an excellent agricultural region. Diamonds and other precious stones are found in some sections; and the population tends to increase and to become more and more varied in its constituent elements. Roman Catholic missions are in charge of the Oblates of Mary the Immaculate. The statistics of their work in the colony are not separately given, but there seem to be 14 missionary priests and 2 native priests, with 13 schools. Protestant missionary activities are largely in the hands of the local churches. The Dutch Reformed Church has here shown, much more than elsewhere used to be the case, a purpose to work for the evangelization of the native pagans. The Wesleyan Church and the Anglican Church both have mis sions locally supported; but the work for whit and blacks is not separately reported. Besides this local church work, in beginning which the Paris Missionary Society had a part (1831), the Berlin Missionary Society (1834) is at work in the colony with 33 stations and outstations, 18 missionaries, 148 native workers, 27 schools, and about 8,000 professed Christians connected with its stations. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1863) has 4 stations among the natives, but its

statistics are not separately given. The Zulu Bible, the Chuana version, and the Leauto version used in Basutoland supply the needs of the people in this colony.

Portuguese East Africa: One of the oldest Portuguese possessions in Africa, situated on the east coast between German East Africa and Natal. It extends inland to British Central Africa, and on both banks of the Zambesi River to Rhodesia. It is composed of the districts of Mozambique, Zambesia, and Lourengo Marques. Area 293,400 sq. miles; population (estimated) 3,120,000. Much of the territory is in the hands of trading companies, which administer the laws in their respective districts. Delagoa Bay is connected by railway with Pretoria in the Transvaal, and another railway runs from Beira in Zambesia to Buluwayo in Rhodesia. The Portuguese began their colonies on this coast in 1505, and the Roman Catholic Church has had strong missions in the region ever since. The ecclesiastical organization was effected in 1612. At present missions in this territory are in the hands of the Society of Jesus, with stations extending along the Zambesi River into the interior. About 30 missionaries are reported. Protestant missions are carried on by the American Methodist Episcopal Church at Inhambane, by the Wesleyan Methodists of England in the Delagoa Bay district, by the Swiss Romande Mission in the south, and by the American Board among the Gaza tribes and at Beira, the chief seaport of the district of Zambesia. The Universities Mission has one station in this territory adjoining its field in Nyamaland. These societies together have 40 missionaries (men and women), 103 native workers, and about 7,000 adherents, with hospitals and schools. A printing. press at Inhambane is beginning to form a literature in two native languages. The New Testament has been translated into Tonga (1890), and the Gospels into Sheetawa (1891). A Gospel has been translated into Ronga by the Swiss Romande missionaries.

Portuguese Guinea: A Portuguese possession adjoining French Kongo on the West African coast, and surrounded by French territory on the land side. It is included in the administration of the Cape Verde Islands. Area, including the islands, 6,280 sq. miles; population, including the islands, 1,000,000. The population is generally given as including 260,000 Roman Catholics; and there are about 170,000 Mohammedans and over 500,000 pagans on the mainland. Roman Catholic missions were established on the mainland in 1832, and are connected with the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon. They comprise eight Roman Catholic pwiohes. No Protestant missions have been established in this territory.

Rhodesia: An immense territory in South Africa,

lying between the Transvaal and the Kongo Independent State, and having as its eastern boundary Portuguese East Africa, and as its western boundary Angola and German Southwest Africa. It is administered as British .territory by the British South Africa Company under a British resident commissioner. In its northeastern portion, where it touches Lake Tanganyika, police duties are cared



for by the Nyassaland protectorate. It is divided into Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia by the Zambesi River. Area about 246,000 sq. miles; population about 900,000, of whom 12,000 are Europeans and about 1,100 are Asiatics. There are about 5,000 Roman Catholics and 20,000 Protestants in this country. The Roman Catholic missions are not conterminous with the boundaries of this territory, and it is impossible to give their statistics. The missionaries are of the Algerian Society with a certain number of Jesuits in the Zambesi region. Protestant missions in this region were commenced by Robert Moffat of the London Missionary Society in 1830. Livingstone explored the whole region for the same society and unsuccessfully attempted to establish stations among the Mashonas. John Mackenzie was $ worthy successor of such pioneers. At present the Protestant missionary societies in Rhodesia are: the London Missionary Society in Matabeleland and at the southern end of Lake Tanganyika; the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society in Mashonaland and Matabeleland; and the Paris Missionary Society in Barotseland in the territory north of the Zambesi, which F. Coillard entered in 1885 as an extension of the Society's work in Basutoland, the Barotses having the same speech as the Basutos. The Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society (U. S. A.) and the American Board have missions in the eastern part of Southern Rhodesia, near the Portuguese frontier. These societies together have 112 stations and outstations, 70 missionaries (men and women), 6,000 pupils in their schools, and 15,000 professed Chriatians. The construction of railways, connecting Rhodesia with Cape Town and the Portuguese seaports and opening up the country beyond the Zambesi, is bringing many colonists into the country; and their advent implies that a testing time of the reality of the Christianity of the native churches is at hand. The people use the Bible in Zulu, in Sechuana, and in Lesuto. Tentative translations of Gospels have been made in the Matabele and the Mashona languages.

Rio De Oro: A Spanish possession in North Africa stretching southward along the shore to the Atlantic Ocean from the Morocco frontier and extending inland to the French possessions of the Sahara. Area about 70,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 130,000, almost all Mohammedans. The territory is administered by the governor of the Canary Islands. Roman Catholic missions ecclesiastically connected with the Canary Islands are established at the points occupied by Spanish traders. There are no Protestant missions in the country.

Rio Xuni: Spanish possession in West Africa adjoining the German Kamerun colony and surrounded on the east and south by the territory of the French Kongo. Area 9,800 sq. miles; population (estimated) 140,000, including about 300 whites. Roman Catholic missions have existed here since 1855 and are carried on by the Spanish Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary, being ecclesiastically connected with the island diocese of AnnObon and Fernando Po. A Protestant mission has been carried on in this territory by the

American Presbyterians (North) who established themselves in 1855 on the island of Corisco, and later on the Benito River. They have 4 stations and outstations, 7 schools, and about 300 professed Christians. The Bible has been translated into the Benga language (1858), which has a somewhat extensive domain in the coast regions.

Senegal: A French colony in West Africa. between the Gambia and the Senegal rivers. It consists of a narrow strip of coast land, forming the colony proper, together with certain ports on the Senegal River. Area 438 sq. miles; population (1904) 107,826, of whom 2,804 Are Europeans. The people of the colony proper are citizens, having the right to vote, and being represented by a deputy in the French parliament. The capital of the colony is St. Louis, on the seacoast. Roman Catholic missions have long existed in Senegal, and were placed under an ecclesiastical prefecture in 1'765. There are about 5,000 native Roman Catholics in the colony. The only Protestant mission working in Senegal is that of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, which has a station at St. Louis (1863) and two or three small congregations in the vicinity. Besides the Arabic Bible, which is occasionally called for, some of the Gospels have been translated into the Wolof and Mandingo languages (1882).

Senegambia and the Niger: An immense French protectorate comprising the territories formerly called Western Sudan, with the larger part of the Sahara, having the colony of Senegal on the west, the colonies of the Ivory Coast, the Gold Coast, Dahomey, and Togoland on the south, and extending on the north to the Algerian Sahara. Area 2,500,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 10,000; 000. The prevailing religion is Mohammedanism. Many pagan tribes exist who serve Mohammedan rulers and furnish slaves for the markets of Tripoli and the Barbary States. The capital is Kayes, on the Senegal River. This great territory, with the French colonies of Senegal, French Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Dahomey, forms a single region known as French West Africa, of which the governor-general resides at Dakar on the coast of Senegal. Steamers run regularly on the Senegal River some 400 miles to Kayes; and a railway has been constructed from Kayes 650 miles to some important points on the upper Niger. A feature of this region is that the French government has planned a universal system of education which it is endeavoring to apply throughout the territories effectively occupied. Roman Catholic missions have been carried on for a number of years at several of the posts on the Senegal and Niger rivers; the number of converts is reported as 10,000. No Protestant missions are reported in this great region.

Sierra Leone: A British colony and protectorate in West Africa, lying on the coast between Liberia and French Guinea, and extending inland about 180 miles, limited by the boundaries of the French possessions and of Liberia. Area about 34,000 sq. miles; population about 1,100,000. Of the people about 1,000,000 are pagans, 20,000 are Mohammedans, 5,000 are Roman Catholics, and 50,000 are



Protestants. The colony proper is limited to the Sierra Leone peninsula. It was the place whence in 1562 the first slaves were taken to the West Indies under the British flag. After slaves in England had been set free, in 1772, a district in Sierra Leone was set apart to be colonized by liberated slaves. Here, from 1786 on, freed slaves were landed and almost abandoned to their own resources except as to food-a great crowd of debased creatures from all parts of Africa, knowing no common language and having no principle of life except such evil things as they had picked up during slavery among Europeans. The situation of these freed slaves had a powerful influence in turning English missionary zeal to West Africa. The Roman Catholic establishment is under an apostolic vicariate erected in 1858 at Freetown. The missionaries are of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. The number of Roman Catholics is 2,800.

The Protestant missionary enterprise was commenced in the latter part of the eighteenth century by missionaries from Scotland; three having died soon after their arrival, the mission was given up. The Church Missionary Society sent missionaries to Sierra Leone in 1804; but they were instructed to go north and begin their mission in the Susu country on the Rio Pongas in what is now French Guinea. They were all Germans, chosen because of the difficulty of securing ordination of Englishmen for this society. The mission came to naught through the hostility of the slave-dealers, and was finally transferred (1814-16) to Sierra Leone. Here a solid work was soon organized among the freed slaves, and has grown ever since. The Protestant missionary societies now working in that field are: the Church Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America, the United Brethren (U. S. A.) in the Mendi region, and the Christian and Missionary Alliance (U. S. A.) in the eastern part of the protectorate. The Church Missionary Society field is almost wholly in the protectorate, the congregations in Sierra Leone being self-supporting and independent. Together the mission stations and outstations number about 131. There are 42 missionaries (men and women), 117 schools, and about 45,000 professed Christians connected with the missions. The English Bible is used in the colony. The New Testament has been translated into TemnS (1866); parts. of the New Testament into Mendi; and single Gospels, into Bullom and Kuranko. The Yoruba mission of the Church Missionary society was an outgrowth of the society's work among freed slaves at Sierra Leone. See below, III., LAGOS.

somaliland (British): A British protectorate on the east coast of North Africa, lying between Abyssinia and the sea and between French gomaliland and Italian Somaliland. It is administered by a consul-general. Area about 60,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 300,000; religion, Mohammedan. Most of the people of this district are nomads and very fanatical in their intolerance of Christians. The English government has been at a considerable expense in money and men to


pacify the tribes of the interior, who have attempted to drive the English from the country on religious grounds. No missions are reported in this district.

8omaUlsad (French): A French protectorate on the eastern coast of North Africa, near the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, between the Italian colony of Eritrea and British Somaliland, extending inland to the Abyssinian border and including the colony of Obock. Capital, Abuti. Area about 46,000 sq. miles; population about 200,000, mostly Mohammedans, with some 40,000 pagans, and in the colony of Obock about 8,000 Christians. A railway has been constructed from Jibuti to the Harrar frontier in Abyssinia. There has been for many years a Roman Catholic mission conducted by the French Capuchins who have two or three schools at Obock and Jibuti, and are reaching out toward Abyssinia.

6omaliland (Italian): An Lalian possession on the eastern coast of North A:rica, lying between the Gulf of Aden and Abyssinia, and between British Somaliland and the mouth of the Juba River, the frontier . of Br·tish East Africa. The sovereign rights of the Sultan of Zanzibar over this coast region were bought by Italy in 1905. Area about 100,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 400,000, chiefly Mohammedans, with about 50,000 pagans. There are no records of missions established in this wild territory.

Sudan: This term is here limited to the Egyptian Sudan, the Western and Central Sudan being absorbed in the main into French spheres of influence to which other names have been given (see SENEGAMBIA AND THE Niam, above). The Egyptian Sudan is a territory extending south from the frontier of Egypt to Uganda and the Kongo Independent State, and west from the Red Sea to the unmarked boundary of the French sphere of influence. It is nominally a poion of Egypt, but in fact is ruled for Egypt by the British. English and Egyptian flags are used together throughout the territory. Area about 950,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 2,000,000. The population of the country was much reduced during the sixteen years' rule of the Mahdi and his dervishes, who as ardent Mohammedans wished to show the world how a country ought to be governed. General Gordon having been killed by the Mahdi's party in 1885, one of the first acts of the English on recovering the land in 1898 was to found a great " Gordon Memorial,, College at Khartum, the scene of his murder, and now the seat of the new administration. The majority of the people are Mohammedans, with an uncertain number of pagan tribes in the southern dldtllCtB. A COll81de1able number of Greek, Coptic, and Armenian traders is found in the Khartum district. Roman Catholic missions exist at Khartum and Omdurman and among the pagans at Fashoda; a Mission of the American United Presbyterian Church has been founded on the Sobat River; and the Church Missionary Society has established missionaries (1906) at or near Bor in the vacant pagan country between the two first-named missions. All of these missions are too newly established to have any visible fruit except attendance at schools.


The Arabic Bible is circulated in the Mohammedan parts of the Sudan. Gospels have been translated into the Dinka language.

Togoland: A German colony in West Africa, occupying the coast of the Gulf of Guinea between the Gold Coast Colony and Dahomey. It extends inland to the French territory of Senegambia and the Niger. Area about 32,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,500,000, chiefly pagan; capital, Lome. The German government carries on several schools for the instruction of the natives, and is training them for administrative posts. Roman Catholic missions here are conducted by the Steyl Society for Divine Work. The missionaries number 28, with 9 nuns, 52 schools, 2,119 pupils, and 2,203 Roman Catholic Christians. Protestant missionary work is carried on by the North German Missionary Society (1847), and by the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, which employs German Methodists for this field. The two societies report 78 stations and outstations, 31 missionaries (men and women), 69 schools with 3,111 pupils, and 4,600 professed Christians. The Ewe New Testament is used here, and a special translation of one of the Gospels, to satisfy local variations, has been tentatively prepared.

Transvaal: A colony of Great Britain in South Africa, lying north of the Orange River Colony and Natal, and west of Portuguese East Africa. Area 111,196 sq. miles; population (1904) 1,268,716 of whom 969,389 are colored, including Chinese and Hindus, and 299,327 are whites. The colony was settled in 1836-37 by Dutch who emigrated from Cape Colony. In 1899 dissensions with Great Britain respecting sovereignty culminated in war, and in 1900 Great Britain formally annexed the territory to her South African domains, the Boers accepting the annexation after two years. The capital is Pretoria. The religious statistics show the pagans to number nearly 1,000,000; Roman Catholics, 10,000; Protestants, 256,000; Jews, 10,000; Buddhists and Confucians, 15,000. The Dutch churches form the largest single group of Protestants. Chinese laborers at the mines are a recent addition to the population. Numbers of negroes from all parts of Africa are also drawn to Johannesburg for work in the mina, about 75,000 natives and other colored people being gathered there by opportunities for work. The Anglican, Wesleyan, and Dutch Reformed local churches all carry on missions among the natives. Other Protestant missions are those of the American Board (1893), the Berlin Missionary Society (1859) opened by A. Merensky and Knothe, the Hermannsburg Missionary Society (1857), and the Swiss Romande Mission led by H. Berthoud (1875). These societies together report (not including the enterprises of the local churches) 112 missionaries (men and women), 2,344 native workers, 300 schools with 14,674 pupils, and 84,000 professing Christian adherents. Efforts to improve the character of the workers in the mining compounds of Johannesburg are meeting with some success. The Zulu Bible is much used in the Transvaal as well as the Chuana and Lesuto versions. The New Testament has been translated into Tonga and Sepedi, both in 1888.

Tripoli: A possession of Turkey on the north coast of Africa west of Egypt. It extends southward to the Sahara and includes the oasis of the Fezzan, but its southern limits are indefinite. This territory was seized by Turkey in the sixteenth century. Area about 400,000 sq. miles; population about 1,000,000, chiefly Berbers. There are about 6,000 Europeans (Maltese and Italians), who are mainly Roman Catholics; and there are also about 10,000 Jews. There is an extensive caravan trade with the Sudan and Timbuctoo; and the slavetrade is quietly fostered by this means. The only Protestant mission in Tripoli is that of the North Africa Mission, which has 1 station with 4 missionaries, a hospital, and 2 dispensaries. Arabic and Kabyle are the languages of the country.

Tunis: A French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa lying between Tripoli and Algeria. Area about 51,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,900,000, mainly Berbers and Arabs, with a foreign population (1901) of 39,000 French, 67,500 Italians, and 12,000 Maltese. The Tunisian ruler, called the Bey, is from a family which has been in power since 1575, and governs the country under the control of a French resident. The Roman Catholic Church in Tunis is under direction of the archbishop of Carthage, the see having been restored in 1884. There are 53 priests, 2 bishops, and several schools. Tunis was the scene of some of Raymond Lully's efforts to convert Mohammedans in the thirteenth century. Protestant missions are carried on in Tunis by the North African Mission, the Swedish Young Women's Christian Association, and the London Jews Society. Together these societies have 5 schools, 2 hospitals or dispensaries, and about 250 persons under instruction. Arabic is the prevailing language.

Uganda: A British protectorate in East Central Africa, lying between the Egyptian Sudan on the north, German East Africa on the south, British East Africa on the east, and the Kongo Independent State on the west. Within its boundaries lie part of the Victoria Nyanza and lakes Albert and Albert Edward. It comprises the native kingdom of Uganda and several smaller districts ruled by native kinglets under British control. Area 89,400 sq. miles; population about 4,000,000, of whom about 1,000,000 are in the kingdom of Uganda. The religious divisions of the population in the whole protectorate are: pagans, 3,500,000; Mohammedans, 50,000; Roman Catholics, 146,000; and Protestants, 250,000. A railway connects Mombasa on the coast of British East Africa with Kisumu, formerly called Port Florence, on the Victoria Nyanza. The seat of the British administration is Entebbe, and that of the kingdom of Uganda is Mengo. Henry M. Stanley visited Uganda in 1875, and found the king Mutesa a recent convert to Islam but inclined to ask questions on the religion of the Christians. He gave the king some instruction and had the Lord's Prayer translated for him into Suahili written in Arabic characters. At this time Uganda was like any other African kingdom a place of superstition, degrada-



tion of women, and bloodthirsty cruelty' and oppression. Stanley was really the first of Christian missionaries there; for the slight teachings that he gave the king were not forgotten, and his translation of the Lord's Prayer was copied and recopied. On leaving Uganda Stanley wrote a letter to the London Telegraph describing Uganda and the willingness of King Mutesa to receive Christian instruction. He then addressed the missionary societies in these words: " Here, gentlemen, is your opportunity. The people on the shores of the Nyanza call upon you." This challenge was at once taken up by the Church Missionary Society; and in 1876 its first missionaries reached Uganda. The first converts were baptized in 1882, and persecution soon set in, when a number of the Christians were burned alive. Alexander Mackay, a layman and a member of the mission, was a man of indomitable energy and wonderful devotion; and upon him rested to a great degree the responsibility for the defense of the mission. Several of the missionaries were murdered, including Bishop James Hannington (1885), by order of King Mwanga, Mutesa's successor. Roman Catholic missionaries appeared on the scene; and quarrels and strife ensued between the two denominations. Mohammedans also intervened, trying to profit by the dissensions between the Christians. 'The British protectorate was declared in 1894. In 1897 the Sudanese troops in British employ revolted and attempted to seize the country in the Mohammedan interest. The valor of the Christians weighed largely in deciding this fierce little war against the mutineers. In it George Laurence Pilkington, a notable lay missionary lost his life. With the defeat of the mutineers and the assignment of the Mohammedans to separate reservations peace was finally established, and the whole protectorate is in a prosperous condition.

The Church Missionary Society has now in the protectorate 90 missionaries (men and women), 2,500 native workers, 170 schools with 22,229 scholars, and 53,000 baptized Christians. It had established a considerable industrial enterprise for the development of the people; but in 1904 this department of its work was turned over to the Uganda Company, a commercial body chartered in England to develop the country. The Roman Catholic missions were established by the Algiers Society for African Missions. There are now 88 stations and about 80,000 baptized Roman Catholic Christians. At Raimosi, about twenty-five miles north of Port Florence, is a mission of the American Society of Friends, which is instructing the people in various industries. Altogether Uganda is after thirty years of missionary labor a remarkable instance of the change in a people which cam be produced by the attempt to follow the principles of the Bible. The overthrow of barbarism in the native customs was effected before any outside political forces entered upon the scene. The Bible has been translated into Ugandan (1888), and Gospels have

Toro. been rendered into Nyoro and 111. African Islands: Annobon. See FERNANDO Po. Canary Islands: A group of islands lying north-

west of Africa and belonging to Spain, of which they form a province. Area 2,807 sq. miles; population 358,564, reckoned as entirely Roman Catholic, the first Roman Catholic see having been erected here in 1404.

