to Judaism was not allowed in Portugal, he fled to Amsterdam, where he was circumcised and admitted to the synagogue. Disappointed in the teaching and practise of the Amsterdam Jews, he criticized them unsparingly; in particular he aroused their resentment by declaring that the Law made no mention of the immortality of the soul or a future life. After the publication of his Examen doe tradiFoens phariaeas conferidas con a lay escrite (1624) they put him out of the synagogue and brought him to trial before the magistrates on a charge of atheism. He was imprisoned, fined, and his book was burned. After some years he made public recantation of his alleged errors, was scourged in the synagogue, and trampled upon at the door. According to rumor, he died by his own hand. He left an autobiography, Exemplar humante vita, published by Philip Limborch (Gouda, 1687; repub lished in Latin and German, with introduction, Leipeic, 1847).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Whiaton. The Remarkable Life of Uriel Acosta, an Eminent Free-Thinker. London, 1740; H. Jellinek, U. Acosta's Laban and LsAre. Zerbat, 1847; I. da Costa, Israel en de eolka, Haarlem, 1849, Eng. tranel., London, 1850: H. Greets, (iuclvichte der Juden, 3d ed., x. 120-128, 399-401.ACTA MARTYRUM, ACTA SAftCTORUM, ac'ta mdr'ter-um, ac'ta sent"t8'ram. I. Acts of Martyrs. · Acts, msrtyrum since- U I). Legendary Acts (¢ 2). Calendaria and Geata msrtyrum (¢ 3). II. Histories of the Saints. In the Churches of the East (¢ 1). In the Western Church (¢ 2): English Lives of Saints (13).
By Acts Martyrum and Acts. Senctorum are meant collections of biographies of holy persons, especially of the older Church. The former title refers particularly to those who have suffered death for the faith; the latter is more general, including all " saints," i.e., Christians canonized by the Church on account of their eminently pious and pure lives.
I. Acts of Martyrs (Acts sive paasiortea martyrum ; Martyrologia): The oldest authentic sources for the history of the early martyrs are the court records of the Roman empire (Ads proconatilarie, prnsidialia)., They are not preserved in their original form, but more or less complete extracts from them constitute the kernel of the passion histories recorded by Christian hands; and they are acknowledged to be the authentic bases of these histories (cf. the works of Le Blant and Egli cited below), which, so far as they are based upon these official documents and thus demonstrate that they belong to the
:. Acts class of actc mttrtyrum sinters, are Martyrtim either written in the form of a letter Sisters. or are devotional narratives without the epistolary character (Irasaiortea, geata marEyram). The former claw includes the oldest of these histories; the chief examples are: the Pasaio Polycar~i., in a letter of the congregation of Smyrna, of which extracts are given by Eusebius (Hint. eccl., IV. xv.). while the complete text is handed down in five Greek manuscripts; the letter of the churches of Lyons and Vienna to the Chris.
tians of Asia and Phrygia concerning their sufferings under Marcus Aurelius in 177 (Eusebius, Hist. eccl., V. i.-iii.); the report of the Alexandrian bishop Dionysius to the Antiochian Fabianus on the sufferings of the Christians of his church during the persecutions under Decius (Eusebius, Hist. eccL, VI. xli.-xlii.); and certain reports concerning North-African martyrs and confessors of the same time, in Cyprian's collection of epistles (xx., xxi., xxii., xxvii., xxxix., xl., etc.).
Passions in narrative force are more numerous. Among the oldest and historically most important are: From the second century, the Acta Justini phidosophi et martyris; the Acts Carpi, Papyli, et Agathonicce (cf. Eusebius, IV. xv. 48); the Passio sanctorum Seilitanorum of the year 180, a report of the martyrdom at Carthage of six Numidian Christians under the proconsul Vigellius Saturninus July 17, 180, distinguished by its strictly objective form, reproducing the official proconsular acts without Christian additions; the Acta APollonii, belonging to the time of Commodus (cf. Eusebius, V. xxi.). To the third century belong the Passio Perpetuce et Felicitatis, covering the martyrdom of certain Carthaginian Christians, belonging probably to ~Tertullian's congregation, Mar. 7, 203; the martyrdom of Pionius (cf. Eusebius, IV. xv. 47), of Achatius, and of Conon, all three belonging to the epoch of Decius; the Acta Proconsularia which record the trial and execution of Cyprian of Carthage under Valerianus, Sept. 14, 258. Finally, belonging to the beginning of the fourth century (the time of persecution under Diocletian and his coemperors, 303-323), there are the records collected by Eusebius, which now form an appendix to book VIII. of his church history, and treat of the Palestinian martyrs of that time, as well as somewhat numerous martyrwa of the period, to which must be ascribed a greater or less historical value (such as the Testamentum xl martyrum from Sebaste in Armenia, belonging to the time of Licinius, the newly discovered Greek text of which has full documentary value).