Cape Verde Islands: A group of fourteen islands lying off the west coast of Africa and belonging to Portugal. Area 1,480 sq. miles; population (1900) 147,424, of whom about two-thirds are negroes and nearly one-third of mixed blood. The religion is Roman Catholic.

Comoro isles: A group of small islands about half way between Madagascar and the African coast. Area 620 sq. miles; population about 47; 000, chiefly Mohammedans. The islands are ecclesiastically under the jurisdiction of Mayotte, but it does not appear that any mission exists upon them


Fernando Po, Annobon, Corlaao, and Elobey: Islands in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Spain. The area of these islands taken together is about 780 sq. miles; population 22,000. Roman Catholic missions are carried on in the islands by the Spanish Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary. Nineteen clergy are reported in Fernando Po, with about 4,000 Roman Catholics. There is a Protestant mission in Fernando Po, established by the Primitive Methodist Missionary Society in 1870, a mission established by the Baptist Missionary Society of England having been driven from the country by Spanish intolerance a number of years before. One of the Gospels was translated into Adiya, a dialect of Fernando Po, in 1846. It is now obsolete. There is a station of the American Presbyterian Church on the island of Corisco (see above, under Rio Mum).

xadasasosr: An island off the southeastern coast of Africa, from which it is separated by the Mozambique Channel at a distance of 240 miles, measuring between nearest points. It is 980 miles long, and 360 miles in its greatest breadth. It is a possession of France, whose claim dates from a concession made to a trading company by the king of France in 1642. The claim was not recognized by the native rulers. After a struggle lasting intermittently from 1882 to 1896 the formal annexation to France took place. Area 224,000 sq.-m1es; population (1901) 3,000,000, including 15,000 Europeans and some hundreds of Africans and Aeiatics. The people are of Malay stock with an infusion of African blood. The principal tribe, which ruled the larger part of the island until the French occupation, is called Aova. Sakalava, Betsileo, and Sihanaka are the names of other important tribes, The history of Mi4d8gasear during many years is connected with the story of its evangelization through the London Missionary Society, beginning in 1818. . The mission had great success during fifteen years. The language was reduced to writing; schools were established; the New Testament was tfanslated and printed; and numbers of the people professed Christianity. In 1835 the reigning queen drove out the missionaries and proscribed Christianity. After bloody persecutions it was made a capital crime to profess the religion of Christ.



This proscription ended in 1861; the missionaries returned; and in 1868 the then queen made public profession of Christianity. At the time of the French occupation there were about 450,000 Protestants and 50,000 Roman Catholics in the island. Roman Catholic missions were commenced in Madagascar in 1844, having their center in the island of Nossi-B6 and the adjacent islands until 1850, when the care of the missions was entrusted to the Jesuits. There are now 348 Roman Catholic mission stations in the island with nearly 100,000 adherents. At the time of the French occupation the Protestant missions were looked upon with great suspicion. In anticipation of being obliged to withdraw from the islands, the London Missionary Society invited the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society to take over some of its stations.

After a period of misunderstanding and friction with the Jesuit missionaries, religious liberty was made effective, and difficulties have gradually been removed. The Protestant societies now laboring in the island are: the London Missionary Society (1818), the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1843), the Friends Foreign Missioriary Association (1867), the Norwegian Society (1867), the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America (1892), the (Free) Lutheran Board of Missions (U. S. A., 1895), and the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society (1896). These societies together report 196 missionaries, 4,914 native workers, 2,729 schools with 133,262 pupils, and about 200,000 baptized Christians. The effect of the French school laws may probably affect the higher missionary schools; but on the whole conditions are rapidly taking a satisfactory form. The Bible was translated into Malagasy in 1835 and revised in 1886.

Madeira: An island forming a province of Portugal and lying west of North Africa. Area 505 sq. miles; population 150,574. The island was colonized by the Portuguese in 1420, and has been Roman Catholic for two centuries, the ancient inhabitants being entirely extinct. The American Methodist Episcopal Church has a mission in Madeira.

Mauritius: An island colony of Great Britain, lying in the Indian Ocean 500 miles east of Madagascar. Area 705 sq. miles; population (1901) 378,195. The religious classification under the census of 1901 was as follows: Hindus, 206,131; Mohammedans, 41,208; Roman Catholics, 113,224; Protestants, 6,644. Besides the parish priests there are 6 Jesuit missionaries and 11 from the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. Protestant missions are carried on by the Church Missionary Society, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society. A large section of the population is of African or mixed blood, and the number of Chinese in business in the island is- increasing.

Mayotte: An island belonging to France, situated between Madagascar and the African coast. It is under the governor of Reunion. Area 140 sq. miles; population 11,640, which is diminishing. There are 6 Roman Catholic priests and about 3,000 Roman Catholics in the island.

Reunion: An island belonging to France, situated

about 420 miles east of Madagascar. Area, 945 sq. miles; population (1902) 173,395, of whom 13,492 are British Indiana, 4,496 are natives of Madagascar, 9,457 are Africans, and 1,378 are Chinese. The rest of the inhabitants are reckoned as Roman Catholics. The island is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and it forms a part of the ecclesiastical province of Bordeaux in France.

Saint Thomas (Thom6) and Prinoipe:Two islands in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Portugal, of which they are reckoned as a province. Area 360 sq. miles; population (1900) 42,000, of whom 41,000 are lLegroes. These islands are a source of reveuue to the Portuguese government, producing quantities of coffee, cocoa, and cinchona. The products are cultivated by slave labor still imported by the Portuguese " under contract " through Angola from central Africa. About 4,000 of these " laborers " are carried to the islands every year; and it is said that none return. A Roman Catholic diocese was established in these islands in 1584, and a large part of the population is reckoned as Roman Catholic. There are no Protestant missions in this colony.


BIBLIOGHIPHY: I. Collections of titles: J. Gay, Bibiliopraphis de& ourorapes relatife h 1'Afrique et h L'Arabie, San Remo,

1875; P. Paulitschke, Die Afrika-Literatur in den Zeit 1600-1760, Vienna, 1882; G. Kayser, Bibliographic de l'Afrique. Brussels, 1889.

Geography and Atlases: P. Paulitscbke, Die geographiache Erforschunp doe afrikanischen Continents, Vienna, 1880; idem, Die peopraphische Erforarhung den Adal-Lender in OstAfrika, Leipsic, 1884; A. H. Keane, Africa, 2 vols., London, 1895 (a compend); A. Poskin, L'Afrique iquatoriale. Climatolopie, noaolopie, hypilne, Paris, 1897 (the one book on the subject); R. Grundemann, Natter Missions-Atlas, Stuttgart, 1898 (German missions only); K. Heilmann, Miasionekarte den Bide, G(itersloh, 1897; H. P. Beach, Geography and Atlas of Protestant Missions, New York, 1903.

Ethnology: T. Weitz, Anthropolopie den N(pturoalker, vol. ii., Leipsic,1880; R. Hartmann, Die Nigritier, Berlin, 1877 (argues for unity of African peoples); idem, Die Volker Afrikas, Leipsie, 1879; H. Spencer. Descriptive Sociology, part iv., African Races, London, 1882; A. Featherman, Social History of the Races of Mankind: Niprdtians, ib. 1885; F. Ratzel, V6lkerkunds, 2 vols., Leipeie, 1880-88, Eng tranel., History of Mankind, London, 1898-97; Natives of South Africa, London, 1901.

Languages: R. N. Cust, A Sketch of the Modern Languages of Africa, 2 vols., ib. 1883 (by a master); C. R. Lepsiug, Nubfache Grammatik =it einer Einkitunp fiber die V6Lker and Sprachen Afrikas, Berlin, 1880.

Exploration: D. Livingstone, Travels and Researches in South Africa, London, 1857; J. H. Spoke, Journal of jhe Discovery of the Source of tile Nile, ib. 1883; R. F. Burton, Wanderings in West Africa, 2 vols., ib. 1884; H. M. Stanley, Horn 1 Found Livingstone, ib. 1874; idem, In Darkest Africa, ib. 1874; V. L. Cameron, Across Africa, ib. 1877; C. E. Bourne, Heroes of African Discovery, 2 vole., ib. 1882; K. Dove, Vom Rap sum Nil, Berlin, 1898; J. Bryce, Impressions of South Africa, with three maps, London, 1899; C. A. von Gotsen, Dwch Afrika von Ost nach West, Berlin, 1899; A. B. Lloyd, In Dwarf Land and Cann" Country, London, 1899; L. Lanier, L'Afrique, Paris, 1899 (geographical, historical, bibliographical); P. B. du Chaillu, In African Forest and Jungle, New York, 1903; A. H. Keane, South Africa. A Compendium of Geography and Trabel, London. 1904.

African partition and colonization: J. S. Keltie, The Partition of Africa, 21 maps, London, 1893 (excellent, succinct);

*Part of the information concern Roman Catholic missions in this article has been furnish by Prof. Joex T. LREAGH.



Holub, Die Colonization Afrikas, Vienna, 1882; H. H. Johnston, History of the Colonisation of Africa b9/ Alms Rte, in Cambridge Historical Series, Cambridge, 1894; H. M. Stanley, Africa; Its Partition and Its Future, New York, 1898.

Missions: D. Macdonald, Africans: Heathen Africa, 2 vols., London, 1882; R. Lovett, History of the London Missionary Society, 1786-1896, 2 vols., ib. 1899; F. P. Noble, Redemption of Africa, New York, 1899; E. Stock, History of the Church Missionary Society, 3 vols., London, 1899; Ecumenical Missionary Conference, New York, 1900, Reports, New York, 1900; C. F. Pascoe, Two Hundred Years of the SPG, London, 1901; J. Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Continent; or Africa and its Missions, ib. 1903; H. O. Dwight, H. A. Tupper, E. M. Bliss, Encyclopedia of Missions, New York, 1904.

Catholic Missions: M. de Montroud, Les Missions catholiquea done lee parties du Monde, Paris, 1809; L. Bethune, Les Missions catholiques d'Afrique, i b. 1889; O. Werner, Orbis terrarum catholicus, Freiburg, 1890 (geographical and statistical); Missiones Catholics', Rome, 1901.

Native religion: T. Rahn, Tsuni-Ggoam, the Supreme Being of the Ghoi-dhoi, London, 1882; A. B. Ellis, Tshi speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast, ib. 1887; W. Schneider, Die Religion der afrikanieehen Naturv6lker, Monster, 1891; J. Macdonald, Religion and Myth, London, 1893 (on religion and society); M. A. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, ib. 1897; idem, West African Studies, ib. 1901; R. H. Nassau, Fetichism in West Africa, New York, 1904 (covers native religion and society).

11. Algeria: R. L. Playfair, Bibliography of Algeria, London, 1888 (covers 1541-1887); A. Certeux sad E. H. Carnoy, L'Algkrie traditionnelle, 3 vols., Algiers, 1884 (on customs and superstitions); Gastu, Le Peuple Alg&ien, Paris, 1884; R. L. Playfair, The Scourge of Christendom: Annals of British Relations with Algeria, London, 1884; E. C. E. Villot, Mo·urs et institutions dea indigMes de 1'Alg&ie, Algiers, 1888; F. A. Bridgman, Winters in Algeria, New York, 1890; F. Mein, Les Villages d'Arabea chrltiens, Fontainebleau, 1890; A. E. Pease, Biskra and the Oases . . of the Zihana, London, 1893; J. Lionel, Races Berbkrea, Paris, 1893; A. Wilkin, Among the ,8erbera of Algeria; London, 1900.

Angola: J. J. Monteiro, Angola and the River Congo, 2 vols., London, 1895 (the one book); F. A. Pinto, Angola e Congo. Lisbon, 1888; H. Chatelain, Folk-Tales of Angola, Boston, 1894.

Basutoland: J. Widdicombe. Fourteen Years in Basutoland, London, 1892; E. Cosalis, My Life in Basutoland, ib. 1889; Mrs. Barkty, Among Boers and Basutos, ib. 1893; E. Jaeottet, Contea populairea des Basaoutoa, Paris, 1895; M. Martin, Basutoland; Its Legends and Customs, London, 1903.

Bechuanaland: L. K. Bruce, The Story of an African Chief, Khama, London, 1893; E. Lloyd, Three AfriatnChiefa, Kham6, SebelE, and Bartharng, i b. 1895; J. D. Hepburn, Twenty Years in Khama's Country and the Batauna, ib. 1895; W. D. Mackenzie, John Mackenzie, South African Missionary and Statesman, ib. 1902.

British East Africa and Zanzibar: J. Thomson, Through Masai Land, London, 1885; Handbook of British East Africa including Zanzibar, i b. 1893 (English official publication); H. S. Newman, Banani: the Transition from Slavery to Freedom in Zanzibar, ib. 1899; S. T. and H. Hinds, Last of the Masai, ib. 1901.

Cape Colony: G. MCC. Theall, History of Swath Africa, 4 vols., London, 1888-89 (exhaustive); E. Holub, Seven Years in South Africa, ib. 1881; A. Wilmot, Story of the Expansion of South Africa, ib. 1895; A. T. Wirgman, History of the English Church in South Africa, ib. 1895; South African Year Book for 1902?, ib. 1902 (official); J. Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Continent, ib. 1903; H. A. Bryden, History of South Africa, 1068-1905, ib. 1904; D. Kidd, The Essential K afir, ib. 1904.

Central Africa Protectorate: H. $, Johnston, British Central Africa, London, 1897; J. Buchanan, The Sirk Highlands as Colony and Mission, ib. 1885; D. J. Rankin, Zambezi Basin and Nyaaealand, i b. 1893; A. E. M. Morehead , History of the Universities Mission to Central Africa, ib. 1897; W. A. Mmslie, Among the Wild Ngomi, Chapters . . of Livinostonia mission, ib. 1899; J. W. Jack. Daybreak in Livingafonia, New York, 1901.

Dahomey. A. Pawlowski, Bibliographic rann~e .

eonarnaut Is Dahomey, Pans' 1895; Asps-Fleurimont La Guhnm frnenOaies, fb. 1890; E. F. Forbes, Dahomey

Dahomeana and as

2 vols., London, 1851; J. A. Skertehley, Dahomey as it is, ib. 1874, A. L. d'Alb6ea, La Francs au Da_


homey, Paris, 1895; E. Foe, Le Dahomey, i b. 1895 (on history, geography, customs, etc.); R. S. Powell, The Dowry fall of Prempeh, London, 1890.

Egypt (for missions): G. Lansing, Egypt's Princes. A Narrative of Missionary Labor in the Valley of the Nile, New York, 1805; M. L. Whately, Ragged Life in Egypt, London, 1870; idem, Among the Huts in Egypt, ib. 1870; A. Watson, The American Mission in Egypt, Pittsburg, 1898; M. Fowler, Christian Egypt,, London, 1900; and see Eoypx.

Eritrea: La Colonia Eritrea, Turin, 1891; E. Q M. Alamanni, L'Aveaire della colonia Eritrea, Asti, 1890; M. Sehveller, Miaheiiungen fiber meine Reiss in . . . Eritrea, Berlin, 1895.

French Kongo: A. J. Wauters and A. Buyl Bt3liographie du Congo, 1880-96, Paris, 1895 (3,800 titles); P. Eucher, Le Congo, emai sur t histoire religieuae, ib. 1895; A. Voulgre, Le Loango et la vall6e du Kouilou, ib. 1897; and see below KONGO.

French Guinea: L. G. Binger, Du Niger au golfs do Guinle, 2 vols., Paris, 1891; C. Madrolle, En G uin6e, ib. 1894; P. d'Espagnat, Joura de Guinle, ib. 1898.

German Africa: Deutech-OsbAfrika. Wissenechaftlicher Forachungaresultate -fiber Land and Leute, Berlin, 1893 and later (exhaustive); P. Reichard, Deutsch-Ostafrika, Land and Bewohner, Leipsic, 1892; H. van Schweinits, Deudach-Ost-Afrika in Krieg and Prteden, Berlin, 1894; Ch. RSmer, Kamerun; Land, Le* and Mission, Basel, 1895; E. Zintgraff, Nord-Kamerun, 1886 -9,8, Berlin, 1895; F. J. van Billow, Deutsch-Sudwestafrika . . Land and Leute, ib. 1897; K. HBrhold, Drei Jahre under deutsche Flagge in Hinterland van Kamerun, ib.1897; M. Dier, Unter den Schu'arzen, Steyl, 1901 (missionary); F. Hutter, Wanderungen and Porschungen in Nord-Hinterland van Kamerun, Brunswick, 1902; and see below, KAMERUN.

Gold Coast: A. B. Ellis, History of the Gold Coast, London, 1893; F. A. Ramseyer and J. Kuhne. Four Years in Aahantee, New York, 1877 (missionary); C. Buhl, Die Basler Mission an der Goldkitate, Basel, 1882; C. C. Reindorf, History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti ,from e. 1500, London, 1895; G. Macdonald, Gold Coast, Past and Present, ib. 1898; D. Kemp, Nine Years at the Gold Coast, ib. 1898.

Ivory Coast: Bonnesu, La Cdte d'Ivoire, Paris, 1899 (historical and geographical); M. Mounier, France noire, CSte d'Ivoire et Soudan, ib. 1894.

Kamerun: In G. Warneck, History of Protestant Missions, tranel. from seventh Germ . ed., London, 1901; E. B. Underhill, Alfred Saker, Missionary to Africa, ib. 1884; and see above, GERMAN AFRICA.

Kongo Independent State: H, M, fWey, GON0 and a@ Pounding of the Free State, 2 vols., London, 1878; W. H. Bentley Life on the Congo, ib. 1890; idem, Pioneering on the Congo, 2vols., NewYork,1903; Mrs. H. G. Guinness, The New World of Central Africa; the Congo, London, 1890; F. S. Arnot, Garenganze; or Seven years, Pioneer Mission Work in Central Afrika, i b. 1889; idem, Bihe and Garenganse, ib.1893; S. P. Verner, Pioneering in Central Africa, New York, 1903; E. Morel, King Leopold's Rule in Africa, London, 1904.

Lagos: R. F. Burton, Abeokuta and the Cameroon Mountains, 2 vols., London, 1803; Miss C. Tucker, Abbeokuta: the Yoruba Mission i b. 1858; J. A. O. Payne, Table of Events in Foruba History, Lagos, 1893.

Liberia: J. H. T. McPherson, African Colonization: History Of Liberia (Johns Hopkins University Studies, series 9, No. 10), Baltimore, 1891; G. S. Stockwell, The Republic of Liberia, New York, 1808 (historical and geographical); J. Buettikofer Reisebilder acs Liberia, Leyden, 1890; F. A. Durham, The Lone Star of Liberia, London, 1892; E. W. Blyden, A Chapter in the History of Liberia, Freetown, 1892.

Morocco: R. L. Mayfair and R. Brown, Bibliography of

M°t'o'o . · t9 eW 011991, London, 1893; R. Kerr, Pioneering in Morocco; Seven YeaW Medical Mission Work, ib. 1894· E, de Amieis, Morocco, Its People and·Placea, New York, 1892; W, B. Harris, The la d of an African Sultan, London, 1879; Glographie g~ra&ale de Maroc, Paris, 1902; A. J. Dawson, Things Seen in Morocco, London, 1904; Morocco Painted by A. S. Forrest arid described by S. L. Benaw son ib. 1904.

Natal: R. Russell Natal, the Land arid Its Story, Undo., 1900; L. Groat, Zululand, or Life among the Zulu-Kafcra, Philadelphia, 1804· H. Brooke, The Colony of Natal, Lon-

don, 1870; T. B. Jenkinson, Amazulu, the Zulu&, ib. 1882 (on people and country); J. Bud Anna l s of Natl, 2 vats., Pietermaritzburg, 1888-89; J. Tyler, Forty years among



the Zulus, Boston, 1891; F. W. van Wernedorff, Bin Jahr in Rhodesia, Berlin, 1899; J. Robinson, A Lifetime in South Africa, London, 1900.

Nigeria: C. H. Robinson, Hausaland, London, 1897; idem, Nigeria, 1900 (both authoritative); H. Goldie, Calabar and Its Mission, ib. 1890; R. H. Bacon, Benin, the City. of Blood, ib. 1897; H. Bindlose, In the Niger County, ib. 1899; W. R. Miller, Hausa Notes, ib. 1901.

Orange River Colony: South African Republic, Official Documents, Philadelphia. 1900; G. McC. Thad, The Boers, or Emigrant Farmers. London, 1888; A. H. Keane, Africa, in E. Stanford's Compendium of Geography, 2 vols, ib 1893; H. Cloete, History of the Great Boer Trek, and the Origin of the South African Republics, ib. 1899.

Portuguese Africa: W B. Warfield. Portuguese Nyassaland, London, 1899; R. Monteiro, Delagoa Bay, Its Natives and Natural History, ib. 1891; P. Gillmore, Through Gaza Land, ib. 1891; J. P. M. Weale, Truth about the Portuguese in Africa, ib. 1891.