Much greater than the number of such ads marlYrum sineera sive genuind is that of the non-authentic histories of martyrs which contain z. Legend- little or nothing of contemporaneousary Acts. notices and have an essentially leg endary character. To these belong, among others: two accounts of the martyrdom of Ignatius of Antioch; the Martyrium colbertinum and the Martyrium Valicanum ; the Acta Nerei et Achillei ; the Passio Felieitatis et septem filiorum ; the Acta S. Cypridni et Justinw ; the legends of St. Agnes, St. Cecilia, St. Catherine, St. Maurice (qq. v.), and others.
After the cessation of persecutions the memory of the martyrs was cherished mainly by two kinds of written records: (1) calenddria, i.e., lists of the names of martyrs in calendar form for the purpose of fixing their memorial days for the liturgical use of individual congregations or greater church dioceses; (2) more detailed memorial books (gesta martyrum) for the purpose of private devotion and instruction, incorporating also longer passion narratives, and avoiding as much as possible theputting together of mere names in calendary statis tical form. Of the latter kind may have been that copious collection of martyrological material from all branches of the Church which Eusebius cOm posed in addition to the booklet on the Palestinian martyrs already mentioned (cf. his references to this collection, Hist. eccl., IV. xv. 47; V. Proem., iv. 3; also V. xxi. 5), but which was 3. Calen- lost at a very early period (cf. Greg-
daria and ory the Great, Epist., viii. 29). BioGesta Mar- graphical and other notices weretyrum. gradually added to the names of the martyrs in many of the calendaria; and by such inclusion of general hagiological matter they somewhat approached the character of the devotional reading-books. This enrichment of the calendaria with material not strictly martyr ological in its nature (i.e., additions of a nar rative character, not mere names) commenced in the West. While a calendarium of the Syriac Church from the year 412 (ed. W. Wright, 1$65) still shows a strictly martyrological character, the old calendar of the Roman congregation from the year 354 (ed. Xgidius Bucher, Antwerp, 1633; T. Mommsen, in Abhandlvngen der sdchsischen Gesellachaft der Wissenschaften, 1850) gives, besides the names of martyrs, those of Roman bishops (twelve in number). The same is true of the Calen dorium Africanum vetus from the year 500, edited by Mabillon (Vetera Analectu, iii. 398 aqq.). The martyrologium of the Church of Rome men tioned by Gregory the Great in his epistle to Eu logius of Alexandria (Epist., viii. 29) consisted of martyrological and non-martyrological (especially papal) elements, and had even admitted the older Roman festival calendar. The so-called Martyro logium Hieronymianum is an enlarged revision of this Roman calendar. In its present form it is a compilation edited about the year 600 at Auxerre in Gaul; but it was previously recast in upper Italy, as is indicated in the correspondence of the alleged author Jerome, with the bishops Chroma tius of Aquileia and Heliodorus of Altinum, which stands at the beginning. It is a medley of names of places and saints, data of martyrs, and the like, collected from older local and provincial calendars. The Syriac calendarium already mentioned was used (in a somewhat erlarged form) by the com piler as a source of information for the East; for North Africa a Calendarium Carthaginenae (proba bly from pre-Vandalic times) was used; and for Rome, no doubt, the Roman martyrologium to which Gregory the Great referred. Jerome proba bly contributed nothing to the collection (cf. the critical edition of the work, ed. J. B. de Road and L. Duchesne, from numerous manuscripts, in ASB, Nov., ii., 1894, and the criticism of B. Krusch in Neues Archir fur dkere deutsche GeschwhUkunde, xx., 1895, 437-440). To still later times belong similar compilations ascribed to the Venerable Bede, to Florus Magister of Lyons (c. 840), to the abbot Wandelbert of Prilm (848), and others (see below, II., 2).
II. Histories of the Saints (Acts sine race sanetorum) : From the end of the fourth century, under the influence of the Vitce patnim, dissemi-
nated at first from the Eastern but soon also from the Western monasteries, true biographies of the saints became much more numerous. The biographies contained in the Historic monachorum of Rufinus, the Historic Lausiacc of Palladius, the Historic religiosa of Theodoret, as well as in other works like the Pratum spirituale of Johannes Moschus, and the Vitae patrum and Lori. miraculorum of Gregory of Tours, furnish much more devotional matter than the histories of martyrs of former centuries. This hagiological literature, -of monastic origin, had the advantage that it was not so much exposed to suspicion of falsification by heretics or the incompetent (idiotm) as were productions of the older passion literature (the reading of which in divine service in the Roman Church was forbidden by edict of Gelasius I. in 494). Under the influence of the new kind of biographies of monks and hermits a general hagiological element entered also to an ever-increasing degree into the martyrological collections of the older type, and thus brought about their constant expansion.
In the Churches of the East, the older calendary statistical form of the compilations, confining itself to martyrological material properr. In the and serving only liturgical purposes,
Churches was still cultivated, especially in the of the so-called menologia, or monthly regiaEast. ters, as well as in the liturgical antho-. logic (" collections "). But besides these arose hagiological collections of considerable copiousness: the mencea arranged in a calendary form and divided according to months; and shorter, condensed synazaria (from synaxis, " religious gathering ") or extracts. In the Byzantine Church the large collection of legends by Simeon Metar phrastes (10th cent.), which is preserved in a greatly revised and corrupt form, exercised much influence tree SIMEON MyTAPHRABTF$). Of the editors of the martyrologies and mencea literature of the Syriac Church in the earlier time, Stephan Evodiua Asaemani (q.v.) deserves mention, more recently Paul Bedjan (Acts martyrum et sanetorum Syriace, 7 vols., Paris, 1890-97); of those of the Russian Orthodox Church, Joseph Simonius Asse mani (q.v.), and in recent times J. E. Martinov (Annvs eccleaiasticus Grceco-Slavicus, Brussels, 1863, -ASB, Oct., xi. 1-385) and V. Jagic (" The Menaefl of the Russian Church from Manuscripts of 1095 97," St. Petersburg, 1886, Russian); of those of the Armenian Church, the Mekhitarists (q.v.), who published a martyrologium in two volumes at Venice in 1874; and of those of the Coptic Church, H. Hyvernat (Les Ades des martyrs de l'-0gypte, Paris, 1886 aqq.).
In the Western Church, during the Middle Ages `,he hagiological literature, critically considered, deteriorated. Ado of Vienne and Usuardus (both c. 870); the author of the Martyrologium Sangalense (c. 900); Wolfard of Herrieden (c. 910); later, especially Jacobus de Voragine (d. 1298), author of the so-called " Golden Legend," and Petrus ~e Natalibus (d. 1382), author of a Catalogus sanctorum (often reprinted since 1493), are the main representatives of the writers of this legendary literature, of whose eccentricities and extravagan-
cies humanists and reformers often complain. Since tfie end of the fifteenth century effortshave been made to publish critically z. In the genuine and older texts. Early at Western tempts were: the Sanctuarium of Church. Boninus Mombritius (Venice, 1474;
Rome, 1497); the first (and only) volume of the Martyrum agones of Jacobus Faber Stapulensis (1525); and the De probatis sanctorum historiis of the Carthusian Laurentlus Surius (d.1578; arranged according to the calendar; 6 vols. folio, Cologne, 1570 aqq.; 2d ed., 7 vols., 1581 eqq.). As concerns the abundance of matter and critical treatment of the documents, these. first labors of modern times are far surpassed by the gigantic hagiological work the Acts Sanctorum quotquot toto orbe coluntur, the publication of which began at Antwerp in 1643. It was conceived by the Jesuit Heribert Rosweyde (q.v.); and after his death (1629) was undertaken by Jan Bolland and others. From the name of the first actual editor it is generally known as the Acts Sanctorum Bollandi or Bollandistarum (cited in this encyclopedia as ASB) With the exception of a period somewhat leas than fifty years, consequent upon the disturbances of the French Revolution, the labor of preparation and