Rhodesia: H. Henaman, History of Rhodesia, London, 1900; E. F. Knight, Rhodesia of To-day; Condition and Prospects of Matabeleland and Mashonaland, ib. 189b; A. G. Leonard, How we Made Rhodesia, ib.-1896; A. Boggle, History of Rhodesia and the Matabele, ib. 1897; S. J. Du Tait, Rhodesia Past and Present, ib. 1897; H. L. Tangye, In Neon South Africa; . . Transvaal and Rhodesia, ib. 1900.

Sierra Leone: J. J. Crooks. History of the Colony of Sierra Leone, London, 1903; D. K. Flickinger, Ethiopia, or Twenty Years of Mission Work in Western Africa Dayton, 1877; E. G. Ingham, Sierra Leone after One Hundred Years, London, 1894; T. J. Alldridge, The Sherbro and its Hinterland, ib. 1901; C. George, The Rise of British West Africa, ib. 1904.

Somaliland: H. L. Swayne, Seventeen Trips through Somaliland. London, 1903; C. V. A. Peel, Somaliland . . . Two Expeditions into the Far Interior, ib. 1903; F. S. Brereton, In the Grip of the Mullah, ib. 1903.

Sudan: A. S. White, Expansion of Egypt under AngloEgyptian Condominion, New York, 1900; C. T. Wilson and R. W. Felkin, Uganda un& der dpyptfsche Sudan, 2 vole.. Stuttgart, 1883; Slatin Pasha, Fire and Sword in the Sudan, London, 1898; D. C. Boulger. Life of Gordon, ib. 1897; Ii, S. Alford and W. D. Sword, The Egyptian Sudan, Its Loss and Its Recovery, ib. 1898; H. H. Austin, Among Swamps cad Giants in Equatorial Africa, ib.1902.

Transvaal: E. Farmer, Transvaal as a Mission Field, London, 1903; W. C. Willoughby, Native Life on the Tranr eaal Border, ib. 1900; J. H. Bovill, Natives under the Transuaal Flag, ib. 1900; D. M. Wilson, Behind the Scenes in as Transvaal, ib. 1901.

Tripoli and Tunis: G. E. Thompson, Life in Tripoli, London. 1893; De H. Wartegg, Tunis, Land and People, ib. 1899; M. Fournel, La Tunisia; is chrietianisme et l'talam daps l'Afrsque septentrionals, Paris, 1886; v. Guerin, La France oatholique en Tunieie . . . et en Tripolitaine, ib. 1886; A. Perry, Ofcial Tour along the Eastern Coast of . .

Tunis, Providence, 1891; D. Braun, The Carve Dwellers of Southern Tunisia, Edinburgh, 1898; H. Vivian. Tunisia and the Modern Barbary Pirates, London. 1899; J. L. Cathcart, Tripoli ; First War with the United States, La Porte, 1902.

Uganda: H. H. Johnston, Uganda Protectorate, London, 1904· W. J. Aneorge, Under the African Sun: A Description of Native Races in Uganda, ib. 1899; Mackay of JUganda; Story of his Life by his Sister, ib. 1899; R. P. Ashe, Two Hinps of Uganda; or Life by the Shores of Victoria Nyanza. ib. 1890 (missionary); S G Stock, Uganda and Victoria Nyanza Mission, ib. 1892; F. J. Lugard Rise of our East African Empire, . . Nyaasaland and Uganda, 2 vole., Edinburgh, 1893; idem, Story of the Uganda Protectorate, London, 1900; C. F. Harford-Battereby, P ilkington of Uganda, ib. 1899· A. R. Cook, A Doctor and his Dog in Uganda, ib. 1903 (on medical missions).

III. African Islands: Madagascar: J. Sibree, The Great African Island, London, 1879 (the best book); idem, Madagascar

before the Conquest, ib. 1896; W. Ellis, The Martyr Church, ib. 1869; W. E. Cousins. The Madagascar of Today, ib. 1896; H. Hansen, Beitrag sur Geschichte der Inssl Madagaskar, Gatereloh, 1899; J. J. K. Fletcher, Sign of the Cross in Madagascar. London, 1901; T. T. Matthews. Thirty Years in Madagascar, ib. 1904.

Other Islands: A. B. Ellis, The West African Islands, London, 1888· C. Heller, Madagascar, Mauritius, and other African Islands, ib. 1900; N. Pike. Subtropical Rambles in fba Land of the Aphanapteryx, ib. 1873 (on Mauritius); J. C. Mellie. St. Helena, lb. 1876 (soientifie); H. W. Eetridge,

Six Years in Seychelles, ib. 1886; A. S. Brown. Madeira and the Canary Isles, ib. 1890.


"RICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. Bee METHODISTS. AFRICANUS, JULIUS. See JULIUS AmcANVs. AGAPE, sea-pt or -p& Primitive Form of Celebration (§ 1). Final Form of the Agape (§ 2). Disassociation of Agape and Eucharist (§ 3).

The Greek word agape (" love," pl. agapai, Lat. agape) was used in the early Church, both Greek and Latin, to denote definite manifestations of brotherly love between believers, and particularly certain meals taken in common which had more or less of a religious character. The earliest mention of such meals is found in Jude 12 (possibly in II Pet. ii. 13). Distinct history begins with Tertullian, in the passage (APologeticus, xxxix.) commencing: " Our supper bears a name which tells exactly what it is; it is called by the word which in Greek means ' affection.' " The agape served for the refreshment of the poorer brethren, as well as for the general edification. It was opened and closed with prayer, and after its conclusion one and another gave songs of praise, either from the Bible or of their own composition. These meetings were under the direction of the clergy, to whom (with reference to I Tim. v. 17) a double portion of food and drink was allotted. They were held at the time of the principal meal, and frequently were prolonged

until dark. In the period for which r. Prima. Tertullian bears witness, they were tive Form not connected with the sacrament

of Cele- of the Eucharist; he says expressly bration. (De corona, iii.) that the Lord instituted the sacrament on the occasion of a meal, while the Church does not so celebrate it, but rather before daybreak. Even apart from the secret nocturnal services of the times of persecution and the observance of the paschal vigil, the Eucha rist was regularly celebrated before any meal. Notably was this rule, which is found referred to in Cyprian (Epist., lxiii.16), established in Tertullian's time, but-which is decisive for the distinction between Eucharist and agape-it existed in many parts of the Church as early as that of Justin (Apologia, i. 65, 67). The principle, that the Eucharist should be received only fasting, which would exclude any relation with a preceding com mon meal, and especially with the agape, taking place toward evening, is indirectly evidenced by Tertullian (Ad uxorem, ii. 5); Augustine found it so universally recognized that he was inclined to refer it to one of the ordimmees promised by Paul in I Cor. xi. 34; and Chrysustom was so convinced of the antiquity of the rule that he supposed the custom of following it by an ordinary meal to have prevailed in Corinth in Paul's time.. In any case, in the third and fourth centuries the development of the agape was more and more away from any connection with public worship. MOM



From the indications of the Syriac Didascalia and the Egyptian liturgical books, as well as the canons of the Councils of Gangra and Laodicea it may be inferred that the giving of these feasts and the inviting to them of widows and the poor was, in the East, one of the forms usually taken by the

benevolence of the wealthier mems. Final bers of the Church. The bishop and

Form of other clergy were invited, and, if they

the Agape. appeared, were received with special honor and charged with the direction of the assembly. These feasts were given at irregular times and in various places, sometimes in the church itself. This was forbidden by the twentyeighth canon of Laodicea, at the same time that the fifty-eighth prohibited their celebration in private houses. Secular festivities in connection with the agapse, which brought upon them the condemnation of the ascetic Eustathians (against whom the Council of Gangra defended them), caused them to be regarded more and more among the orthodox also as incompatible with the dignity of divine worship, so that they gradually became entirely separate from it, and thus tended to fall into disuse.

How popular these feasts were in Africa, in the churches, in the chapels of the martyrs, and at the graves of other Christians, may be seen from the often renewed canon of Hippo (393), which forbids clerics to eat in churches except in dispensing hospitality to travelers, and commands them as far as possible to restrain the people from such meals. The same thing appears in Augustine's descriptions as well as in the great pains he took to repress grave abuses and, with reference to the practise of the Italian and almost all the other churches, to suppress the agapae altogether.

It is not clear what caused the disassociation of the agape from the Eucharist in the first half of the second century. It is a misunderstanding of Pliny's letter to Trajan (Epist., xcvi.) to suppose that in consequence of the prohibition of hetaeria= (" brotherhoods,'") the Christians then abandoned their evening feasts and transferred the Eucharist to the morning; but it is very probable that the constant accusation of impious customs which recalled the stories of Thyestes and of CJdipus were the main reason for the separation of the Eucharist, which was an essential part of their public worship, from the connection, so liable to be mis-

t. Disasso-understood, with an evening meal ciation of participated in by both sexes and all Agape and ages. The fact that at one time the Eucharist. two were connected is evidenced not only by Pliny, but about the same time by the Didache, in which, whatever one may think about the relation of the eucbaristic players to the accompanying liturgical acts (chaps. ix: x.), the opening passage of the second prayer (Gk. meta de to emplesthfnai) shows that a full meal belonged to the rite there referred to. Just as here the Greek word eucharist4 which from Justin down is em ployed as a technical term for the sacrament, at least includes a common meal, which is found eepamtzd from the sacrament after the middle of the second century, so Ignatius, with whom eucha. ristia is a usual designation of the sacrament, also L-6 Africa AgaDefts employs agapa and agapan to denote the same observance. It is accordingly safe to conclude that in the churches, from Antioch to Rome, with which Ignatius had to do, the so-called agape was con nected with the Eucharist, as Pliny shows at the same time for Bithynia and the Didache for Alex andria. - The same may be inferred of the two Scriptural passages cited above; and one is led further back by I Cor. xi. 17-34. While Paul distinguishes as sharply as possible the eating of the one bread and the drinking of the blessed chalice from common food and drink (1 Cor. x. 3,16; id. 23 29), he shows at the same time that in Corinth the two were connected in thought. While he rebukes the disorder of one drinking too much and another going hungry, so as to injure the dignity of the following sacrament, and lays down that eating for the mere satisfaction of hunger ought to take place at home and not in the assembly of the brethren, he is not disposed (as I Cor. xi. 33 shows) to abolish altogether the connec tion of the sacrament with an actual meal. This connection, then, existing into the first decades of the second century, forms the basis of the history for both Eucharist and agape which diverge from that time on. (T. ZAHN.)

The agape or love-feast is practised at present by Mennonites, Dunkards, German Baptists of the Anglo-American type, and other religious bodies. For an able, but not wholly successful, attempt to prove that the Lord's Supper in the apostolic time was identical with the agape, i.e., that it was nothing but a social feast for the manifestation of brotherly love, consult Norman Fox, Christ in the Daily Meal (New York, 1898).

BIHLIOGSAPHT: Bm LORD'S SBPPEE. A. H. N. AGAPETUS, ag"a-pf'tus: The name of two popes.

Agapetus I.: Pope 535-536. He was the son of a Roman priest named Gordianus, who had been killed in the disturbances under Symmachus. Six days after the death of John 11. he was chosen to succeed him, probably by the wish of Theodahad, king of the Ostrogoths. He began his pontificate by reconciling the contending factions among the Roman clergy and annulling the anathema pro nounced by Boniface 11. against the antipope DioscOrus. His decision, induced by the decrees of the North African synod, forbidding the entrance of converted Arians to the priesthood, and his defense of this measure in a letter to the emperor Justinian show him to have been a zealous upholder of ortho. doxy. In 536 he was sent to Constantinople by Theodahad to try to establish peace with the en1peror, and was obliged to pledge the sacred vessels

of the Roman Church to obtain money for his journey. He did not succeed in the ostensible purpose of his mission, but accomplished more for the orthodox cause, Anthimus, patriarch of Conatantinople, a secret adherent of Monophysitism, had, by the aid of the empress Theodora, the patroness of the Monophysites, been allowed, in defiance of the canons, to exchange the see of TraPezus (Trebizond) for the patriarchal throne. Agapetus refused all communion with him, and persisted so strenuously in his attitude, in spite of


,~ llt- THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 89 threats from the court, that he finally convinced Justinian that Anthimus had deceived him, and had him deposed, and replaced by Mennas. Aga petus himself consecrated Mennas by wish of the emperor, and apparently with the assent of the principal orthodox Eastern bishops, after he had presented a confession of faith which the pope considered satisfactory. The emperor, fearing lest he himself should be accused of sympathy with the former Monophysite patriarch, placed a confession of faith in the pope's hands, which Agapetus ap proved in a letter plainly showing how important he felt his triumph to be. Almost immediately afterward he fell ill and died in Constantinople Apr. 22, 536, his body being brought to Rome and buried in St. Peter's. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIaa8AP81: Epistolss, in MOH. Epist, iii. (1891) 54-57. in MPL, lxvi., and in JaH6, Repesta, i. 113-115; LZer Pontiffcalis, ed. Ducheane, i. 287-289. Paris. 1886; ASB, vi. 163-180; Bower. Popes, i. 337-344; Hefele. Coneilitngeschirhte, Eng. trand., iv. 181-194.

Agapetus II.: Pope 946-955. He was a Ro man by birth, and, like his predecessor Marinus II. owed his elevation to the papal throne (May 10, 946) to Alberic, the secular master of Rome. Though hampered at home by Alberic's power, he asserted the claims of his see successfully abroad. He intervened in the prolonged contest over the archbishopric of Reims, from which Heribert of Vermandois had expelled the legitimate incum bent, Artold, to give it to his own son Hugh. The contest between the friends of the two prelates attained the dimensions of a civil war, Artold being supported by Louis IV. of France. Agapetus also took Artold's side at first; but he was deceived by the representations of a cleric from Reims into reversing his decision. After Artold had succeeded in enlightening him, the affair was referred to a synod held at Ingelheim in 948, whose final verdict in favor of Artold was confirmed by Agapetus in a Roman synod (949). [When Berengar II., Mar quis of Ivrea, attempted to unite all Italy under his scepter, the pope and other Italian princes appealed to Otho I., who went as far as Pavia, expecting to be crowned emperor; but Agapetus, influenced by Alberic, turned. away from him.] In 954 Alberie took an oath from the Roman nobles that at the next vacancy they would elect as pope his son and heir, Octavian; and when Agapetus died in December, 955, Octavian did in fact succeed him as John XII. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBG10GRAPHT: Epiatodcs et Privikpia, in MPL, iii., in Bouquet, Recuea, ix. 226-234, and in Jaffd, Repesta, i. 459-463; Bower, Popes, ii. 314-315; R. Kbpke and E. Diimmler, Kaiser Oft der Grosse. Leipsio, 1876.

AGAPIOS MONACHOS, a-gtllpi-os mo-na'kos

(" Agapios the Monk "; Athanasio Lando): Ascetic writer of the Greek Church; b. at Candia, Crete, toward the end of the sixteenth century; d. between 1657 and 1664. After a wandering life he took up his abode in the monastery on Mt. Athos, but he found it hard to submit to the strict discipline there. He is one of the most popular religious writers of the Greeks. By his excellent translations from the Latin, ancient Greek, and Italian into the vernacular he made many devotional works of the nations accessible to his people. He

meant to be orthodox, but was influenced by Roman Catholicism, and in his works he unsuspectingly quotes Peter Damian and Albertus Magnus besides Ambrose, Augustine, and others. In penance he distinguishes between the contritio, aatisfactio, and confessio; and in the Lord's Supper he accepts the doctrine of transubstantiation without using that term. The question of his orthodoxy was seriously debated in the seventeenth century by the fathers of Port Royal and representatives of the Reformed Church (cf. J. Aymon, Monumens authentiqum de la Religion des Grem, The Hague, 1708, pp. 475, 599).

The most important of the works of Agapios is the "Salvation of Sinners" (1641), a devotional book for the people. His "Sunday Cycle" (1675), a collection of sermons, was also much prized. His writings went through many editions, especially those containing biographies of the saints; as the "Paradise" (1641), the "New Paradise" (c. 1664), the "Selection" (1644), and the "Summertide" (1656). The first three contain translations from Symeon Metaphrastes. PHILIPP MEYER.

BIHLmaHAPu7: rade4r,'O 'A6ms, Constantinople, 1855; E. Legrand, Bibliopraphie HeWnique, 3 vols.. Paris, 1895-

1903. AGATHA, ag'a-tha, SAINT: ' Virgin and martyr in the Roman Catholic calendar. The accounts of her given in the Latin and Greek Acta (ASB, Feb., i. 595-656) are so largely made up of legendary and poetical matter that it is impossible to extract solid historical facts from them. The fact of her martyrdom is, however, attested by her inclusion in the Carthaginian calendar of the fifth or sixth century and in the so-called Martyrologium Heroi nymianum; and she is mentioned also by Dama sus, bishop of Rome from 366 to 384 (Carmen, 30). There seems no reason to doubt that she suffered at Catania on Feb. 5; but the year of her death can not be determined. She is venerated particularly in southern Italy and in Sicily, where, in many places, she is invoked as a protectress against eruptions of Mount Etna. The cities of Palermo and Catania still contend for the honor of being her birthplace. (A. HAUCK.)

AGATHISTS. See CHx18TIANDomxINE,SocIETfoa AGATHO, ag'a-tho: Pope 678-681. He was a Sicilian monk, and in June or July, 678, succeeded Donne after a vacancy in the papacy of two and one-half months. He is especially celebrated for the decisive part which he took in the Monothelite controversy (see MONOTHELITES). He succeeded also in inducing Theodore of Ravenna to acknowledge the dependence of his church on that of Rome. At a synod held in Rome at Easter, 679, he decreed the restoration of Wilfrid, archbishop of York (q.v.), who had been deposed by Theodore of Tarsus, archbishop of Canterbury. The . financial resources of the Roman see appear to have been very limited during his pontificate; for he not only attempted to administer in person the office of arcarius or treasurer of the Roman Church, but he persuaded the emperor to renounce the payment which had been demanded for the confirmation of a pope, though the imperial approbation was still required. Agatho died Jan. 10, 681; the Roman


88 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Church honors his memory on that day; the Greek on Feb. 20. (A. HAUC$.)

BIBLIOavAPR7: Litrros, in MPL, lxxxvii.; Liber pontificalia, ed. Ducheene, i. 350-358.1'aris. 1888: Bower, Popes, i. 469-48N; H. H. Milman. History of Latin Christianity: Hefele. ConcilienpescAiehue, iii. passim, Eng. tranal., v. 139-144; R C. Mann. Lives of as Popes in the Early Middle Ages, I. ii. 24-28.

AGDE, ogd, SYNOD OF: A synod which met Sept. 11, 506, at Agde (Lat. Agatha), a town on the Mediterranean coast of France (90 m. w. of Marseilles, of which it was originally a colony). The town is unimportant, though it claimed to possess the relics of St. Andrew. The synod met with the permission of Maxis II., king of the West Goths, and thirty-five bishops from the south of France attended, Cs;sarius of Arles presiding. It passed forty-seven canons relating to questions of discipline, the guardianship of church property, the devout life, and-a matter of no slight importance for the south of France-the position of the Jews. An attempt was made to enforce clerical celibacy; and an almost suspicious attitude was assumed in regard to female monasticism (nuns were not to take the veil before the age of 40; no new convents were to be founded without the permission of the bishop; and the solitary life was disapproved). Provision was made for the maintenance of several traditional customs, such as the strict fast in Lent, the traditio symboli on the Saturday before Easter, the communion of the laity at Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost; an effort was made to secure liturgical uniformity. In regard to the Jewish question, it is observable that here, as elsewhere, there was no distinction in social life between Jews and Christians, but that the Church disapproved of intercourse with the Jews, and looked with some distrust on converts from Judaism. The canons of the synod are based upon older and not exclusively Gallic foundations: Spanish and African conciliar decisions are used, as well as the letter of Pope Innocent I. to Exsuperius of Toulouse. In like manner the canons of the First Frankish Synod at Orlfans (511) and the Burgundian Synod at Epao (517) depend upon those of Agde. The latter were early included in the collections of church law, and Gratian incorporated a large part of them in his Decretum. (A. HAucs.)

BreLIOGRAPHT: Manei, Coneilia viii. 319·, Hefele, Conclliangeachidde, ii. 649-66o, Eng. transl., iv. 76-86; C. F. Ar nold, Caaariue voa Arelate, Leipsic, 1894.

AGE, CANONICAL: The age required by the canons of the Church for ordination or for the performance of any particular act. The require. ment of a definite age for entering the priestly order is first found in the eleventh canon of the Synod of Neocaesarea (314 or 325): " No one is to be ordained priest before he is thirty year, old

.for Jesus Christ when thirty years old was baptized and entered upon his ministry." The first canon of the second series of canons of the Synod of Hippo in 393 required the completion of the twenty-fifth year for the reception of deacon's orders. These decisions were frequently repeated

as by the Synod, of Agile (524, canon i.), the Third

canon vi.), and the Fourth of Toledo (633, canon xa.), and the later repetitions were included in the canonical collections of the early Middle Ages, but in detail they were frequently changed. Urban II. at the Council of Melfi (1089, canon iv.) laid down the law that no one should be ordained subdeacon before his fourteenth year, or deacon before his twenty-fourth. For the priesthood, though the thirtieth year still remained the minimum in the written law, the practise grew of ordaining at twenty-five. The Synod of Ravenna (1314, canon ii.) fixed the sixteenth year for subdeacons, the twentieth for deacons, and the twenty-fourth for priests. Finally the Council of Trent (1563, session xxiii.) settled the minimum at twenty-two, twentythree, and twenty-four years, respectively, for these offices. It is sufficient to have begun the year specified in the Council. For tonsure and minor orders the Council simply requires the reception of the sacrament of confirmation and a certain degree of learning. In the Protestant Churches the attainment by the candidate of his majority is usually considered sufficient, though here and there the twenty-fourth year is still required.

In the Roman Catholic Church the canonical age is reckoned from the day of birth. Canonically the age of discretion is put at seven years, and then the sacraments of penance and extreme unction may be received because the child, being supposed to be capable of conscious choice, can commit a mortal sin; also the child is then subject to the regulations of the Church reapectiiig abstinence and attendance on mass, and may also, as far as law is concerned, contract a marriage engagement. A marriage may not be contracted before puberty (except in case of extraordinary development of mind and body), i.e., before fourteen for boys and twelve for girls; nor may confirmation and the Lord's Supper be received till the child has been properly instructed. From twenty-one to sixty is the period when fasting at certain seasons is obligatory. The lowest canonical age for a bishop is thirty years completed. The minimum age at which simple vows may be taken is sixteen years completed. Clerics may not profess solemn vows before they have entered on their twentieth year.

BIHL10(rRAPHY: KL, i. 832-838; E. Friedberg, LcnrbucTi den ka0wlieehsn and eroangeliachen Kirchenrechta, pp, lbl, 330,

Le~psic, 1903; w. E. Addis End T. Arnold, Catholic Die. tionary, London, 1903.

AGELLI, tl-jel'lf, ANTONIO (Lat. Agelliua): Roman Catholic scholar; b. at Sorrento, s. of the Bay of Naples, 1532; d. at Acerno, 14 m.

e.n.e. of Sorrento, 1608. He joined the order of the Theatins, became bishop of Acerno in 1593,

but after a few years returned to his monastery, He was famed for his knowledge of the lan-

guages of the Bible, under Gregory MIL and Sixtus y, lq88 member of the commission for the publication of the Septuagint (1587), and as ~1 ~). also in the publication of the Vulgate

Agelli wrote commentaries on the Book of Lamentations (Rome, 1598); the Psalms and Canticles

508, canon x vi.), of Arles (1606); proverbs (Verona, 1649); and Habakkuk Synod of Orli;ans (538, (Antwerp, lgg7),



The Term; its Equivalents Before the Reformation (1 1). Lutheran Changes in Roman Catholic Agenda (¢ 2).

Decline of Lutheran Agenda in Eighteenth Century (§ 3). The Agenda in the Reformed Church (§ 4).

Revival of Agenda by Frederick William III. (1 5). The Agenda in the Modern Lutheran Church (1 6). American Liturgies (1 7).

The name Agenda (" Things to be Done "; Germ. Agende or Kirchenagende) is given, particularly in the Lutheran Church, to the official books dealing with the forms and ceremonies of divine service. It occurs twice in the ninth canon of the Second Synod of Carthage (390; Bruns, Canones, i., Berlin, 1839, p. 121), and in a letter of Innocent I. (d. 417; MPL, xx. 552). The name was frequently employed in a more specific sense, as Agenda missarum, for the celebration of the mass; agenda diei, for the office of the day; agenda mortudrum, for the service for the dead; agenda malutina, and agenda vespertina, for morning and evening prayers. As the designation of a book of liturgical formulas it is stated by Ducange to have been used by Johannes de Janua, but in the only published work of Johannes (c. 1287) the name does not occur. There is no doubt, however, that with the development of the ritual of the Church the classification of liturgical formulas for the use of the parochial clergy became common. Such books of procedure

z. The were known by various names; e.g., Term; manuals, obsequiale, benedictionaie, ri its Equiv- tuale, and agenda. The last title was alents Be- given especially to the church books of fore the Ref- particular dioceses wherein the genormation. eral ritual of the Church was supplemented by ceremonial features of local origin, as the agenda for Magdeburg of 1497, or the Liber agendarum secundum ritum eccWixe et diocesis Sleauricensis of 1512. The use of the term in the Roman Catholic Church, however, practically ceases with the Reformation, though a few instances occur in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the Evangelical Churches, on the contrary, with the title Kirchenbuch, it speedily came to be the accepted designation for authoritative books of ritual. In the early days of the Reformation the agenda not infrequently constituted part of the Kirchenordnung or general church constitutions of a state (see CHURCH ORDER); but in the course of time the separation of the formulas of worship from the legal and administrative codes of the Church was effected.

The earliest attempts at a reformation of the Roman ritual were naturally concerned with the mass. The innovations consisted of the omission of certain parts of the Roman ceremonial and the substitution of German for Latin, instances of the use of the vernacular in the celebration of the mass occurring as early as 1521-22. In 1523 2. Lutheran Luther published his Latin mass, revised Changes in in accordance with evangelical doc-

Roman trine; and three years later he gave to Catholic the world his Deutsche Mme und Ord- Agenda. nung des Gottesdiensts, the use of which, however, was not made obligatory. In the same year appeared his " Book of Baptism," in 1529 probably his "Book of Marriage," and dur-

ing the years 1535-37 the formula for the ordination of ministers. In the Kirchenordnungen of the time orders of worship occur, as in Thomas Miinzer's Deutzsch kirchen ampt, of 1523, and the Ldndesordnung of the duchy of Prussia in 1525. From this time to the end of the sixteenth century the Protestant states of Germany were busied with the task of remodeling their ecclesiastical systems and formularies of worship, the work being carried on by the great theologians of the age. The church constitutions and agenda of this period may be divided into three classes: (1) those following closely the Lutheran model; (2) those in which the ideas of the Swiss Reformation were predominant; and (3) those which retained appreciable elements of the Roman ritual. Of the first type the earliest examples are the constitutions drawn up by Bugenhagen for Brunswick, 1528; Hamburg, 1529; Liibeck, 1531; Pomerania, 1535; Denmark, 1537; Sleswick-Holstein, 1542; and Hildesheim, 1544. Justus Jonas formulated the church laws of Wittenberg (in part), 1533; of the duchy of Saxony (where the name " agenda " is first adopted), 1539; and of Halle, 1541. Hanover received its laws from Urbanus Rhegius in 1536; Brandenburg-Nuremberg, from Osiander and Brenz in 1533; and Mecklenburg, from Riebling, Aurifaber, and Melanchthon in 1540 and 1552. Among the states which adopted constitutions of the Reformed type were Hesse and Nassau, between 1527 and 1576; more closely, Wiirttemberg, 1536; the Palatinate, 1554; and Baden, 1556. In the socalled " Cologne Reformation," drawn up largely by Butzer and Melanchthon and introduced by Archbishop Hermann in 1543, the agenda of Saxony, Brandenburg-Nuremberg, and Cassel served as models. The Roman ritual was retained to some extent in the church ordihances of the electorate of Brandenburg, 1540; Pfalzneuburg, 1543; and Austria, 1571. Of this type, too, were the ordinances drawn up by Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, Major, and others, for the electorate of Saxony in 1549; but these never went into effect, giving place in 1580 to a constitution Lutheran in character.

The Thirty Years' war exercised a disastrous influence on the entire ecclesiastical system of Germany, and particularlv on church discipline. The. work of restoration, however, was begun almost immediately after the cessation of hostil ities, but so great was the moral degradation in which the mass of the people was plunged, so low was the, standard of education and general intelli gence, that in the formulation of new ecclesiastical laws the governments, of necessity, assumed a far larger share of authority over the affairs of the Church than they had possessed before the war. This increased power of the government was appar ent not only in a closer supervision over the eccle siastical administration, but also in the enforcement of a stricter adherence to the formulated modes of worship. Of the agenda promulgated after the war, the most important were those of Mecklen burg, 1650; Saxony and Westphalia, 1651; Bruns wick-Lilneburg,1657; Hesse, 1657; and Halls, 1660.

The eighteenth century witnessed a marked decline in the importance of the official liturgies in the religious life of the nation-a loss of influ-



ence so great as to make the books of the Church practically obsolescent. This was due to the rise of the pietistic movement which, in its opposition to formula and rigidity in doctrine, was no less destructive of the old ritual than was the rationalistic movement of the latter half of the century. Both pietism and rationalism were wanting in respect for the element of historical evolution in religion and worship; and the former, in laying stress on the value of individual prayer and devotion without attempting any change in the forms of divine service, led to their general abandonment for the spiritual edification that was to be obtained in the societies organized for common improvement, the so-called collegia pietatia. Rationalism in lending its own interpretation to the ritual, deprived it of much of its practical bearing, and necessitated, in consequence, a radical reconstruction of the prayers and hymns of the Church. But a no

less important cause of change in 3. Decline of liturgical forms is to be found in

Lutheran the growth of social distinctions and Agenda in the rise of a courtly etiquette which

in the sought, with success, to impose its Eighteenth standards of manners and speech on

Century. the ceremonies and language of the

Church. The etiquette of the salon entered the Church, and the formula " Take thou and eat," at the Lord's Supper, was altered to " Take Ye and eat " when the communicants were of the nobility. The consistory of Hanover in 1800 granted permission to its ministers to introduce during public worship such changes in language, costume, and gesture as would appeal to the tastes of their " refined audiences." As a result the old official agenda passed generally out of use and were replaced by books of worship representing the views of individual minis

In the Evangelical Churches -outside of Germany books of ritual were drawn up during the early years of the Reformation. In 1525 Zwingli published the order of the mass as celebrated at Zurich and a formula of baptism based on the "Book of Baptism," issued by Leo Judge in 1523. A complete agenda, including the two Zwingliap codes, appeared at Zurich in 1525 (according to Harnack and others, but more probably in 1529), under the title Ordnung der ChriWnlichm Kilchenn a Zxlrich, and was often revised during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bern received its first formulary in 1528; Schaffhausen, in 1592, and St. Gall in 1738.

* Neuchatel, in 1533, was the first 4. The French-speaking community to adopt Agenda a definite ritual; its authorship has is the been attributed to Farel. At Geneva, Reformed Calvin published in 1542, La Forma Church, dea prikrea' eccL~..~ based on

the practises he had found among the French of Strasburg during his sojourn in that city from 1538 to 1541. The ~trasburg ritual was followed also by the French in London, and by many churches in France itself. Deserving of special mention are the constitutions drawn up in 1550 by Johannes a Lasso for the fi the Netherlands went in England. the first compreheThey form nsive formulation of the ritual


of Calvinistic Protestantism, and are still in force in the Netherland Church.

In Germany the return to a uniform, authoritative mode of worship was begun by Frederick William III. of Prussia in the early years of the nineteenth century. After.1613 the royal family of Prussia were adherents of the Reformed creed, but the king's personal beliefs were entirely Lutheran. After the campaign of Jena (1806) he entrusted the task of drafting a ritual to Eylert, whose work, however, failed to receive the king's approval because the author had fallen into the then common _ error of the writers of liturgies, namely, of paying

little regard to the historical develop- g. Revival ment of the evangelical forma of wor- of ship. Frederick William protested Agenda by vehemently against these newly fabri-

Frederick sated rituals, and asserted the necesWilliam III. arty of " going back to Father Lu-

ther." With this purpose he devoted many years to the personal study of ritualistic history and attained an expert knowledge of the subject, particularly of its phases in the sixteenth century. The refusal of the great mass of the clergy to lend themselves to his efforts in favor of unity, he met with the determination to make use of the power vested in him by law to bring about the desired end. In 1822 he published the agenda for the court and cathedral church of Berlin; and two years later this formulary, increased and revised with the aid of Borowsky and Bunsen, was submitted to the various oonaiatoriea. Before the end of 1825, out of 7,782 churches within the Pruseiaa dominions, 5,243 had adopted the proposed regulations. In spite of a bitter polemic, in which Schleiermacher led the assault on the king's innovations, the new regulations were introduced in all the provinces before 1838!

The king's agenda, however, did not cease to be the subject of much criticism. In 1856 it was improved; and in 1879 the General Synod determined upon a thorough revision. The work was entrusted to a committee of twenty-three, among

whom were the theologians Goltz,

6. The HIeinert, Haring, Meuse, Renner,

Agenda is Riibesamen, Ktlgel, and Schmalen

the Modern bath; and in 1894 their draft of a new

Lutheran ritual was adopted with alight changes

Church. by the General Synod. The lead of

Prussia was followed by the other

members of the German Empire, and moat of the

states have now revised their agenda or have the

work in progress. BohmjS, and MOraV1A (both Lu-

therans and Calvinists), Denmark, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Transylvania have also late revisions. In France, after much agitation, a book of ritual, Liturgie dea tglises reform&, de France rp°r k SYnode 9ftbal, was adopted in 1897.

The Church of (Gn°a° RIMo$EL,) E*°d adopted the Book of Common Prayer under Edward VI,, which with slight revisions, has been made universally obliga_ ~i5' by seta ,has It is used with modi_ fications by the Protestant Episeopal Church of the United States (,see Conrarou pa"a,, Boo, OF)' H. M. Milhlenberg prepared s liturgy which


Agenda Agnosticism THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG se

was adopted by the Lutheran Synod that he bad organized (1748) and approved by the German Lutheran authorities at Halle, whose missionary he was. It was based upon those 7. Ameri- in use in Liineburg (1643 onward),

can Calenberg (1569 onward), BrandenLiturgies. burg-Magdeburg (1739 onward), and Saxony (1712 onward). The liturgyof the Savoy Lutheran Church of London was the only one, apparently, actually in hand, the others exerting their influence through Miihlenberg's memory (for text cf. H. E. Jacobs, A History of the Lutheran Church in the United States, New York, 1893, pp 269-275; cf. also Schmucker, in the Lutheran Church Review, i., pp. 16-27, 161-172). Forms for baptism and the marriage ceremony were taken from the Prayer-Book of the Church of England. In 1795 Kunze published A Hymn and Prayer Book for the use of such Lutheran Churches as use the English Language, which has by successive revisions developed into the present English Church Book. In 1806 the New York ministerium adopted a liturgy modified by Episcopal influence, and in 1818 the Philadelphia ministerium adopted a liturgy in which extemporaneous prayer was allowed as well as freedom in selecting the Scriptures to be read. In 1885 after much controversy and conference the General Synod adopted a " Common Service," which has been widely accepted by the Churches, but is not reA garded as obligatory.

The Dutch Reformed Church i11 the United States adopted (1771) along with the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, and the Canons of the Synod of Dort, the liturgical forms that were at that time in use in the Netherlands. The Nicene and Athanasian creeds are appended to the liturgy, which has undergone little change. The German Reformed Church in the United States seems to have used the Palatinate liturgy, with local modi fications. In 1841 the Eastern Synod published a liturgy prepared by Lewis Mayer, which, how ever, failed of general approval. A " Provisional Liturgy," prepared 4y Philip Schaff and others (1857), likewise proved unacceptably. The " Order of Worship " was allowed by the General Synod (1866) as was also the " Western Liturgy " (1869 ). The " Directory of Worship " was adopted in 1887 (cf. E. T. Corwin, History of the Reformed Church, Dutch, and J. H. Dubbs, History of the Reformed Church, German, New York, 1895). A book of liturgical forms, prepared by Henry Van Dyke and others appointed by the General Assembly, for use in Presbyterian Churches, but in no way obligatory, was published in 1906. It aroused considerable opposition. A. H. N.

BIHLIOGRAPHT: J. A. Schmid, Dieaertaho de Apendis eiroe ordinationsIua ewleeiasticis, Helmetadt, 1718; J. L. Funk, Die Kirchanordnung der euangeliech-luderiechen Kirche Deutee%lande in ihrsm erden Jahrhundert, 1824; idem, Historieche Bekuchtunp der Apanden, Neuetedt, 1827; A. E. Richter, Die eoanpelischen Kirchsnordnunpen des secheuhnten Jahrhunderts, 2 vole., Weimar, 1846; H. A. Daniel, Codex liturpicus exieeim uniroerem in eyitomen redadw, 4 vole., Leipsic.1847-53; J. H. A. Ebrud Reformirtee KircAenbucA, Zurich, 1847; A. Nordmeier, Protmtandache Agenda, Gera, 1879; R. A. D&cheel, Apsnds for die eeanyeliuhe Kirche, Berlin, 1880; E. Sehling, Die eeanpdixhen Kirchenordnunpen des eadwwhnten Jahrhunderts, vol. i., Leipeic, 1'903.


AGIER, a"zhy6', PIERRE JEAN: French lawyer; b. in Paris Dec. 28, 1748, of a Jansenist family; d. there Sept. 22, 1823. He held high positions in the French courts during the Revolution and under Napoleon and the Bourbons, but was early led into comprehensive theological studies. He learned Hebrew at the age of forty. His principal work is Les ProphUes nouvellement traduits de Mbreu aver des explications et des notes critiques (8 vols., Paris, 1820-23). Among his other works are: Le Jurisconsulte national (3 vols., 1788); Vues sur la reformation ties lois eiviles (1793);TraiMsurlsmariage(2vo18. 1800); Psaumes nouvellement traduits (3 vols., 1809); Vues Sur le second av&wment de J&us-Christ (1818); PropUties eoncernont Jesus-Christ et l1glise (1819); and Com mentaire sur l'Apoealypae (2 vols., 1823).

AGILBERT, d"zllfl-bAr': Second bishop of the West Saxons (Dorchester) and afterward of Paris; b. in Gaul, probably in Paris; d. at Jouarre (35 m. e. of Paris) Oct. 11, 680; he studied in Ireland, and went to Wessex about 650, where King Cenwealh appointed him bishop to succeed Birinus (he had received consecration before leaving Gaul). As he could not speak English, Cenwealh chose another bishop, Wine, whom he located (probably in 663) in his royal city, Winchester, where he had founded a church soon after his conversion in 646. Agilbert then returned to Gaul, passing through Northumbria and attending the Synod of Whitby (q.v.) on the way. He became bishop of Paris not before 666. He assisted at the consecration of Wilfrid as bishop of York (664 or 665), and entertained Theodore of Tarsus while on his way to Canterbury. After a time Cenwealh invited him to return to Wessex; but he declined, and sent his nephew Hlothhere, or Leutherius, who was consecrated in 670 by the archbishop of Canterbury.

BIRwoaRAPHY: Bede, Hist. eccL. iii. 7,25-28; iv. 1,12; v.19.

AGLIARDI, 8"glf"ar'dR, ANTONIO: Cardinal; b. at Cologno al Serio (8 m. s.s.e. of Bergamo), Lombardy, Italy, Sept. 4, 1832. After a pastorate of twelve years in his native city, he was called to Rome and appointed administrator of East Indian affairs in the College of the Propaganda, as well as professor of moral theology in the Collegium Urbanum. In the former capacity he was sent to India as apostolic delegate in 1884, after being consecrated titular bishop of Ctesarea in Pdestine. Ill health forced him to return to Italy, but he was soon in India once more, and made a tour of the country which lasted five months. in 1887, after finally leaving India, he was for a time secretary for extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, and was then successively papal nuncio at Munich and Vienna. In 1896 he was sent to Russia as ambassador extraordinary to attend the coronation of the czar, and in the same year received the cardinal's hat, while in 1899 he was made suburban bishop of Albano. In 1902 he was placed in charge of the estates of the College of the Propaganda, and since 1903 has been vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.



AGNELLUS, ag"nel'lus (called also Andrew): The historian of the Church of Ravenna; b. in that city early in the ninth century [some authorities say in 805, of a rich and noble family]; the year of his death is unknown. He entered the clerical state very early, and became abbot of the monasteries of St. Mary ad Blachernas and St. Bartholomew, both in Ravenna. He was ordained priest by Archbishop Petronacius (817-835). His reputation for learning induced his brother clergy to ask him to write the history of the local church, and he began his Liber panti ficalis Eccleaim Raven natis before 838, and finished it after 846. It follows the model of the Roman Liber pond ficalis, giving a series of biographies of the bishops of Ravenna, beginning with Apollinaris, said to have been a disciple of St. Peter and to have died as a martyr July 23, 75 (or 78), in whose memory the Basilica in Classe at Ravenna was dedicated in the year 549. The last bishop mentioned is George, whose death falls apparently in 846. The characteristics of the work are its strong tendency to the expression of local patriotism, and the interest which it shows in buildings, monuments, and other works of art. It is one of the earliest historical works to make an extensive use of architectural monuments as sources. Agnellus had little command of written documents; he availed himself of oral tradition wherever possible, and supplied its deficiencies by a well-meaning imagination.

(A. HAuas.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His history, edited by 0. Holder-Egger, is in M(IH, Script. rer. Lang., 1878, pp. 285-391, also in the continuation to 1298 by an unknown writer and to 1410 by Paul Soordilli, in MPL, ovi. 429-840; A. Ebert, Allpemeine lisachichte der Litteratur des Mittelalters, ii. 374-377, Leipsic, 1880.