publication has proceeded continuously to the present time, when the editors (following the calendary arrangement) are engaged upon the month of November (see BOLLAND, JAN, BoLLAND iaTS). More or less valuable are the extracts from the $aliandist main work in collections like that of Alban Butler (The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints, 4 vols., London, 1756-59; see BUTLER, ALBAN), his French imitator, the Abb6 J. F. Godescard (Vies des Peres, des martyrs et autres principavx saints, traduit lxbrement de l'anglais d' Alban Butler, 12 vols., Paris, 1763 aqq.), and A. Rass and N. Weiss, the German successors of both Butler and Godescard (Leben der Heiligen, 23 vols., Mainz, 1823 aqq.); mention may also be made of a later French work by Paul Gu6rin, Les Petits Bollandistes (7th ed., 18 vols., Paris, 1876). In lexical form the lives of the saints are treated by the Abb6 Pdtin (Dictionnaire hagwgraphique, 2 vols., Paris, 1850) and J. E. Stadler and F. J. Heim (Vollstandiges Heiligen lexikon, 5 vols., Augsburg, 1858 sqq.). There are also hagiological collections devoted to the members of particular orders, of which the Acta Sanctorum ordinis S. Benedicti of J. Mabillon and others (9 vola., Paris, 16681701) is the most important. O. Z6C%LERt.
The best-known work in English is that of Alban . Butler, already mentioned. It is written in a heavy eighteenth century style. Much pleasanter reading is the work of Sabine Baring-Gould, The Laves of the Saints (15 vals., London, 1872-77; new illustrated ed., revised and enlarged, 16 vols., 1897-98). The author is a High-church Anglican, not untouched by the modern critical spirit. He states in his introduction that his work is not intended to supplant Butler, being prepared on somewhat different lines. Butler " confined his attention to the historical outlines of the saintly lives, and he rarely filled them in with anecdote. Yet it ie the little details of a man's life that give
it character and impress themselves on the memory. People forget the age and parentage ofSt. Gertrude, but they remember
3. Eng- the mouse running up her staff." The lish Lives style is diversified by occasionally inof Saints. troducing translations and accounts by
other writers. The Sanctorale Catholicum, or Book o f Saints, by Robert Owen (London, 1880), is a single octavo volume of 516 pages, provided with critical, exegetical, and historical notes. The Saints in Christian Art (3 vols., London, 190104), by Mrs. Arthur George Bell (nt;e Nancy Meugens, known also by the nom de plume " N. d'Anvers "), contains sketches of the lives of the saints treated, written with little discrimination as to sources and in an uncritical, credulous spirit. The Saints and Servants o f God is a series of lives, original and translated, edited by Frederick William Faber and continued by the Congregation of St. Philip Neri (42 vols., London, 1847-56). A second series was begun in 1873, in which the lives for the most part are translations of those drawn up for the processes of canonization or beatification. Another series, consisting of single-volume lives of various saints, specially prepared by modern writers, is being issued in authorized English translation under the editorship of Henri Joly for the original (French) volumes, and of the Rev. Father George Tyrrell, S.J., for the translations (Paris and London, 1898 sqq.).
A number of works are devoted to saints of the British Isles. As to the older works of this character Baring-Gould remarks (Introduction, i., pp. xxix.-xxx., ed. 1897):
" With regard to England there is a Martyrology of Christ Church, Canterbury, written in the thirteenth century, and now in the British Museum; also a Martyrology written between 1220 and 1224 from the southwest of England; this also is in the British Museum. A Saxon Martyrology, incomplete, is among the Harleian MSS. in the same museum; it datep from the fourteenth century. There is a transcript among the Sloane M$8. of a Martyrology of North-English origin, but this also is incomplete. There are others, later, of less value. The most interesting is the Marhloge in Enp lyaahe after the use of the charche of Salisbury, printed by Wynkyn de Words in 1526, reissued by the Henry Bradahaw Society in 1893. To these Martyrologies must be added the Legenda of John of Tynemouth, 1350; that of Capgrave, 1450, his Yoroa lependa, printed in 1516; Whitford's Martyrology, 1526; Wilson's Martyrologe, let ad., 1608, 2d. ed., 1640 and Bishop Challoner's Memorial of Ancient British1761."