AGNES, SAINT: A saint commemorated in the Roman Church on Jan. 21 and 28 (the Gelasian Liturgy giving the former; the Gregorian, the latter date), and in the Greek Church on Jan. 14 and 21 and July 5. Since the oldest documents (the Calendarium Romanum, the Calendarium A/ri,canum, and the Gothic and Oriental Missals) agree in fixing Jan. 21 as the day of her death, Bolland has rightly assigned to that day the acts of her martyrdom. The year of her death, according to Ruinart, was about 304. The cause and manner of her martyrdom are given in a very legendary manner by an undoubtedly spurious Passion in the older editions of the works of St. Ambrose, which states that, having made a vow of perpetual virginity while still a child, she successfully resisted the wooing of a noble youth, the son of Symphronius, the city prefect, and embellishes the narrative with many wonders. Her hair suddenly grew so long and thick as to serve for a cloak; a light from heaven struck her importunate lover lifeless to the ground; when she was bound to the stake the flames were extinguished in answer to her prayer. After she had been beheaded at the command of the prefect, and had been buried by her parents in their field on the Via Nomentana, outside of Rome, she appeared to her people in glorified form with a little lamb at her side, and continued to perform miracles, such as the healing of the princess Constantia, for which, it is said, she was honored

under Constantine the Great by the erection of a basilica at her tomb (Sent' Agnese fuori Is Mura). Evidence of the high antiquity of her worship is given by Ambrose in several of his genuine writings, by Jerome (E*t., exxx., ad Demetriadem), by Augustine, by the Christian poets Damasus and Prudentius, and by others.

In medieval art St. Agues is usually represented with a lamb, which indicates her character as representative of youthful chastity and innocence, but may have been derived from her name, which is to be connected with the Greek hagne, " chaste " (cf. Augustine, Sermones, celxxiii. 6). Two lambs are blessed every year on Jan. 21 in the Agues basilica, mentioned above (one of the principal churches of Rome, after which one of the cardinal priests is called), and their wool is used to make the archiepiscopal pallia which are consecrated y by the pope (see PALLIuM). O. ZOCHLERt.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: For life and legends: Ambrose Vita gloriosa roirpinis Apnetis, in folio 115 of his works, Milan, 1474; ASB, Jan., ii. 350-383; T. Ruinart, Acta Martyrum, Amsterdam, 1713, Ratiebon, 1859; A. Butler, Lieu of as Saints, under Jan. 21, London, 1847; L. Santini, Leben der Wigan Agnes, Ratiebon, 1884; P Franold de' Cavalieri, Santa Apneas neila A-adisione a nella leppsnda, Rome, 1899. For representations in Christian art: H. Detsel. Chriettiche Ikonopraphis. voL ii., Freiburg, 1898. For the Catacombs of St. Agnes: J. S. Northoote and W. C. Brownlow, Roma Sotterranea, London, 1879,80; M. Amellini, IL Cimskrroo di 3. Agnew, Rome, 1880; W. H. Withrow, CataoomU o/ Rome, London, 1888; V. Schultze, Archdolopie der allchrisakhm Kunst, Munich, 1895. For the mystery play of St. Agnes: Sancta Agnes. Prooemalisches peish 1"ea Schauspid, Berlin. 1889.

AGROOETZ, ag"no-f'tf or 4'tk (Gk. agnoltai, " ignorant "): 1. Name of a sect of the fourth century, a branch of the Eunomiana (q.v.), who followed the lead of Theophronius of Cappadocia. They were so named because they limited the divine omniscience to the present, maintaining that God knew the past merely by memory, and the future by divination (Socrates, Hist. eccd., v. 24).

!d. The name was borne also by the sect of the sixth century, founded by Themistius, a deacon of Alexandria, and sometimes called Themistians. They consisted chiefly of the Severian faction of the Monophysites, and maintained that, as the body of Christ was subject to natural conditions, so also his human soul must be thought of as not omniscient. In support of their view they quoted Mark xiii. 32 and John xi. 34. The heresy was revived by the Adoptionists in the eighth century.

AGNOSTICISM: A philologically objectionable and philosophically unnecessary but very convenient term, invented toward the end of the nineteenth century (1869) as a designation of the skeptical habit of mind then quite prevalent. It is defined in the Oxford Dictionary as the doctrine which holds that " the existence of anything beyond and behind natural phenomena is unknown, and (so far as can be judged) unknowable, and especially that a First Cause and an unseen world are subjects of which we know nothing." It is thus equivalent to the common philosophical term, skepticism, although expressing the phase of thought designated by both alike from the point of view of its outcome rather than of its method. Some have held, it. is true, that the true agnostic is not



he who doubts whether human powers can attain to the knowledge of what really is, or specifically to the knowledge of God and spiritual things, but he who denies this. But there is a dogmatic skepticism, and there is no reason why there may not be a more or less hesitant agnosticism. The essential element in both is that the doubt or denial rests on distrust of the power of the human mind to ascertain truth. It is common, to be sure, to speak of several types of agnosticism, differing the one from the other according as the basis of the doubt or denial of the attainability of truth is ontological, generally psychological, definitely epistemological, or logical. But useful as this discrimination may be as a rough classification of modes of presenting the same fundamental doctrine, it is misleading if it suggests that the real basis of doubt or denial is not in every case epistemological. When it is said,.for example, that God and spiritual things axe in their very nature unknowable, that of course means that they are unknowable to such powers as man possesses; nothing that exists can be intrinsically unknowable, and if unknowable to men must be so only because of limitations in their faculties of knowledge. And when one is told that the sole trouble is that the balance of evidence is hopelessly in equilibrium, and the mind is therefore left in suspense, that of course means only that such minds as men have are too coarse scales for weighing such delicate matters.

Agnosticism is in short a theory of the nature and limits of human intelligence. It is that particular theory which questions or denies the capacity of human intelligence to attain assured knowledge, whether with respect to all spheres of truth, or, in its religious application, with respect to the particular sphere of religious truth. As mankind has universally felt itself in possession of a body of assured knowledge, and not least in the sphere of religious truth, nay as mankind instinctively reach out to and grasps what it unavoidably looks upon as assured knowledge, and not least in the sphere of religious truth,-agnosticism becomes, in effect, that tendency of opinion which pronounces what men in general consider knowledge more or less misleading, and therefore more or less noxious. Sometimes, no doubt, in what we may, perhaps, call the half-agnostic, these illusions are looked upon as rough approximations to truth, and are given a place of importance in the direction of human life, under some such designation as " regulative truths " (Mansel), or " value judgments " (Ritschl), or " symbolical conceptions " (Sabatier). The consistent agnostic, however, must conceive them as a body of mere self-deceptions, from which he exhorts men to cleanse their souls as from cant (Huxley).

In effect, therefore, agnosticism impoverish, and, in its application to religious truth, secularizes and to this degree degrades life. Felicitating itself on a peculiarly deep reverence for truth on the ground that it will admit into that category only what can make good its right to be so considered under the most stringent teats, it deprives itself of the enjoyment of this truth by leaving the category either entirely or in great part empty. Re-

fusing to assert there is no truth, it yet misses what Bacon declares " the sovereign good of human nature," viz., " the inquiry of truth, which is the love-making or wooing of it, the knowledge of truth, which is the presence of it,-and the belief of truth which is the enjoying of it." On the ground that certain knowledge of God and spiritual things is unattainable, it bids man think and feel and act as if there were no God and no spiritual life and no future existence. It thus degenerates into a practical atheism. Refusing to declare there is no God, it yet misses all there may be of value and profit in the recognition of God.

BENJAMIN B. WARFIELD. Br8LI0aHAYH7: Modem agnosticism takes its start in the philosophy of Rant and runs its course through Hamil ton and Mansel to culminate in the teaching of Herbert Spencer; its most authoritative exposition is given in their writings and in those of their followers. Good select bibliographies of the subject may be found in A. B. Bruce. Apologetics, p. 148, London, 1892, in F. R. Beattie, Apolo getics, or the Rational Vindication of Christianity, i. 521, 531, Richmond, 1903, and in R. Flint, Agnosticism, Lon don, 1903, foot-notes, especially that on p. 843, where the titles of works on the oognoscibility of God are collected. Consult, besides the above, from the Christian dogmatic standpoint, J. Ward. Naturalism and Agnosticism, ib. 1903; C. Hodge. Systematic Theology, I. i., eh. iv., New York, 1871; B. P. Bowne, The Philosophy of H. Spencer. ib. 1874 (a criticism of Spencer's agnosticism); J. Owen. Evenings with the Skeptics, 2 vole., London, 1881; J. Me Cosh, The Agnosticism of Hume and Huxley, New York, 1884; J. Martineau, Study of Religion, I. i., eh. i: iv., Lon don, 1889; H. Wace. Christianity and Agnosticism, Edin burgh, 1895; J. Iverach, Is God Knowable t' London, 1887. The agnostics' position is set forth in H. Spencer, First Principles. ib. 1904 (called " the Bible of Agnosticism "); J. Fiske, Outlines o/ Cosmic Philosophy, Boston, 1874; K. Pearson, The Ethic of Presrkought, London, 1887; R. Bit hell, Agnostic Problems, ib. 1887; idem. The Creed o/ a Modern Agnostic, ib. 1888; idem, Handbook o/ Scaentifrc AOnos, ib. 1892; Christianity and Agnosticism, a Controversy consisting of Papers by H. Wace, T. H. H ley. Bishop Magee, and Mrs. Ward, New York, 1889 (this discussion aroused wide interest); L. Stephen, An Agnos tic's Apology, London, 1893; T. Hu:ley. Collected Essays. vol. v., 9 vols., ib. 1894 (contains his side of the oon troverey with Dr. Wave); W. Scott Palmer, An Agnostic's Progress, London, 1908.

AGNUS DEI, ag'nos d9i ("Lamb of God"): 1. An ancient liturgical formula in the celebration of the Eucharist, found in some manuscripts of the Sacramentary of Gregory the Great after the Lord's Prayer and the Libera. The full text, based on John i. 29, is " Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, mjserere nobia." It is found also in the ancient Eastern hymn which was annexed to the Gloria in ExceUis (see LrTORmCAL FoRMuies, II., 3) and was early introduced into the Western Church in Latin translation, where the form is " Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe, Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Petrie, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis; qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecar tionem nostram." When the Second Trullan Council (892) undertook to forbid the representation and invocation of Christ under the figure of the lamb, Pope Sergius I., to express the opposition of the Roman Church, decreed that the Agnus should be sung by priest and people at the Communion. After 787, under Adrian I., it was sung by the choir only. The ritual of the mass, based in this particular on a custom which can be traced to the beginning of the eleventh century,


8s, RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA esaontfoism Agonizanta prescribes that the priest, before taking the sacra ment, shall recite the Agnus Dei three times, bow ing and beating his breast to express contrition for sin, the third time with the addition of " dons, nobis pacem." The consecration precedes, the Lord's Prayer is sung with the Liera nos; a piece of the consecrated and broken bread is then thrown into the cup, and the Agnus follows. At the Church festivals it is accompanied with telling effect by soft and tender music. In the mass for the dead the words " give them rest " are substi tuted for "have mercy upon us," the third time with the addition of " eternal." The Agnus was accepted in the Evangelical Lutheran Church at the beginning, either in the translation of Nicolaus Decius, " O Lamm Gottes unschuldig," or in the more exact form, " Christe, du Lamm Gottes, der du tragst." In the days of rationalism it was often omitted, or the phrase " Son of God " was substituted for " Lamb of God," the' latter being thought to imply an unchristian, Levitical sacrificial conception. It was afterward restored, and is now used in numerous musical settings. In the Church of England the Agnus was incorporated in the Litany, byit only to be repeated twice; and the last form (ending with " grant us thy peace ") was placed first. In the first prayer-book of Edward I. it was included in the communion office, but was omitted in that of 1552 and all subsequent revisions. Nevertheless, it is almost invariably sung by congregations of High-church affiliations. M. HEROLD. BrewoasAFHY: H. A. Daniel, Codex likapicus, vols. i., ii., Leipsic,1847-48; L. Schdberlein, Schatz des liturpiechen Chor-and Gemeindepesangs, pp. 398 sqq.. Gattingen, 1880; G. Rietschel, Lehrbuch der Liturpik, p. 386, Berlin, 1900. Musical settings. by Vittoria, Pakatrina, F. Burmeister (1601), F. Decker (1604), M. Prmtorius (d. 1621), Mozart, and others; consult R. von Liliencron, Chorordnunp, Go terdoh. 1900.

Name given to a wax medallion, bearing the figure of a lamb, made from the remains of the paschal taper, and consecrated by the pope in the special ceremonies on the Sunday after Easter in the: first yeas of each pontificate and every seven yeas thereafter. These medallions are presented to 'distinguished individuals or to churches, are often enclosed in cases of costly workmanship, and are carefully preserved, almost like relics.

AGOBARD, ag'o-bard: Archbishop of Lyons 816f-840 [b., probably in Spain, 779; d. in Sainto (an old province of western France) June 6, 840]. Nothing certain is known of his youth. He welt to Lyons in 792, and probably owed his educatiO* to Leidrad, archbishop of Lyons, one of the m t diligent of Charlemagne's helpers in his civil-


g work. Later he became Leidrad's -assistant, an then his successor. When the order of eucce ion established by Louis le Ibonnaire in 817,

ly through ecclesiastical influence, was set am a at the instigation of the empress Judith (829), bard was one of its most zealous defenders. H seems to have taken no part in the rising of 830;

bu in 833 he appears among the professed oppo ents of Louis. He approved the deposition of


h emperor, and was one of the bishop who forced to his humiliating penance at Soieeone. Con-

sequently in 835, when Louis had recovered his power, Agobard was deprived of his office. He regained it later, being reconciled with Louis.

Agobard takes a foremost place in the annals of Carolingian culture. In strictly theological treatises such as the Liber adversus dogma Feldcfs, against Adoptionism, and another, against imageworship, he is as much a mere compiler as any of his contemporaries. When, however, in a polemic against Fredegis, abbot of St. Martin at Tours, he deals with the question of inspiration, he speaks out boldly against the doctrine of verbal inspiration, while still declaring himself to be governed by the trar dition of orthodox teachers. In his political wTi tinge he was less governed by traditional views. He was not afraid to touch one of the most difficult questions of the time, that of the restitution of Church property, at the diet held at Attigny in 822; and he renewed the demand in the tractate De dispensations ecclesiarum rerum. His Comparatio tariusque regiminis ecclesiastici et politici (833) is one of the first writings in which the claim is outspokenly made that the emperor must do the bidding of the pope, Tie wrote a book against the popular superstition that storms could be caused by magic, basing his argument on religious grounds, yet making appeal to sound reason. In advance of his age, again, he denied absolutely the justice of the ordeal by battle, and wrote two tractates against it. He was also to some extent a liturgical scholar; and in the preface to his revised antiphonary laid down the principle that the words of Holy Scripture should alone be used. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Cave, Scriptorum ecclcaiasticorum historia literaria, vol. ii., London, 1688 (contains list of the works of Agobard); Opera, ed. E. Baluse, 2 vols., Paris, 1666, and thence in MPL, c iv.; also in MOH, Leges, i. (1835) 369, MOH, Epist., v. (1899) 150-239,andinMliH, Script., xv. 1 (1887), 274-279.

For his life and times: Menestrier, Histoiro civt7e de la villa de Lyons, 3 parts, Lyons, 1696; X. B. Hundeshagen, Commentatio de Aqebardi vita et saiptie, Giessen, 1831; P. Chevallard, L'Kplise et CUM en France au neuroibrne sikle, Saint Apobard, Lyons, 1869; T. FBrster, Drei ErsbiwWfe eor 1000 Jahren, GUtereloh, 1874; B. Simeon, Jahrteher des frankischen Retcha unter Ludwig don Frommen, i. 397 sqq., Leipsic, 1874; H. Reuter, Oeschichte der relipidaen Aufkldmng im Mittelalter, i. 24-41, Berlin, 1875; DOB, i. 63-84; A. Ebert, Oeschichte der Litleratur des Miw telaltm, ii. 209-222, Leipsic, 1880; J. F. Marcks, Die poliasch-kirchliche Wirksamkeit de4 . . . Apobard, Viersen, 1888; Hauck, KD, ii. 453 eqq.; Wattenbaoh, DGQ, i. 232, Berlin, 1904; F. Wiegand, Apobard con Lyons and die Jvdenfrape, Leipsic, 1901.

AGOMZANTTS (Agony Fathers; Fathers of the Good Death, Camillians, Clerici regularm ministrantes infirmis): A fraternity founded at Rome in 1584 to care for the sick and minister to the dying. The founder was a pious priest Camillus de Lellia (b. at Buchfanico, in the Neapolitan province Abruzzo, May 25, 1550; d. at Rome July 14, 1814), who, after a wild life as a soldier,, entered the hospital of St. James at Rome in 15.74, suffering from an incurable wound. Becoming converted, he devoted the remainder of his life to heroic service in the hospitals of Rome, Naples, and elsewhere. He was canonized by Benedict XIV. in 1748, and his statue now stands, among those of great founders of orders, in St. Peter's between the statues of St. Peter of Alcantara and St.


Avmpha THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 90 AgTicols Ignatius Loyola. The society was confirmed by Sixtus V. in 1586; five years later, after the members had distinguished themselves during the plague of 1590, it was created by Gregory XIV. an order with Augustinian rule. It grew rapidly in numbers and wealth during the founder's lifetime, and in 1605 was divided by Paul V. into five prov inces, Rome, Milan, Bologna, Naples, and Sicily. Afterward the order spread beyond Italy, especially in Spain and Portugal, and later in France and America. During the nineteenth century it met with opposition in certain countries (including Italy, where it had thirty-four houses); but it was favored by Leo XIII., who made St. Camillus and St. John of God (see CauuTy, BROTHERS OF) patrons of all Roman Catholic hospitals, and in serted their names in the litany of the dying. O. Z6CKLERt. BIBwOGRAP87: C. Solfi, Compendio hietorico dells relipwne de' chierici regolari ministri degli infermi, Mondovi, 1689; FBvre. Vie do St. Camille do Lellis, Paris, 1885; W. Bium ker, Der heiligs Camillus roan Lellie and sein Orden, Frank fort-on-the-Main, 1887; Heimbucher. Orden and %onpro pationen, ii. 264-271. AGRAPHA, agrra fa (" Unwritten "): Name given to so-called sayings of Jesus not recorded in the Gospels, but reported by oral tradition. The term was first used by J. G. Korner in his De ser montbw Christi aypdoorc (Leipsic, 1776), in which he gives sixteen such agrapha. Since that time several collections of agrapha have been made; and the material seemed to have reached a climax in the work published by Alfred Reach, Agrapha: oussercanonische Evangelien-Fragments in m6glich ster Vollstdndigkeit zusammengestellt and quellen kritisch untersucht (TU,v. 4, 1889; of. J. H. Ropes, Die Spruche Jesu . . . sine kritische Bearbeitung des van A. Reach gesammelten Materials, xiv. 2 of the same series, 1896). In 1897 Drs. B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt discovered a papyrus page contain ing eight " sayings of Jesus " which are known as " the Oxyrhynchus Logia." In Feb., 1903, they came upon another papyrus fragment of a some what similar character, containing five adtlitional " sayings of Jesus." Ropes divides the material found in Reach into five classes: (1) sayings which tradition has not considered agrapha; (2) passages erroneously quoted as sayings of the Lord; (3) worthless agrapha; (4) eventually valuable agrapha; (5) valuable &graph&. Such a classification is arbitrary and impossible; and even as to the num ber of agmpha scholars differ. Among the more noteworthy of the agrapha are: 1. The sentence, " It is more blessed to give than to re ceive," quoted by Paul (Acts xx. 35) as the " words of the Lord Jesus." No such saying is mentioned in the canonical Gospels. In the Teaching o/ the Apostles (i. 5) in found " happy is he that giveth according to the commandment "; and in the Apostolscal Constitutions (iv. 3): " since even the Lord says, 'the giver was happier than the receiver."' In Clement of Rome (Epiet., i. 2), the same saying seems to be referred to under the form ° more willing to give than to receive." 2. " On the same day, having seen one working on the Sabbath. he said to him, ' 0 man, if indeed thou knowest what thou doest. thou art blessed; but if thou knowest not, thou art accursed and a transgressor of the law."' This very remarkable saying occurs after Luke vi. 4 in Cod. D and in Cod. Grasp. B. Rob. Stephani. 8. " But ye seek to increase from little and from greater to less. When ye go and are bidden to dinner, sit not down

in the highest seats, lest one grander than thou arrive, and the giver of the feast come and say to thee, 'Take a lower seat' and thou be ashamed. But if thou sit down in the meaner place, and one meaner than thou arrive, the giver of the feast will say to thee, ' Go up higher ; and this shall be profitable to thee." This saying is found after Matt. xx. 28 in Cod. D, and in some other codices (cf. the New Testaments of Griesbach and Tischendorf ad. loc.).