Bishop Challoner's larger Britannia Sancta, or the Lives o f the Most Celebrated British, English, Scottish, and Irish Saints (2 parts, London, 1745) may also be mentioned. The Saints and Missionaries o f the Anglo-Saxon Era, by D. C. O. Adams (2 ser., Oxford, 1897-1901), is a collection of brief and popular lives brought down to Queen Margaret of Scotland (d. 1093). A Menology of England and Wales, compiled by Richard Stanton, priest of the Oratory, London (London, 1887; Supplement, 1892), is probably the fullest list in existence of names of English and Welsh saints, with brief biographical notices. It is a scholarly work based upon sources (calendars, martyrologies, legends, histories acts) many of which were previously inedited. A somewhat wide interpretation is given to the terms " English " and " saint." The Lives
of the Irish Saints, with Special Festivals, and the Commemoration o f Holy Persons, by John O'Hanlon, is an exhaustive work, in somewhat florid style, arranged according to the calendar, one volume being devoted to each month (Dublin, 1875 sqq.). Scottish calendars have been edited, with brief biographies of the saints, by A. P. Forbes in his Kalendars of Scottish Saints (Edinburgh, 1874). For Wales there is W. J. Rees's Lives of the CambroBritish Saints of the Fifth and Immediate Succeeding Centuries (Llandovery, 1853), Cardinal John Henry Newman's Lives o f the English Saints (15 vols., London, 1844-45, and often) is more interesting now for the history of the movement which called it forth than as a contribution to hagiology. See also the bibliography of the article CELTIC CHuRcs IN BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For elaborate bibliographical lists of acts and lives of saints: A. Potthast, Biblaotheca h aetorua medii mva, pp. xxxii-xxxv., 1131-1646, Berlin, 1898 (the most complete list yet made in which the editions are accurately given); MGH, Index volume, Hanover, 1890; T. Ruinart, Actor primorum martyrum aincera et aelecta, Paris, 1689 (latest ed., Ratisbon, 1859); Gross, Sources, pp. 84-89. 213-222, 245-249, 390-400. 442, 517-525; R. Knopf, Auagewdhlte M4rtyrakten, Tilbingen, 1901; O. von Gebhardt, Acts Martyrum aelecta, Leipsic, 1902. For history and criticism: A. Ebert, Allpemeina Geachichte der Literatur des M%Mlaltera in Abendlande, 3 vols., ib. 187487 (2d ed. of vol. i., 1889, perhaps the best survey of the subject); C. Jauningus, Apologia pro Ache Sanctorum, Antwerp, 1695; A. Scheler, Zur Geachwhte des Werkee Actor Sanctorum, Leipsic, 1846; J. B. Pitra, Ektudea our la collection den Actes des Saint6a pubttda par lee Bollandietea, Paris, 1850; J. Carnandet and J. Fbvre, Les Bollandiatea et l'hagiographie ancienne of moderne, ib., 1866; Dehaienes, Les Onptnea des Actor Sanctorum et lea protecteura des Bollandi8tm dons is nord de France, Douai, 1870; A. Tougard, Do Mistotre profane dans lee actes qreca des Bollandiates, Paris, 1874; C. de Smedt, Introducho generatia ad hist. eccl., Ghent, 1876 (contains a bibliography in pp. 111-197); E. le Blant, Acta Sanctorum et lour sources, Paris, 1880; idem, Los Actea den martyrea, eupplhment aux Aeta atnura de Dom Ruinart, ib. 1882; E. Egh, A ltchrtatliche Martyrien and Martyrologien alteeter Zeit, Zurich, 1887; A. Ehrhard, Die altohriatliche Litteratur and Are Erforachung, i. 539-592, Freiburg, 1900; Harnack, Litteratur, ii. 2, 463-482.