4. " Jesus said to his disciples ' Ask great things, and the small shall be added unto you; and ask heavenly things and the earthly shall be added unto you "' (Clement of Alexandria. Strmnata, i. 24; Origen, De Orat. libell., ii.; of. Ambrose, Episl., xxxvi. 3).

5. " Rightly, therefore, the Scripture in its desire to make us such dialecticians, exhorts are: ' Be ye skilful moneychangers,' rejecting some things, but retaining what is good " (Clement of Alexandria, Btrom., i. 28). This is the most frequently quoted of all traditional sayings. Resch gives sixty-nine passages.

6. " Let us resist all iniquity, and hold it in hatred," quoted as the words of Christ by Barnabaa (Epiet., iv.). In Epiet., vii. is found: " They who wish to see me and lay hold of my kingdom must receive me by affliction and suffering."

7. " Our Lord Jesus Christ said, ' In whatsoever I may fend you, in this will I also judge you.' " This saying, found in Justin Martyr (Trypho, xlvii., ANF, i ., p. 219), is ascribed by Clement of Alexandria (Quis dives, xl.) to God; by Johannes Climacus (Scaly paradisi, vii. 159; Vita B. Antonii, i. 15; Vita patrum, p. 41) to the prophet Ezekiel (cf. Ezek. vii. 3, 8; xviii. 30; xxiv, 14; xxxiii. 20, with Fabricius, Cod. Apocr., i. 333). These passages in Ezekiel, however, do not justify the quotation, and some apocryphal gospel is probably the authority for this saying.

8. Among the sayings found in 1903 was the following: " Jesus saith, 'Let not him who seeks . . . cease until he, finds, and when he finds he shall be astonished; astonished he shall reach the kingdom; and having reached the king dom be shall rest."' Another, with conjectural restoration of missing portions, is: " Jesus saith, ' [Ye ask, who are those] that draw are [to the kingdom, if] the kingdom is in heaven? . . . The fowls of the air, and all beasts that are under the earth or upon the earth. and the fishes of the sea [those are they which draw] you, and the kingdom of heaven is within you; and whoever shall know himself shall find it. [Strive therefore] to know yourselves, and ye shall be aware that ye are the sons of the [almighty] Father: [and] ye shall know that ye are in [the city of God]. and yeare [the city].' .. B. P:cs. BIBLIOaaAPBT: Collections of agraphs are found in J. H.

Grebe, Spieileoium, Oxford, 1698; J. A. Fabrieius, Codex Apooryphue Novi Testaments, Hamburg, 1703; R. Hoffmann, Das Leben Jesu each den Apocryphen, Leipsie, 1851; B. F. Westoott, Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, London, 1860; Schaff, Christian Church, i. 162167; A. Resch. Aprapha, in TU, v. 4, 1891; J. H. Ropes, in TU, xiv. 2. 1896; E. Nestle, Novi Testamenti Grod Supplementum, pp. 89-52, Leipsie, 1896; B. Pick, The Aprapha : or, Unrecorded Sayings of Jesus Christ, in The Open Court, xi. (1897) 526-541; idem, The Extra-Canonical Life of Christ, pp. 250-312, New York, 1903 (including a list of articles on the OxyrhynohusLoess published in 1897); C. Taylor, The Oxyrhynehus

Lopia and the Apocryphal Gospels, London, 1899; E. Preusohen, Antilepomena, pp. 43-47, Giessen. 1901; The New Sayings of Jesus, and Fragment of a Lost Gospel were published by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, Oxford and New York, 1904, reviewed in BZlical World, xxiv. (1904) 261, in Sahwdoy Review, xaviii. (1904) 133, and Church Quar terly, Iviii. (1904) 422. For sayings of Jesus in Mohammedan writers consult D. S. Margoliouth, in The Expository Times, v. (1893) 59, 107, 177; W. Lock, in The Expositor, 4th series, ix. (1894) 97-99; and for sayings of Jesus in the Talmud consult Pick, art sup.

AGREDA, MARIA DE. See MARIA DE AGREDA. AGRICOLA: Pelagian writer; under the date 429 in his Chronicon, Prosper of Aquitaine mentions a British theologian of this name, the son of Severianus, a Pelagian bishop, saying that he corrupted the churches of Britain by his teaching, until Pope Celeatme sent Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre (q.v.), to undo the mischief and bring back the



Britons to the Catholic faith (of. Bade, Hint. ecci., i. 17). Caspari has printed five uneigoed letters and a tract on riches which are obviously all by the same Pelagian author, and has shown it to be probable that this is Agricola. From them it is learned that the author on his way to the East to learn the true ascetic life, heard the Pelagian ascetic teaching from a Roman lady in Sicily, and became a zealous preacher of it. The value of these writings lies in the glimpse which they give of the ethical side of Pelagianism. (A. HAUCK.)

BIHLIOa8AP87: - C. P. Ceepari, BrWe, Abhandlunpen, and PredVten aw den swet lebten iahrhunderten des kirch-

lichen Alterbume and den Antany dee Miueladtere, Chriati- anis, 1890.

AGRICOLA, JOHANN: An associate of Luther, and the originator of the antinomian controversy of the German Reformation; b. at Eisleben Apr. 20, 1494 (according to his own account; others give 1492 or 1496); d. at Berlin Sept. 22, 1566. His real name was Schneider, first Latinized into " Sartor," then, from a corruption of " Schneider (Snider) " to " Schnitter," into " Agricola." He entered the University of Leipsic in the winter of 1509-10, with the intention of studying medicine, but Luther attracted him to theology. After taking his bachelor's degree, he went, in the winter of 1515-16, to Wittenberg, where he came wholly under Luther's influence. He witnessed the famous promulgation of the theses; and at the Leipsic disputation (1519) he acted as Luther's secretary. He soon became friendly with Melanchthon also, and an influential member of the little group of Wittenberg theologians. A modest income was provided for him by the position of teacher of grammar and the Latin classics in the Paedagogium; and before long he lectured on dialectics arid rhetoric, and later on the New Testament.

On the outbreak of the Peasants' War (1525), Agricola accompanied Luther to the Haas Mountains, and gained from Count Albert of Schoolmas- Manafeld the nomination as head of the tar in Latin school to be opened at Eisieben.

Eisleben. This work, after a visit to Frankfort, as Luther's deputy, to help settle the ecclesiastical affairs of that place, he took up in Aug., 1525; and two catechetical books grew out of it, the second of which (1528) already exhibits the opposition between the Law and the Gospel which was to develop into his antinomfan convictions. A commentary on the Epistle to Titus (1530) and a translation of Terence's Andria, with notes (1544), are doubtless other results of his school work. At Eisleben also he began his three collections of Ger man proverbs, with explanations, which have ever since been popular. Certain critical remarks about Ulrich of Wiirttemberg in the first of these collec tions involved Agricola in difficulties both with Ulrich and with his protector, Philip of Hesse, which were ended only by two successive apologies, prevented Luther from taking him to the Marburg conference, and influenced his bearing in the schmal kald struggle. He had opportunities of preaching at St. Nicholas's church in Eisleben, and acquired the reputation of being one of the strongest pulpit

orators of the Wittenberg circle, so that he was asked to attend the Diet of Speyer in 1526 and 1529 and preach before the court. At this period also he made himself useful as a translator from the Latin, rendering among other things Melanchthon's commentary on several Pauline epistles.

His relations with Melanchthon were seriously disturbed in 1526. Soon after his departure from

Wittenberg a new theological profes- Contro- sorship was founded there, on which, versies. with Melanchthon's encouragement,

he set his heart. When it was conferred on the latter, Agricola's vanity received a wound which put an end to the cordiality of their friendship; and it is easy to understand why he began the antinomian controversy in 1527 with an attack, not on Luther, but on Melanchthon. Luther, however, whose relations with Agricola were still friendly, succeeded in effecting an apparent agreement. Agricola now fell out with Albert of Mansfeld. Differences arose over the measures to be taken for defense against the emperor and with regard to the treatment of matrimonial questions; and in 1536 Agricola was treating with Luther to secure a recall to Wittenberg. The elector promised him a speedy appointment to a university position, and meantime invited him to come to Wittenberg to give his counsel on the question of the Schmalkald articles. Agricola removed thither at Christmas, 1536. Albert, annoyed at the manner of his departure from Eisleben, accused him to the Wittenberg group as the founder of a new sect antagonistic to Luther, and to the elector as a turbulent fellow of the Milnzer type. Luther stood by him, however, and even gave him and his family shelter in his own house; and when Luther went to Schmalkald in 1537, Agricola took his place both at the university and in the pulpit. Expressions used in some of his sermons, and the rumor that he was privately circulating antmomfan theses containing attacks on Luther and Melanchthon, made him an object of suspicion. His antinomian disputes with Luther himself began; and after each apparent settlement they broke out with fresh violence (for details of the controversies see Awrl NOWAnnsM, AN'17NOHIAN CONraovassias, II.). He found employment in the newly founded Wittenberg consistory until Feb., 1539, when he formally accused Luther before the elector, who practically put him under arrest. Before the matter was settled he escaped to Berlin (Aug., 1540). At Melanchthon's suggestion and through Bugenhagen's mediation, he was allowed to retract his accusation and to return to Saxony. Cordial relations between the two men could, however, no longer exist: Luther never trusted Agricola again; and the latter, on his side, held that he remained true to the original cause, from which Luther had fallen away.

Joachim II. of Brandenburg gave Agricola a position as court preacher, and took him to the Conference of Regensburg (1541), the interim drawn up at which he considered a useful basis of unity. He followed his prince in the inglorious campaign against the Turks in 1542, and gained more and


Agricola THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 92 ABTlculture more influence over him, in spite of the efforts of Joachim's mother. He became general superin tendent and visitor of Brandenburg, Later Life, administering confirmation and ordi nation, though he himself had never received any kind of ordination. When the Schmalkald League took up arms against the em peror, Agricola attacked them in his sermons as disturbers of the peace, and gave thanks for the emperor's victory at Miihlberg, utterly failing to see the danger to the evangelical cause. It flattered his vanity when he was chosen as the Protestant theologian on the commission appointed at the Diet of Augsburg (1547-48) to draw up an interim; and he had the thankless task of endeavoring to persuade his fellow Protestants to accept it. The more strongly and increasingly they rejected it, the more animosity was concentrated on Agricola, who attempted to vindicate his Lutheran standing by the part which he took in the controversy with Osiander (q.v.); and the common cause brought him once more closer to Melanchthon. It fell to him to give judgment between Stancaro and An dreas Musculus (q.v.); and he pronounced in favor of the latter. The controversy on the necessity of good works raged for years in Brandenburg, and Agricola stoutly opposed the Philippists. For a while they seemed to prevail with Joachim, but the court swung round again to Agricola's side; and in 1563 he was able to hold a thanksgiving service in Berlin for the final victory over his op ponents-a. victory for strict Lutheranism won mainly by the man whom Luther had despised. He died three years later, during an epidemic of the plague. He was undoubtedly a gifted man, though his rightful development was hindered by his vanity, which brought about the breach with Luther, and by the temptations of court life, which, as he himself recognized when too late, he had not sufficient strength of mind to resist. (G. KAWERAU.) BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Bawerau, Johann Agricola won Risleben. Berlin, 1881. AGRICOLA, STEPHAN (originally Castenpauer): A follower of Luther; b. in Abensberg (18 m. a.w. of Regensburg), Bavaria; d. at Eisleben Easter, 1547. He studied at Vienna, joined the Augusstiniane, gained fame as a preacher and teacher, and was promoted doctor of theology in 1519. Imitating St. Augustine, he preached on entire books of the Bible in Vienna in 1515, as lector in the Augus tinian monastery at Regensburg in 1519-20, and in other places. His sermons brought him under suspicion. He was accused of preaching heretical, inflammatory, and offensive dogmas; of having recommended Luther's writings on the Babylonian captivity and on the abolition of the mass; of having spoken offensively of the Roman see, bishops, and clergy; and of having demanded the abolition of all ceremonies. He was imprisoned in 1522; thirty-three charges were made against him; and his answer, denying dependence uran Luther and making appeal to Augustine and the Scriptures, was of no avail. He prepared for death, and wrote Bin kostlicher gutter notwendiger Ser»wn vom Sterben (1523), which his friend Wolfgang Russ published. He escaped, however, found a home with the Car melite Johann Frosch of Augsburg in 1523, and preached there from time to time.. Not long after 1523 he published under the name of " Agricola Boius" Bin Bedeneken wie der wahrhafftig Gottes dienst von Gott selbs geboten and aussgesetzt, moeht mit besserung gemeyner Christenheyt widerumb au f gericht werden, a kind of reformation-programme. Protected by the city council, he labored with Rhegius and Frosch for the Reformation in Augs burg, and became pronounced in his adherence to Luther's views as against Zwingli. By translating into German Bugenhagen's polemical treatise against Zwingli's Contra novum errorem de sacra mentis (1525), he won over the Augsburg congrega tion to the Lutheran side. At the invitation of the landgrave Philip, he took part in the Marburg Colloquy and signed the articles agreed upon. In 1531 he left Augsburg as he was opposed to Butzer's Zwinglian tendency and went to Nuremberg, where he stayed with Wenceslaus Link. In 1537 he attended the Schmalkald Diet and signed Luther's articles. When the Reformation was introduced into the Upper Palatinate, he accepted a call to Sulzbach where he preached the first evangelical sermon June 3, 1542. He afterward went to Eis leben. (T. KOLDE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. 8pangenberg, Wider die Mee Sieben in Teutels %arnafjelepiel, Eisleben, 1562; H. W. Rotermund, Geschichte des auf deco Reichatape zu Augsburg in Jahre 1530 . . . G laubenabskenntnissee, Hanover, 1829; Datterer, Des %ardinals and Embiaehots von Salzburg Matthaua Lang Verhaiten zur Reformation, Erlangen, 1892.

AGRICULTURE, HEBREW: Palestine is praised in the Old Testament as a " land flowing with milk and honey "; and, indeed, with Field and little labor it yielded what the in Garden habitants needed. Of cereals, wheat Products. was and is the most important product; the Ammonite country appears to have been specially noted for it (II Chron. xxvii. 5). The_ best wheat to-day is that of the Hauran and Belka, and of the high table-land between Tabor and the Lake of Tiberias. Much wheat was raised by the Hebrews in the time of Solomon, and then and later it was one of the chief articles of export (I Kings v. 11; Ezek. xxvii. 17). Barley was equally common and in the earlier time was the chief material for bread (Judges vii. 13; II Kings iv. 42). With progress in culture and the settled life its use was limited to the poorer classes (John vi. 9, 13; Josephus, War, V. x. 2). To-day it is used for fodder only; it was also so used in the ancient time (I Kings iv. 28), and its value appears to have been about one-half that of wheat (II Kings vii. 1). There is no evidence in the Old Testament that beer was made from it. A third and less important cereal (Heb. kumemeth; LXX, olyra, Ex. ix. 32; Iea. xxviii. 25; Emit. iv. 9; erroneously rendered " rye " in A. V.) was probably spelt. Rye and oats are not mentioned. The chief legume bearing plants were beans (II Sam. xvii. 28; Ezek. iv. 9) and lentils (Gen. xxv. 34; II Sam. xvii. 28, xxiii. 11; Ezek. iv. 9). Both were ground into meal, and were used for bread in time of scarcity (Ezek. iv. 9). Leeks, onions, and garlic were used as seasoning and to give relish to bread. Cueum-



her$ and melons are also mentioned as delicacies of which the Israelites were deprived in the wilderneso.(Num. xi. 5). Both are particularly refreshing in loot countries, and the poor live for months on bread and cucumbers or melons alone. Of condimeats and spices the Old Testament mentions two v sties of cumin (Heb. kammon, ,kezah, Isa. ..

xxvm. 25; the former used also as medicine) and thelcoriander (Ex. xvi. 31; Num. xi. 7, often mentio#ed in the Talmud). The New Testament adds: dill) (Eng. versions, " anise," Matt. xxiii.. 23), mint (ib4 Luke xi. 42), rue (Luke xi. 42), and mustard (Matt. xm. 31, xvii. 20; Mark iv. 31; Luke xiii. 19,~xvu. 6). The mustard-seed was proverbial as the! smallest of seeds. The mustard plant grows quickly and reaches a height of ten feet. To these foool-producing plants must be added flax (Josh. ii. 6; sa. xix. 9; Hos. ii. 5, 9, and elsewhere) and cotton. The former of these is not much cultivated to-4a,y; but it was of great importance to the ancient Israelites, as, together with wool, it supplied the material for their clothing. In the GrecoRoman period it was one of the chief articles of tr e. The importance of the flax-cultivation can be inferred from the statement of the Talmud, tha$ it was permissible to put a flax-bed under water on semi-holy days in order to destroy injurioue1 insects (Mo`ed gatan i. 6). Linen-manufacture wa~ carried on especially in Galilee. How early the cotton-plant was introduced into Palestine is nod known. The Hebrew terms shesh and bus do Inot necessarily mean linen, but include cotton cloth, or a mixed material like the Greek byssos. The foreign word karpas (Gk. karpasos) is used for cot on in Esther i. 6 and in the Talmud. In GrecoRo an times cotton was grown and exported (cf. Pa a,nias, V. v. 2). For wine and oil see the se rate artich.

Palestine is praised in Deut. viii. 7, xi. 10-11, as a "land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills,"

lunatic which has no need of artificial irriga C ndituon, tion because it " drinketh water of the rain of heaven." Compared with

t4 neighboring countries, it can not, indeed, be cal ed poorly watered. In normal years the natural pr ipitation suffices for a great part of the fields. L d thus naturally watered is called in the Mishna " house of the Baal " or " field of the house of he Baal," and the name is kept to this day (cf Smith, Rel. of Sem., p. 97). But the ancient Israelites knew that watercourses and underground waiter were indispensable (cf. Ps. u.; Dent. viii. 7; Iea. xxxii. 20; Ezek. xvii. 8), and that the rain alone was not always sufficient; they therefore ap reciated the pools made by the Canaanites and ad ed to them (see WATER SUPPLY IN PALESmnJE). Fo these favors of nature the Israelite ever felt his immediate dependence upon Yahveh (cf. Dent. xi.l 14; Jer. iii. 3, v. 24; Joel ii. 23; Zech. x. 1). Yahveh's blessing shows itself in his sending the first rain and the latter rain in due season; in the rain his mercy is seen, in the drought his anger. Thus he proves himself indeed the Baal of the land, who waters and fertilizes it (cf. Smith, I.e.).

The Israelites learned agriculture from the

Canaanites. How rapidly they made the tran

sition from the nomadic stage can not

Cultiva- be determined; it seems to have been

tion. practically complete at the beginning

of the regal period (cf. I Sam. xi. b;

II Sam. xiv. 30, which indicate that high and low

were then engaged in the cultivation of the soil),

although certain tribes of the south and the Eaet

Jordan country retained more or less of the nomadic

character till the Exile. That the religious obser

vances, preeminently the great festivals, rest upon

an agricultural basis is significant. Irrigation was

not the only artificial improvement that was neces

sary. The land had to be cleared of thorns and

weeds, and stones had to be removed (cf. Isa. v. 2;

Matt. xiii. 3-7), although the fellahs to-day often al

low the stones to remain because they help to retain

moisture. Extensive terracing was indispensable

to retain the thin soil on the steep hillsides. Manur

ing and burning were practised (Isa. v. 24, xxv. 10,

slvii. 14; Joel ii. 5; Ob. 18), but probably neither

extensively nor annually. Dried dung is more

valuable to-day as fuel, and it was so used in the

ancient time (Esek. iv. 15). The usual method of

renewing the strength of the soil was fallowing

(Ex, xxiii. 11, and elsewhere). The winter crops

(wheat, barley, lentils, etc.) were sown as soon as the

early rain had softened the ground-from the end

of October to the beginning of December. The

sowing of the summer crops (millet, vetches, etc.)

followed, and lasted (in the case of cucumbers) till

after the winter harvest. Well-watered fields bear

two crops. The surface of the soil was scratched

by a very primitive plow, drawn by oxen or

cows (Judges xiv. 18; I Kings xix. 19; Job i. 14:

Amos vi. 12),. sometimes in light soils by an ass (Dent. xxii. 10; Isa. xxx. 24). The furrow to-day is from three to four inches deep. The driver's goad (Judges iii. 31) served also to break the clods. According to the usual assumption, the field which a yoke of oxen (Heb. gemedh) could plow in a day was the unit of land-measurement, as the present unit, the fedddn (22-23 acres), represents a season's plowing. It is more probable, however, that they measured land by the amount of seed sown, as is done in the Talmud, and that zemedh is properly a measure of capacity and then designates a piece of ground of such size that it required a zemedh of seed. The surface was evened with an imple ment resembling a stone-boat or with a roller (Job xxxix. 10; Isa. xxviii. 24-25; Hos. x. 11). The seed was sown by hand; wheat, barley, and spelt were often carefully laid in the fur iow. In the time of the Mishnah, as at pres ent, it was plowed in. At present, seed is sown rather thinly. An estimate of the amount of land under cultivation in ancient times is im possible. Large tracts in Palestine can never have bin used for anything but pasturage; the " deserts " were extensive, as their frequent men tion shows; and there was more wooded land than now (Josh. xvii. 15, 18; II Kings ii. 24). These facts make it probable that the extent of cultivated land did not materially exceed that of to-day.