ACTON, JOHN EMERICH EDWARD DALBERG, first Baron Acton: Roman Catholic layman; b. in Naples, Italy, Jan. 10, 1834; d. at Tegernsee (31 m. s. of Munich) June 19, 1902. He was educated at Oscott College, Birmingham, from 1843 to 1848, then at Edinburgh, finally at the University of Munich. At Oscott the president, Nicholas Wiseman, afterward archbishop and cardinal, greatly influenced him, but at Munich the greater scholar, Dr. Dbllinger, still more. These men fostered his love of truth and passion for accurate historical knowledge. Being wonderfillly gifted and highly trained, he set forth upon a career of learned acquisition which made him the admiration of his associates. But in his own communion he soon became unpopular because he was a pronounced liberal. He conducted the " Home and Foreign Review "from 1862 to 1864 in the interest of anti-Ultramontanism, and so was condemned by the hierarchy and his journal virtually suppressed. He then pursued the same course in the " North British Review "from 1868 to 1872. His chief object of attack was the doctrine of papal infallibility, and he did. all he could
to prevent its adoption, but when it was promulgated by the Vatican Council of 1870 he did not follow his preceptor and friend Dollinger into the ranks of the Old Catholics, but remained in the Roman obedience. He showed that he had neither altered his views nor would he give up his independence when in 1874 he criticized with learning and candor the views of his patron and friend Gladstone upon Vaticanism. From 1859 to 1864 he represented Carlow in Parliament. In 1869 Mr. Gladstone raised him to the peerage. In 1886 he founded "The English Historical Review." with Professor (afterward Bishop) Mandell Creighton as editor. In 1895 he was made regius professor of modern history at Cambridge. He planned the Cambridge Modern History series, but did not live to see any of it published.
Lord Acton possessed vast stores of accurate information, but he wrote very little except review articles and book-notices. - So his list of separate publications is singularly short for so great a scholar. He edited Les Matin6es royates, ou fart de regner, the work of Frederick the Great (London, 1863); made a great sensation by his Sendsckretben an einem deutschen Biseho f des vaticanischen Conchs (N6rdlingen, 1870); by his Zur Geschichte des vaticanischen Concila (Munich, 1871); and by his letters as correspondent of the London " Times " during the Council. His lectures, The War of 1870 (London, 1871), and especially those masterly ones on The History of Freedom in Antiquity and on The History o f Freedom in Christianity (both Bridgnorth, 1877), fragments of that complete history of freedom which he dreamed he should one day write, and finally -his inaugural lecture at Cambridge on The Study of History (London, 1895), show his range of knowledge and love of truth. Since his death his Letters to Mary (now Mrs. Drew), Daughter of the Right Honorable W. E. Gladstone (1904), edited with a memoir by Herbert Paul, his Cambridge Lectures (1906), and Lectures on Modern History (1906) have been published.
BIRLIoaaAPHT:- Wm. A. Shaw's Bibliography of Lord Acton, London, Royal Historical Society, 1903; Lord Acton and His Circle, edited by F. A. Gasquet, London, 1906 (178 letters, mostly on literary subjects, by Lord Acton, with introduction by Gasquet).
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. See LUKE II. For Apocryphal Books of Acts, See APOCRYPHA, B, II.
ADALBERT(ADELBERT,ALDEBERT): Frankish bishop; contemporary of Boniface (q.v.). He is known only from the letters of Boniface, who was his bitter opponent, and from the accounts of the proceedings instituted against him for heresy, which represent him as a dangerous misleader of the people, a skilful impostor, and arrogant blockhead, who thought himself equal to the apostles, declared himself canonized before birth, and claimed the power of working miracles and of remitting sins. It is said that he pretended to have a letter from Jesus, which the archangel Michael had found in Jerusalem, and other relics brought to him by angels. He disregarded confession, not thinking it necessary for the remission of sins, and planted crosses and founded chapels on the hills
and by the streams, inducing the people to come thither for service instead of going to the churches of the apostles and martyrs. In his prayers unknown and suspicious names of angels were found. At the instigation of Boniface two Frankish synods (744 and 745) deposed Adalbert and condemned him to penance as a " servant and forerunner of Antichrist." A Roman synod confirmed his sentence and added excommunication. In 747 a general Frankish synod received a command from the pope to apprehend Adalbert and send him to Rome. The major domus, Pepin, burned his crosses and chapels; but the people seem to have sympathized with their bishop, who did not acknowledge the authority of his judges and who was not allowed to defend himself. His fate is unknown. Mainz tradition relates that he was defeated in a discussion with Boniface, that he was imprisoned at Fulda, and was killed by a swineherd while trying to escape. Opinions concerning him differ. Some look upon him as mentally unsound, as an impostor, or as a fanatic. Others see in him, as in his countryman Clement (q.v.) among the East Franks, freedom from Rome, an opponent of the romanizing tendencies of his time, and a victim of the ecclesiastical policy of Boniface. A. WERNER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rettberg, i. (1846) 314-317, 368-370; H. Hahn, JahrbUcher du frankischen Reicha, pp. 67-82, Berlin, 1863· Boniface, Epistoloc, in iaff4§, Monumenta Mopuntina, 1866; J. H. A. Ebrard, Die iroschoaiache Mia sionakirche der sechaten, siebenten, and achten Jahrhundertan, pp. 341, 432-434, G6tersloh, 1873; A. Werner, Bonifatiue, pp. 279-297, Leipsie, 1875; DCB, i. 77-78; Hauck, KD, i. (1904) 507-513.