In the Jordan valley the barley-harvest begins from the end of March to the first half of April; in the hill-country, on the coast, and

Harvest. in the highlands, from a week to a month later. The cutting of the barley opens, that of the wheat closes, the harvest season. Altogether it lasts about seven weeks and from of old it has been a time of joy and fes tivity (Ps. iv. 7; Isa. ix. 3). The Feast of the First Fruits, on which, according to the Priest Code, a barley-sheaf was offered (Lev. xxiii. 9-14), ushered in this festive time; the Feast of Weeks, seven weeks after the opening of the harvest, when an offering of two wave-loaves of the new wheat (Lev. xxiii. 17-21) was made, closed it. The grain was cut with a sickle (Dent. xvi. 9, xxiii. 25; Job xxiv. 24; Jer. 1. 16; Joel iii. 13). With the left hand the reaper grasped a bundle of ears (Isa. xvii. 5; Ps. cxxix. 7), and with the right he cut them fairly close to the head. The binder followed, gathering the cut grain into his arms (Ps. cxxix. 7) and making it into sheaves (Gen. xxxvii. 7; Lev. xxiii. 10; Deut. xxiv. 19; Ruth ii. 7; Pa. cxxvi. 6), which were then collected in stacks (Judges xv. 5; Ruth iii. 7; Job v. 26). The harvesters refreshed them selves during their toil by eating parched corn and bread dipped in a mixture of vinegar and water (Ruth ii. 14). According to old custom and the law, forgotten sheaves and the privilege of gleaning after the reapers belonged to the poor (Lev. xix. 9, xxiii. 22; Deut. xxiv. 19; Ruth ii. 2); the Priest Code provided also that the corners of the field were not to be wholly reaped (Lev. xix. 9, xxiii. 22). In like manner it was permissible to pluck ears from another's field to eat (Dent. xxiii. 25; Matt. xii. 1).

The reaping was immediately followed by the thrashing. Small quantities of grain, and dill, cumin, and the like, were beaten out with a flail (Judges vi. 11; Ruth ii. 17; Is&. xxviii. 27); but in most cases wheat, barley, and spelt wen; taken to the thrashing-floor, which, if possible, was placed on high ground so that the wind might carry off the chaff. The kernels were trodden out by cattle or were separated by means of a rude thrashingsled or wagon (II Sam. xxiv. 22; Isa. xxviii. 27-28; Amos i. 3). Both custom and the law forbade the muzzling of an ox in treading out the grain (Dent. xxv. 4); and to-day it is commonly estimated that an ox will consume from three to four pecks of the grain daily during the thrashing-time. Winnowing was accomplished, with the help of the wind, by means of a shovel or a wooden fork having two or more tines (Isa. xxx. 24; Jer. xv. 7). The chaff is now used as fodder; according to Matt. iii. 12, it seems in ancient time to have been burned: The grain was sifted (Amos ix. 9) and shoveled into heaps. It was usually stored in cistern-like pits in the open field, carefully covered (Jar. xli. 8). Real barns are not mentioned till late times (Dent. xxviii. 8; 11 Chron. xxxii. 28; Jer.1. 26; Joel i.17). In general, Palestine may be called a fertile land, but its productivity has been greatly overestimated. To-day the mountain-lands of Judea yield on an average from two- to threefold; the valleys of Hebron, with fertilization, from four- to fivefold; the very fertile Plain of Sharon, carefully culti-

vated by German colonists, eightfold for wheat and fifteenfold for barley. There is no reason to believe that the average return was greater in ancient times.

Some of the laws have already been mentioned. Of greater importance in their effect upon agricul-

ture were the laws aiming to prevent Laws. the alienation of landed property.

The ancestral field was sacred (of. I Kings xxi. 3). This provision explains the law of Lev. xxv. 25, according to which, if an impoverished Israelite had to sell his field, his kinsman had the first right of purchase (cf. Jer. xxxii. 6-12). The law also gave the original owner a perpetual right of redemption, and restored the field to him in the year of jubilee without compensation to the purchaser; a city house could be redeemed only within a year, and did not return in the year of jubilee (Lev. xxv. 27-34). The underlying thought here is that the land is not the private property of the Israelites, but belongs to God, and the Israelites have only the right of use. It may be questioned how far such laws were carried out; they are closely connected with the year of jubilee (see below). The same desire to preserve family possessions shows itself in the law of inheritance. In ancient time daughters did not inherit; if there were no sons, property passed to the nearest relative of the father, with the obligation to marry the widow (cf. the Book of Ruth). The Priest Code allows daughters to inherit when there are no sons, but they must marry within the family or, at least, within the tribe of the fathei (Nam. xxxvi.). Still more important in its effect upon agriculture was the development of the Sabbath idea. It was an old custom and a law of the Book of the Covenant that every field should lie fallow one year in seven (Ex. xxfif. 10-11). The custom fell into disuse and Deuteronomy knows nothing of it. But the Priest Code revived it, imposed it upon the entire land at the same year (cf. Josephus, Ant., XII. ix. 5), and added the theoretic and impracticable yeas of jubilee (see SABBATICAL YEAR AND YEAR OF JUBILEE). Lastly, laws arising from ideas of ceremonial impurity must be mentioned, such as the prohibition of sowing unclean seed (Lev. xi. 37-38), of plowing with an ox and an ass together, and of sowing different kinds of seed in one field (Lev. xix. 19; Dent. xxii. 9-10). Of the age of these customs nothing is known. The Mishnah developed. and added to these laws with great detail.


BIamoa1APH7: J. L. 8ssleohtats, Das rmsaiacAs Recht, Ber lin, 1858; E. Robinson, Physicol Geography of the Holy Land, Boston, 1885; J. G. Wetsetein, in F. Delitsech, Coesnsentar su Jesaia. pp. X99, 705-713,?d ed., Leipde, 1869 (treats of winnowing; neither in last ad. nor in Eng. tranel.); idem. Die syrische Dnschtatal, in Zsitschrilt tar Efhnolopie, v. (1873) 270-302; F. Hamilton, La Bo taniqus de la Bible, Nioe, 1871; H. B. Tristram, Natural History of the Bible. London, 1873; idem, The Fauna and Flora of Palestine, in Survey o/ Western Palestine, ib. 1884 (authoritative); J. Smith, Bible Plants, flair History and Identification, ib. 1878; C. J. van Klinggraff, Palutina and seine Vepetalion, in OsstarrskhisaAe botanisehs Zeib whrift. xxx., Vienna. 1880; W. M. Thomson, The Land and the Book, 2 vob.. New York, 1850-82; I. Lbw, Aramaisehe P/fanwnnamen, Leipsie. 1881; E. Boissier, Flora orientdis, Geneva, 1884; J. H. Balfour. The Plants of the Bible, London, 1885; G. Anderlind, Ackerbau and Tier-


95 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA wc~t_ such in Syrian, inrbasondere in PaUistina, in ZDPV, ix. (1886) 1-73; 8. Schumacher, Der arabische Pflup, its. iv. (1881) 70-84, ix. (1886) 1-73. xii. (1889) 157-166; A. E. Knight, Gleanings from Bible Lands . . Occupations of their Inhabitants, London, 1891; V. Helm, Kulturpfbnsen and Hauetiere, Berlin, 1894; H. Vogels£ein, Die Land wirtecWt in Paldatina xur Zeit der Misehna, its. 1894; H. C. Trumbull, Studies in OrisnW Social Life, Philadelphia, 1894; DB, i. 4861; BB, i. 76-89; JE. i. 262-270; E. Day, Social Life of the Hebrews, New Fork, 1901 (a useful book. based largely on s study of the book of Judges). Consult also the works on antiquities and archeology by De Wette-Ribiger, Leipsic, 1864; H. Ewald, GSttingen,1866, Eng. tranel., London, 1876; C. F. Kell, Frankfort, 1875; Schegg-Wirthmaller, Freiburg, 1887; I. Bensinger, its . 1894; W. Nowack, its. 1894; and PEP, Quarterly Reports, particularly the earlier numbers.

AGRIPPA L AND II., kings of Judea. See HEROD AND His FAMILY.

AGRIPPA CASTOR: Christian author who lived in the time of Hadrian, and was perhaps an Egyptian. Eusebius (Hilt. seal., iv. 7) speaks of him very highly. He wrote a refutation of the Gnostic Basilides, which, according to Eusebius, showed independent knowledge of the latter's teaching.

G. KRIYOER. BrawowsAruy: MPG, vi.; M. J. Routh, Reliquia sacra, i: 85-90, Oxford. 1846.

AGRIPPA VON NETTESHEIM, net"tes"haim', HEINRICH CORNELIUS: Scholar and adventurer; b. at Cologne, of noble family, Sept. 14,1486; d. at Grenoble 1535. He studied at Cologne and Paris, and took part in some obscure enterprise in Spain (1507-OS); lectured at the University of D81e, in Franche-Comt6, on Reuchlin's De verbo mini fcco (1509), and aroused the opposition of certain monks; was sent to England on a political mission by the emperor (1510); returned to Cologne and lectured on qutestiones quodlibetales; served in the imperial army in Italy from 1511 to 1518, and during the same period went to the Council of Pisa as a theologian (1511), and lectured on medicine, jurisprudence, and Hermes Trismegistus in Pavia and Turin. He was appointed syndic at Metz in 1518, but had to flee from the Inquisition two years later. He entered the service of the Duke of Savoy, practised medicine at Freiburg (1523); became physician to the queen mother of France, but was expelled and fled to the Netherlands (1529); was appointed historiographer to Charles V. and lived for some years under the protection of Archbishop Hermann of Cologne, but finally returned to France, where he died. Of his two most celebrated works, the De occults philosophia (written 1509-10; first printed, book i.; Antwerp, 1531; books i.-iii., Cologne, 1533) is a compilation from the Neoplatonists and the Cabala and gives a plan of the world with an exposition of the " hidden powers " which the learning of the time thought it necessary to assume for the explanation of things; the other, De incertitudine et vanitate sccieenttiarum et artium (written 1526; printed 1527), is a compilation from the Humanists and Reformers, and gives a skeptical criticism not only of all- sciences, but of life itself. A collected edition of Agrippa's works was published at Lyons in 1600.

B113LIOGBAPHT: H. Morley, The Life of Hem Cornelius Agrippa roan Nettesheim 2 vols., London, 185ti. AGUIRRE, a-gfr're, JOSEPH SAERZ, sanz, DE: Spanish cardinal; b. at Logrodo (60 m. e. of Bur- gos), Spain, Mar. 24,1630; d. in Rome Aug. 16, 1699. At an early age be entered the Benedictine order, and became abbot of St. Vincent at Salamanca, and in 1666 professor of theology in the university there; he was also a consultor of the Spanish Inqui sition, and ultimately superior-general of the Spanish congregation of his order. In 1686 Inno cent XI. made him cardinal as a reward for uphold ing the papal authority against Gallicanism in his Defensio eathadraa S. Petri adversm declarationem cleri Gallicani anni 1682 (Salamanca., 1683). The most important of his numerous theological and philosophical writings are his Codledio maxima conciliorum omnaum Hiapanim d novi orbis (4 vols., Rome, 1693; new ed. by Catalani, 6 vols., 1753) and his unfinished Theologia S. Anselmi (3 vols., 1679 85; 2d ed., 1688-90). (A. HAucm)

BIBraoanApBT: H. Hurter, Nomenclator literariue recentiorie theologia catholica, ii. 521662, Innsbruck, 1893.


ARAB, 6'hab: Seventh king of Israel; son and successor of Omri. His dates are variously given918-897 B.c., according to the older chronology; 878-857, Kamphausen; 875-853, Duncker; 874854, Hommel; d. about 851, Wellhausen. His history in I Kings xvi. 28-xxii. 40, is based upon two main sources, from which long extracts are given; the one, which furnished the account of the wars with the Arameans (ch. xx. and xxii.), may be described as a popular history of the kings of the northern realm and their wars; the other, from which the Elijah narratives are taken, evidently originated in prophetic circles. Both were bf the ninth century and of Ephraimitic origin. The Monolith Inscription of Shalmaneser II. of Assyris (see AssymA, VI., § 8) states that in the army defeated by Shalmaneser at Karkar (854 B.c.) were 10,000 men and 2,000 chariots furnished by Akhabbu Sir'laai, by whom in all probability Ahab of Israel is meant (for another view, cf. Kittel, 233234; Kamphausen, 43, note). The Moabite Stone (q.v.) also states that the subjection of Moab to Israel, established by Omri, lasted for " half of his son's days." Ahab's reign was a time of prosperity. The long war with Judah was ended, and Ahab's daughter Athaliah was married to Jehoram, Jehoshaphat's son. A marriage alliance was also made with the Pheniciane, Ahab taking to wife Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal of Tyre. The Moabites remained subject to Israel and paid a considerable tribute (II Kings iii. 4). Jericho was rebuilt, and other cities were fortified or built. Ahab erected a palace at Jezreel (probably the " ivory house " of I Kings xxii. 39). In later years he had to fight with the Arameans of Damascus, who laid siege to Samaria, but were defeated and driven off. In the following year both armies met at Aphek in the plain of Jezreel, and Ben-hadad, the Syrian king, was captured and magnanimously treated by Ahab; with the promise to give up the conquests of his father and to allow Ahab's merchants to have bazaars in Damascus, he was set free. After three years Ahab undertook a new war against Damascus to capture Ramoth-gilead, which probably was to have been delivered to Israel after the covenant at Aphek. This time he had the help



of Jehoshaphat of Judah, whose son may have married Ahab's daughter at this time. The battle was lost and Ahab was mortally wounded.

Ahab's reign is of great importance in the relig ious development of Israel, and is marked by a bitter contest between the throne and the proph ets. That Ahab had no intention of apostatizing from Yahweh, the god of his people, is shown by the names he gave his children; but to rule right eously, according to the conception of the prophets, did not suit his policy. He tolerated the calf worship instituted by Jeroboam (I Kings Iii. 26 33), and, influenced by his Phenician wife, intro duced into Samaria the worship of the Syrian Baal (Melkarth), for whom he built in his capital a great temple with all the necessary paraphernalia. No doubt certain circles in Israel were shocked by this heathen worship; but the great majority saw in it no inconsistency with the Mosaic religion. It fell to Elijah to rebuke the people for " halting between two opinions "; but his voice, like that of other prophets who protested, had little effect. Jezebel tried to silence them by bloody persecutions; and Elijah complained that he was the only prophet of Yahweh left. It must not be imagined, however, that all so-called prophets of Yahveh had been killed; for Ahab, who still regarded himself as a worshiper of Yahweh, would hardly have per mitted such an act. Those who did not oppose the worship of Baal were doubtless left alone; but in the eyes of Elijah they were not much better than the prophets of Baal. After the event on Mount Carmel (I Kings xviii.) Jezebel saw the futility of trying to suppress the opposition to the worship of Baal, and the prophets who had kept in hiding could come and go freely. Ahab and his wife were also denounced by Elijah for the crime committed against Naboth and his family, which led to signs of contrition on the king's part and to a postponement to his son's days of the threatened retribution (I Kings xxi.; cf. II Kings ix. 21-26). Ahab's character and achieve ments are differently estimated. He was un doubtedly an able man, and desired to promote the welfare of his people; he was a brave warrior, and died manfully. But in the estimation of many these virtues are outweighed by his weakness toward Jezebel, his short-sighted optimism after the victory at Aphek, and his lack of deep religious conviction and earnestness. (W. LuTz.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: On the chronology: A. Kamphaueen, Chronolopie der hebraiachen KGnipe, Bonn, 1883; Chronology of the Kings of Israel and Judah compared with the monuments, in Church Quarterly Review, Jan., 1886; E. Mahler, Biblische Chronolopis and Zeidrechnunp der Hebrder, Vienna, 1887; DB, i. 397-403; BB. i. 773-819; and sections on chronology in the following named works. On the history: H. Ewald, Geschichte des Volkes Israel. 7 vole., GSttingen, 1864-68 (Eng. trawl., 8 vole., London, 1867-83); M. Duncker, Geschichta des Alterthume. ii., Leipa-e, 1878; B. Stade, Geschichts des VolUs Israel, 2 vole., Berlin, 1884-89; E. Renan, Histoire du peupls Israel, 5 vole., Paris, 1887-94, Eng. trawl., London, 1888-91; R. Kittel, Geschiehte der Hebraer, 2 vole., Goths, 188892, Eng. branel., 2 vole., London, 1895-96; H. Greets, Geschichte der Jwlen,11 vole., Leipsie,1888-1900, Eng. trawl_ 6vole., London, 1891; G. Rawlineon,Kinpsof Israel andfudah,London,1889; Smith. OTJC; idem, Prophets; H.Winekler.GeechidteIeraeis, 2vols., Leipeie,1895-1900; C. F. Kent, History of the Hebrew People, 2 vole., New York, 1896-97;

idem, Students' Old Testament, ii., ib. 1904; J. Wellhausen, lsraelitische and judische Geschichte, Berlin, 1897; idem, Prolegomena sur Geschiehte Israel#, Berlin, 1899 (in Eng., Prolegomena to the History of Israel, with a reprint of as article ' Israel' from the "Eneyclopmdia Britannica;' Edinburgh, 1885); C. H. Cornill, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, Leipsic, 1898, Eng. tranel., Chicago, 1898; DB, ii. 506-518; EB, ii. 2217--89; H. P. Smith, Old Testament History, New York, 1903. Further material is to be found in the commentaries on the Books of Kings and Chronicles. On indications from the monuments: Schra der, KB, 6 vole., Berlin, 1889-1901; idem, KAT, 3d ed.. by H. Zimmern and H. Winokler, 2 vole., Berlin. 1903, Eng. trawl. of 1st ed., London, 1885-88; H. Winckler, AlWrientalische Forachungen, i: vi., Leipsio. 1893-97 (new. series, 3 vole., 1898-1901; 3d series, 2 vole., 1901-05); A. H. Sayae, ' Higher Criticism' and the Monumenta, London, 1894; J. F. McCurdy, History, Prophecy and the Monu ments, 2 vole., New York, 1894-1901; W. St. C. Boscawen, The Bible and the Monuments, London, 1895; S. R. Driver, in D. G. Hogarth, Authority and Archaeology, London, 1899.

AHASUERUS, a-haz'yu-f'rvs: A name given in the Old Testament to two kings. 1. The father of Darius the Mede (Dan. ix. 1). Since Darius is mentioned before Cyrus, he can be no other than Astyages, and Ahasuerus would then be Cyaxares. Phonetically the name is just as little connected as Cyaxares with the name which that king has in the Persian cuneiform inscriptions, and which must probably be read Huvakhahtra. It is also often found that the Median and Persian kings are differently named in the sources, a difference which is to be explained by the fact that after their accession to the throne they took new names. In Tob. xiv. 15 " Asueros " is Astyages, since he is mentioned as the conqueror of Nineveh beside Nebuchadnezzar.

2. A king mentioned in the book of Esther, the Khshayarsha of the Persian inscriptions and the Xerxes of the Greeks, who ruled from 485 to 465 B.c., and was the son of Darius Hystaspes. This is indicated by the identity of the name and the agreement in character as that is given by Herodotus. With this agrees also the mention of Shushan (Suss) as his residence, and the statement in Esther i. that the kingdom extended from India, to Ethiopia,-a statement which is confirmed by he enumeration of the provinces of the Persian empire in the epitaph of Darius at Nakshi Rustem, which, however, would not suit the time before Darius. With Xerxes, not with Cambyses, the Ahasuerus of Ezra iv. 6 is no doubt identical, to whom the Samaritans presented a bill of indictment against the exiles who returned to Jerusalem.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Benfey. Die persischwn Keilinachriften, Leipsie, 1847; F. Spiegel, Eraniache Alterthumskunds, 3 vole., ib. 1871-78; Schrader, KAT; A. H. Sayoe, Higher Criticism and as Monuments, pp. 543 eqq.. London, 1894; W. St. C. Boeeawen. The Bible and as Monuments. ib, 1895.