ADALBERT OF HAMBURG-BREMEN (formerly often called Albert): Archbishop of HamburgBremen 1045 (1043?)-1072; d. at Goslar Mar. 16, 1072. He came of a noble Saxon-Thuringian family, is first heard of as canon of Halberstadt, and followed the head of his chapter, Hermann, to Bremen when the latter was made archbishop, in 1032; on Hermann's death, three years later, he returned to Halberstadt and became provost there himself. Re is probably the Adalbert who early in 1045 was acting as chancellor for Henry 111. in Italian affairs. Henry nominated him to the archbishopric of Hamburg, probably in 1045, though some recent historians have placed the date at 1043. He soon showed that he had a lofty conception of the dignity of his office; and his ambition was supported by many advantages-a handsome and imposing presence, intellectual force, and the reputation of singular personal purity and moderation at a time when such qualities were rare. The reign of Henry III. was the period of his success and doinination. King and archbishop, endowed with similar gifts, were attracted to each other, and found it necessary to make common cause against the Saxon dukes of the Billung house, who had already troubled the Church of Hamburg. Adalbert's frequent absences from his diocese gave the Billungs opportunity to attack it; but the archbishop, often accompanied by his vassals, could not avoid spending considerable time on the king's business. He accompanied Henry on his campaign of 1045, and went to Rome with him in the next year, taking part in the synods which deposed the three rival
Germany, but had to leave the Saxon problem behind him unsolved. He bore long physical sufferings with remarkable firmness, laboring to the last for the king and for his diocese. He wished to be buried at Hamburg; but the destruction of that city by the Wends prevented this; and his body was laid in the cathedral of Bremen, the rebuilding of which he had himself completed.(CARL. BERTuEAu.)
BIHLIOasAPHY: Bruno, De bello Saxonico, in MGH, Script., v. (1844) 327-384 (2d ed., by W. Wattenbach, in Script. rer. Germ., exec. zi,1880); Adam of Bremen, Guts Hammaburpensie ecderia pont4Rcum, in MGH, Script., vii. (1846) 267-389 (printed separately, Hanover, 1848; 2d ed.,1876), Germ. transl. by J. C. M. Laurent (?d ed., by W. Wattenbach, Leipsic, 1888); Chronicon Gozecensis, in MGH, Script., z. (1852) 140-157; Colmar Granhagen, Adalbert Erzbiwhof won Hamburg, Leipsic, 1854; Lambert, Annalee, in MGH, Script., xvi. (1859), 648-W (2d ed., by HoldeoEgger, in Script. rer. Germ., 1894) E. Steindorff, Jahrbitclur des dautschen Reich unter Heinrich 111., 2 vols., Leipsic, 1874-81, and in ADB, i. 56-61; (), Dehio, Geechichte des Erzbietums Hamburg-Bremen, i. 178-277. Berlin, 1876; R. Ballheimer, Zeittafda zur hamburpiachen Geechschte, pp. 18-24, Hamburg, 1895; Hauck, KD, iii. 649-664.