AHAUS, 4"hauz', HEINRICH VON (Hendrik van Ahuis) : Founder of the Brethren of the Common Life in Germany; b. in the principality of Ahaus, near Munster, 1370; d. in Minster 1439. He was descended from a noble family whose ancestors dated back to the ninth century, and who took their name from their territories on the River Aa. In 1396 he took religious orders and, influenced by his aunt, formerly abbess of Vreden in



Gelderland, then a member of the Sisterhood of the Common Life at Deventer, affiliated himself with the followers of the new teaching in that town. He remained at Deventer probably till the year 1400, living in close association with the companions and successors of Groote, the founder of the fraternity, such as Florentius Radewyns, Brinckerink, Gerhard Zerbolt, and Thomas a Kempis. Having mastered the principles and the organization of the Brethren, and imbued with their zeal, he returned to Westphalia and in the year of his arrival founded a brotherhood at Munster. The death of his father left him with ample means with which he erected a house for the accommodation of the Brethren. Later he ceded to them his magnificent residence and estate at Springbrunnen, which became the seat of the general chapter of the fraternity. Living without vows or written regulations, and given up to the practise of the humble Christian virtues, the Brethren, nevertheless, met with opposition from many of the clergy and laity. The former looked askance at their close intermingling of the ascetic and spiritual with the secular life, and resented the influence which they speedily began to exert in the field of education, while the citizens of Munster regarded the activity of the fraternity in the production of beautiful books, which constituted the chief source of their livelihood, as unwelcome competition. The Dominicans were the most zealous of their opponents and at the instance of one of that order, Matthmus Grabow, complaint against the Brethren was lodged with the Council of Constance. Owing to the intercession of Gerson and Pierre d'Ailly, however, they obtained a complete vindication (1418), and the persecution served only to hasten the rapid spread of their influence. Ahaus was one of the representatives sent to Constance to defend the cause of the brotherhood.

In 1416 Ahaus established at Cologne the second great house of the fraternity; and in 1428 a union was effected between the chapters of Cologne and Munster whereby the two houses were constituted practically one body. In 1441 this union was joined by the chapter of Wesel in Cleves, which had been founded by Ahaus in 1435. To the end of his life Ahaus busied himself with the erection of new chapters and the active supervision of the established houses; and, in addition to the three great chapters mentioned, many smaller foundations were established in the dioceses of Munster and Osnabriick. Communities of Sisters of the Common Life also were established at Emmerich, Herford, Hildesheim, and other places, aside from the mother house at Munster, with the foundation of which Ahaus was not connected. The labors of Ahaus exercised a beneficent influence upon the condition of the Church in Germany. The standard of learning among the clergy was raised, and monasticism was purified of many of its evils, while its ideals of a spiritual life received wide extension through the founding of secular communities. The Brethren were also influential in the establishment of schools, in the diffusion of literature both in manuscript and in printed form, and in the extension of the use of the vernacular for religious purposes.

L. SCHULZE. L-7 BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Schulze, Heinrich von Ahaua, in Z%W, iii., 1882. AHAZ, 5'haz: Eleventh king of Judah, son and successor of Jotham. He ruled, according to the older computation, 742-727 B.C.; according to Kbhler, 739-724; according to Kamphausen, 734 715; according to Hommel, 734-728. The most important political event of his reign was the sub jugation of Judah to Assyria as a result of the Arameo- (Syro-) Ephraimitic war. Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin of Damascus had conspired against Judah before the death of Jotham (II Kings xv. 37), but war was not actively carried on until after the accession of Ahaz. The latter could not maintain himself in the field and retired to the fortified Jerusalem. According to the Chronicler, he was defeated in pitched battle at some stage of the war. Rezin captured Elath on the Red Sea, which had been in possession of Judah since the days of Amaziah and Uzziah (Azariah, II Kings xiv. 7, 22), and restored it to the Edomites (xvi. 6, where the reading should be " Edomites " in stead of " Syrians "), perhaps in return for help in the war (cf. II Chron. xxviii. 17). Judea was laid waste and partly depopulated (cf. Ira. i. 5-9). Ahaz in his need applied for help to Tiglath-pileser II. of Assyria, who forced the enemies of the Judean king to retire; but, as the price of this deliver ance, Judah became an Assyrian vassal state, the king a treasure and the treasure of the Temple being carried to Nineveh, and a yearly tribute imposed. Few kings of Judah are represented as having so little inclination to the true Yahveh-religion as Ahaz. He sacrificed " on the hills, and under every green tree," and set up molten images of the Baalim. In a time of great distress he even offered his son to Molech in the Valley of Hinnom; and it may be inferred from II. Kings xxiii. 11-12 that, under Assyrian influence, he built altars for the worship of the heavenly bodies in the vicinity of the Temple. The religious and moral deterioration of the people under Ahaz is the frequent theme of Isaiah's prophecy. (W. LoTz.)

It is now generally held that the reign of Ahaz extended from 735 to 719 B.C. The dates are important not merely as fixing the time of the accession of Hezekiah with his change of policy toward Assyria, but also their correlation with other events. Thus Ahaz is seen to have survived the fall of Samaria (722 B.C.) and the Assyrian expedition against Ashdod (720 D.C.) with its consequences to Judah (cf. Ira. xx.). J. F. M.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult the works mentioned under AHAB, and C. P. Caepari, Usber den SUriachtphraimiMachsn Kriep unter Jotham and Ahaa, Christiania. 1849.

AHAZIAH, 5"ha-zai'8: 1. Eighth king of Israel, son and successor of Ahab. He reigned about two years (856-855 B.C., according to Kamphausen; for other views, see the dates given for the close of his father's reign in the article AHAB). Little is known of his reign. Doubtless he ended the war with Ben-hadad (see ARAB) by treaty. After Ahab's death, the Moabites rebelled successfully; but Ahaziah seems to have undertaken no war against them. He had the misfortune to fall from a window and received serious injury; being 'a



worshiper of Baal, he sent to Ekron to seek counsel from Baal-zebub; and his messengers were met on the way by Elijah, who foretold a fatal issue of his sickness as a punishment for sending to Baal. His history is found in I Kings xxii. 49-II Kings 1. (W. LoTz.)

The death of Ahab and accession of Ahaziah of Israel fell in 853 B.C. (see AaeB), as is now generally agreed. Jehu acceded in 842 B.C., for in that year he paid homage to Shalmaneser II. according to the statement of the latter on his Black Obelisk. But Joram, who comes between Ahaziah and Jehu, reigned " twelve years " (II Kings iii. 1). This term seems to fill up the whole time between 853 and 842, inclusive. Accordingly the sickness of Ahaziah and active regency of Joram began just after the accession of the former, whose very brief reign could have had no significance whatever. J. F. M.

2. Sixth king of Judah, son of Jehoram. He reigned one year (884 B.C., according to the older computation; 843, according to Kamphausen; 842, according to Hommel). He married a daughter of Ahab, and it is therefore not surprising that he was a Baal-worshiper. His relation with the house of Omri caused his early death. He joined his brotherin-law, Joram of Israel, in a campaign. against Hazael of Damascus, and the two allies attacked Ramoth-gilead. Joram was wounded and returned to Jezreel, whither Ahaziah went to visit him, and there he fell into the hands of Jehu, who killed him as a member of the house of Omri. The accounts of his death in Kings and Chronicles can not be reconciled. His history is found in II Kings viii. 25-ix. 29; II Chron. xxii. 1-9. (W. LoTz.)

BIHmoo$APH?: Consult the works mentioned under AHAB.

AHIJAH, a-hai'ja: A prophet, living at Shiloh, mentioned in I Kings xi. 29-39, xii. 15, xiv. 1-18; II Chron. ix. 29, x. 15. All these passages in the Book of Kings are Deuteronomic, or at least have been worked over by a Deuteronomic editor. In the latter part of Solomon's reign Ahijah seems to have enjoyed great authority as Yahweh's prophet. Next to Samuel and Elisha he is the most striking example of the fact that the prophets of Israel, besides promoting the religious life, meddled with political affairs. He gave voice to the deep dissatisfaction which all true Yahweh-worshipers felt in the latter part of Solomon's reign, and foretold to Jeroboam that he would become king over ten tribes. Years later, when Ahijah was an old man, dim of eyesight, Jeroboam sent his wife to the prophet in disguise to obtain help, if possible, in the severe sickness of his son. Again the prophet declared the misfortune to be the consequence of unfaithfulness to Yahweh; he foretold the death of the prince and the extinction of the house of Jeroboam. The Chronicler, according to his custom, made Ahijah also a historian of his time.


AHIMELECH, a-him'e-lec: High priest at the tabernacle in Nob. He gave the ehowbread and Goliath's sword to David, not knowing that the latter was fleeing from Saul, and for this reason he, together with the entire priestly family of eighty-five


persons (LXX, thirty-five) and the whole city of Nob, was slain by Doeg the Edomite at Saul's command (I Sam. xxi.-xxii.). Only his son Abiathar escaped and went to David. Ahimelech is called the son of Ahitub (I Sam. xxii. 9, 20), and was therefore great-grandson of Eli and a descendant of Ithamar. " Ahiah " (I Sam. xiv. 3) is probably another name for Ahimelech; if not, Ahiah must have been an older brother of the latter who officiated before him, or possibly the father of Ahimelech, who, in this case, should be called the grandson of Ahitub. Abiathar served David as priest during the latter's exile (I Sam. xxii. 20-23, xxiii. 6-12, xxx. 7-8) and throughout his reign, although Zadok of another priestly line is always mentioned first (II Sam. xv. 24, xvii. 15, xix. 11, xx. 25). He was deposed by Solomon for having favored the succession of Adonijah (I Kings ii. 26-27, 35). C. VON ORELLI.

AHITHOPHEL, a-hith'o-fel: A counselor of David. He is called " the Gilonite," i.e., from Giloh, a city in the south of Judah (II Sam. xv. 12). David esteemed him highly for his great wisdom (II Sam. xvi. 23). When Absalom revolted, Ahith-. ophel faithlessly betrayed David in the expectation that the rebellion would be successful (II Sam. xv. 12, 31, xvi. 21, xvii. 1 eqq.). He soon perceived, however, that his authority was not paramount with the young prince; and when the latter rejected his advice to attack David at once, he went home and hanged himself (II Sam. xvii. 23). Some think that Ps. xli. 9, Iv. 12 sqq. have reference to David's sad experience with Ahithophel. Eliam, a son of Ahithophel, was one of David's heroes (II Sam. xxxiii. 34); it is hardly possible that he was the Eliam mentioned as the father of Bath-sheba (II Sam. xi. 3). C. VON OBELLI.

AHLFELD, al'feld, JOHJUM FRIEDRICH: Lutheran; b. at Mehringen (in the Harz, near Bernburg, 25 m. n.n.w. of Halls), Anhalt, Nov. 1, 1810; d. at Leipsic Mar. 4,1884. His father was a carpenter, and he owed some of his later power to the fact that he was brought up with an intimate knowledge of the nature and needs of the mass of the people. From 1830 to 1833 he studied at Halls. For a year he was a private tutor, and then he taught in the gymnasium at Zerbet. His preaching at this time was influenced by rationalism. At the beginning of 1837 he was appointed rector of the boys' school at W6rlitz; and here he came under the influence of Schubring, a man of simple faith, and his views changed. In 1838 he became pastor of Alsleben, on the Baale, a village of sailors where he worked hard and exercised a powerful influence, finding time, however, for literary work, and vigorously defending the old-fashioned faith against rationalism. He was called to Halls in 1847 through Tholuck's endeavors, and did his duty nobly in the troublous times of the Revolution and of the cholera epidemic of 1849. He took positions of more and more prominence, and in 1850 was chosen pastor of St. Nicholas's Church in Leipsic. In 1881 he retired from active work.

As a preacher Ahlfeld gained and maintained a remarkable popularity. Abstract speculation was



not his strong point. He was at home in the concrete, and knew how to narrate with great effect stories from Holy Scripture, from the history of the Church, and from his own or others' experience. Besides preaching, he taught in the Leipsic Theological Seminary, and for many years did good service on the commission appointed to revise Luther's version of the Old Testament. He left a lasting memorial of his labors in more than one charitable foundation with whose origin he had much to do. Of the numerous collections of his discourses may be mentioned: Predigten fiber die evangelisehen Perikopen (Halls, 1848; 12th ed., 1892); Das Leben im Lichtt des Worfes Gottes (1861; 7th ed., 1886); Predigten fiber die epistolisehen Perikopen (1867; 5th ed., 1899); Con firmationareden (2 series, Leipsic, 1880). (A. HAUCK.)

BIamoaaAP87: Priedrieh Ahlfeld,meiland Pastorsu tat. Niko- lai in Leipzig: sin Lebenebild, Halls. 1885.

AICHSPALT, nik'spdlt (AICHSPALTER, ASPELT): A common designation (from his birthplace, Aspelt, near Luxembourg) for Peter, archbishop of Mainz (1306-20); b. between 1240 and 1250; d. at Mainz June 4, 1320. He is an important figure in the politics and history of his time, but of less interest for religion or theology. Of humble origin, he was ambitious and adroit, and sought his advancement with skill and success. A knowledge of medicine helped him to win the favor of princes and popes. He was chancellor to Wenceslaus II., king of Bohemia (1296-1305), and during this time quarreled with Albert of Austria and thenceforth was an opponent of the house of Hapsburg. He promoted the election of Henry of Luxembourg as emperor in 1308, and under him was all-powerful in German affairs. He was made bishop of Basel in 1296, archbishop of Mainz in 1306, and proved himself efficient and praiseworthy in his diocese.

Brsrrooriwra:: J. Heidemsnn, Peter von Aspen ale Kirchen- farsl and Stmbnwnn. Berlin, 1875.

AIDAN, ai'dan, SAINT: First bishop of Lindisfame; d. at Bamborough (on the coast of Northumberland, 16 m. s.e. of Berwick) Aug. 31, 651. When Oswald, king of Northumbria (634-642), wished to introduce Christianity into his dominions (see OawALD, SAINT; CELTIC CHURCH IN BRITAIN AND IRELAND), he applied to Seghine, abbot of Iona, for missionaries, and a certain Corman was sent, who soon returned, declaring it was impossible to Christianize so rude a people. Aidan, then a monk of Iona, suggested that Corman had failed to adapt his teaching to their needs and had expected too much, forgetting the Apostle's injunction of " milk for babes." Whereupon Aidan was at once ordained and sent to Oswald in Corman's place (635). He established himself on the island of Lindisfarne, near Bamborough, brought fellow workers from Ireland, and founded a school of twelve English boys to provide future priests. Consistently exemplifying in his daily life the doctrines he taught, he gained great influence with Oswald and, after his death, with OswIn, king of Ddra, while the people were won by his mildness, humflity, and benevolence. He could not preach in the Saxon language at first and Oswald acted as inter-

preter. His work in Northumbria was continued by Finan (q.v.). All information about Aidan comes from Bede (Hist. etxl., iii. 3, 5-17, 26), who praises him and tells, marvelous stories about him.

BraLIOGRAPH7: J. H. A. Ebrard, Die irorehottixhe Miasionekirche, Gtltereloh, 1873 A. C. Fryer, Aidan, the Apostle of the North, London, 1884; J. B. Lightfoot, Leaders in the Northern Church, ib. 1890; W. Bright, Early English Church History, 153-168, 188-189, Oxford, 1897.

AIKEN, CHARLES AUGUSTUS: American Presbyterian; b. at Manchester, Vt., Oct. 30, 1827; d. at Princeton, N. J., Jan. 14, 1892. He was graduated from Dartmouth College in 1846 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1853; entered the Congregational ministry, and became pastor at Yarmouth, Me., 1854; became professor of Latin in Dartmouth 1859; in Princeton 1866, president of Union College 1869, professor of ethics and apologetics in Princeton Theological Seminary 1871; was transferred to the chair of Oriental and Old Testament literature 1882. He was a member of the Old Testament revision company, and translated Z6ekler's commentary on Proverbs in the Lange series (New York, 1869).

AILLY, PIERRE D', pyar d'8"lyf' (Let. Petnta de Alliaco): Chancellor of the University of Paris, later bishop of Cambrai and cardinal, one of the distinguished churchmen who sought to restore unity to the divided Church during the great papal schism (1378-1429; see SCHnaM) by means of a general council; b., probably at Ailly-le-hautclocher (20 m. n.w. of Amiens), in the present department of Somme, 1350; d. at Avignon Aug. 9, 1420. He was brought up in Compiegne in the midst of the desolation caused by the war with England and an insurrection of the peasants (the Jacquerie); to this was ao doubt in part due the strong national feeling and the prejudice against England which he showed later. He entered the University of Paris as a student of theology in the College of Navarre in 1372, and began to lecture on Peter Lombard in 1375. His lectures (printed as Qutestiones super ltbros senterdiarum, Strasburg, 1490), gained for him the reputation of a clear thinker, and helped to make the nominalism of Occam predominant in the university. He also distinguished himself as a preacher.

On Apr. 11, 1380, Ailly was made doctor of theology and professor. His treatise on this occasion, and other essays written about the same time (published as appendix to the Quo,stionea; also in Gersohii opera, ed. Du Pin, i. 603 sqq., Antwerp, 1706), show his position concerning the doctrine of the Church, which was brought to the front by the schism. The Christian Church, he said, is founded on the living Christ, not on the erring Peter, on the Bible, not on the canon law. The existing evils can be cured by a general council. Against those who opposed this idea of a council he wrote in 1387. a satirical epistle " from the devil to his prelates " (text in Tachackert, Appendix, pp. 15 sqq.). In 1384 he became director of the College of Navarre, where he had among his pupils Jean Gerson, who became his faithful friend, In 1589 Ailly was made chancellor of the university and almoner of Charles VI. of France, a position which



brought him in close relation with the court at Paris. When the Avignonese pope, Clement VIL, died (1394), Ailly's influence secured the recognition by France of his successor, the Spaniard Peter de Luna (Benedict XIII.). As a reward Benedict made Ailly bishop of Puy (1395), and two years later bishop of Cambrai. In 1398 Charles VI. of France and Wenceslaus of Germany sent him upon unsuccessful missions to both Boniface IX. and Benedict, to try to induce them to resign their office. Benedict was then kept a prisoner in Avignon by French troops till he escaped to Spain (1403). In 1398 and again in 1408 France withdrew its obedience from Benedict, without, however, declaring for his rival. The attempt to nationalize the French Church failed because the civil authorities of the time conducted Church affairs worse than the pope. In 1408 Ailly finally abandoned the cause of Benedict. The addition of a new element of discord by the choice of a third pope at the Council of Pisa (q.v.) in June, 1409, was not in accord with Ailly's wishes; but in the main he stood by the council (cf. his Apologia concilii Pisani, in Tschackert, pp. 31 sqq.), though he continued to write in favor of reform by another council. John XXIII. (the Roman pope) sought to conciliate him by an appointment (June 7, 1411) as cardinal, with the title Cardinalis Sandi Chrysogoni, though he himself preferred to be called " the Cardinal of Cambrai." He attended the council called in Rome by John in 1412, where he interested himself in a reform of the calendar. In 1413 he traveled through Germany and the Netherlands as papal legate, and at the same time was active as a writer.

Ailly's most important services in church history, however, were rendered at the Council of Constance (met Nov. 5, 1414; see CoxsTANcE, COUNCIL OF). Here he maintained the superiority of a general council over the pope, but at the same time defended the privileges of the college of cardinals against the council. It was due to Gerson and Ailly that after the flight of John XXIII. from Constance (Mar. 20, 1415), the council was not adjourned. He had the courage to preside over the first popeless session (Mar. 26, 1415), and to carry out the order of business of that important gathering. The council had to decide three points: (1) The caisa unwnas (abolition of the schism); (2) the caisa reformationis (reformation of the Church in capite et in membris); and (3) cauaa fidei (the case of John Huss). Ailly was very active in the last two. AB president of the commission on faith, he examined Ruse (June 7 and 8, 1415; Documenta J. His., ed. F. Palacky, Prague, 1869, pp. 273 sqq.), and was present at his condemnation (July 6). He expressed his ideas on reform, as deputy of the college of cardinals, in the commission on reform and in a writing of Nov., 1416, De reformations ecclesite (in H. von der Hardt, Magnum tVeummicum Constantiense concilium, i., part viii., Frankfort, 1700). His views on the power of the Church he had already published (October) in his De potestate eccneaia. When, in November, the council proceeded to the choice of a new pope, Ailly was a candidate; but the.opposition of the English pre-

vented his election. He lived on good terms with his successful competitor, Otto di Colonna, and as his legate at Avignon continued influential in the French Church till his death. Ailly was always faithful to the interests of his country, although he was more churchman than Frenchman. He influenced the young Luther by his doubts concerning the doctrine of transubstantiation (cf. Luther's De captivitate Babylanica, Erlangen ed., var. arg., v. 29). In 1410 he wrote a geographical work Imago mundi ( n.p., n.d.), which has interest as having been one of the sources from which Columbus drew his belief in the possibility of a western passage to India (cf. Tschackert, 334 sqq.).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Tschackert, Peter van Ailli, Gotha, 1877 (gives bibliography of Ailly's works, pp. 348-388); L. Salembier, Pebw de AUiaco, Lille, 1886 (also gives bibliography of his works, pp. 2 sqq.); G. Erler, Dietrich von Nioheim, Leipsie, 1887; H. Finke, Forschungen and Quellen zur Geschichte des Konetanser Konzila, pp. 103-132, Paderborn, 1889 (gives the diary of Ailly's colleague, Cardinal Fillaatre, pp. 163 eqq.); B. Bees, Zur Geechichte des Konetanser Konzile, vol. i., Marburg, 1891.


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Calvin College. Last modified on 10/03/03. Contact the CCEL.
Calvin seal: My heart I offer you O Lord, promptly and sincerely