ADALBERT OF PRAGUE (Czech, Woatech, "Comfort of the Army"): An early German missionary, sometimes improperly called " the Apostle of the Slavs " or " of the Prussians "; b. about 950; murdered Apr. 23, 997. He was the son of a rich Czech nobleman named Slavenik, connected with the royal house of Saxony. He was educated at Magdeburg, but on the death of Adalbert (981), first archbishop of that place, whose name he had taken at confirmation, he returned home and was ordained priest by Thietmar, the first bishop of Prague, whom he succeeded two years later. He received investiture at Verona from Emperor Otho II., his kinsman, and was consecrated by Willigis, archbishop of Mainz, his metropolitan. His troubles soon began. The attempt to execute strictly what he conceived to be his episcopal duties brought him into conflict with his countrymen, who were hard to wean from their heathen customs. After five years of struggle, he left his diocese, intending to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; but after a sojourn at Monte Camino, he entered the monastery of St. Boniface at Rome, where he led a singularly devoted and ascetic life. In 992, however, he was required by the pope and his metropolitan to return to Prague. The conflict with stubbornly persistent heathen customspolygamy, witchcraft, slavery-proved as hard as ever, and he once more left his diocese, returning, after a missionary tour in Hungary, to the peaceful seclusion of his Roman cloister.
In 996 Willigis visited Rome and obtained fresh orders for Adelbert to return to his see, with permission to go and preach to the heathen only in case his flock should absolutely refuse to receive him. He went north in company with the young emperor, Otho III., and in the next spring, through Poland, approached Bohemia. Things had grown worse than ever there: his family had fallen under suspicion of treason through their connections with Germany and Poland; and the greater part of them had been put to death. His offer to return to Prague having been contumeliously rejected, he
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Canaparius, Vita Adalberti, in MGH, Script., iv. (1841) 574-620; Bruno, Vita Adalberk, ib. pp. 595-612; Miracnta Adelberti, ib. 613-616; Pasaio Adalberti. ib., xv. part 2 (1888), 705-708; De St. Adalberto. ib. pp. 1177-84; MPL, cxxxvii. 859-888 (life and miracles); H. Zeiseberg, Die polnische Geschichtaechreibunp des Mittelalters, pp. 19 eqq., Leipsic, 1873; H. G. Voigt, Adalbert von Prag, Berlin, 1898; Hauck. KD, iii. (1906) 1041 eqq.
ADALBOLD, ad'al-bold: Bishop of Utrecht; d. Nov. 27, 1026. He was born probably in the Low Countries; and received his education partly from Notker of Li6ge. He became a canon of Laubach, and apparently was a teacher there. The emperor Henry II., who had a great regard for him, invited him to the court, and nominated him as Bishop of Utrecht (1010), and he must be regarded as the principal founder of the territorial possessions of the diocese, especially by the acquisition in 1024 and 1026 of the counties of Thrente and Teisterbant. He was obliged to defend his bishopric not only against frequent inroads by the Normans, but also against the aggressions of neighboring nobles. He was unsuccessful in the attempt to vindicate the possession of the district of Merwede (Mircvidu), between the mouths of the Maas and the Waal, against Dietrich III. of Holland. The imperial award required the restitution of this territory to the bishop and the destruction of a castle which Dietrich had built to control the navigation of the Mass; but the expedition under Godfrey of Brabant which undertook to enforce this decision was defeated; and in the subsequent agreement the disputed land remained in Dietrich's possession. Adalbold was active in promoting the building of churches and monasteries in his diocese. His principal achievement of this kind was the completion within a few years of the great cathedral of St. Martin at Utrecht. He restored the monastery of Thiel, and completed that of Hohorat, begun by his predecessor Anafried. To the charge of the latter he appointed Poppo of Stablo, and thus introduced the Cluniac reform into the diocese.
Adalbold is also to be mentioned as an author. A life of Henry II., carried down to 1012,'has been ascribed to him; but the evidence in favor of attributing to him the extant fragment of such a life (MGM, Script., iv., 1841, 679-695; MPL, cxl. 87108) is not decisive. He wrote a mathematical treatise upon squaring the circle (MPL, cxl. 110308), and dedicated it to Pope Sylvester II., who was himself a noted mathematician. There is also extant a philosophical exposition of a passage of Boethius (ed. W. Moll in Kerkhistorisch Archie/, iii., Amsterdam, 1862, pp. 198-213). The discussion Quetnadmodum indubitanter mttsww consonanlim judicari possint (ed. M. Gerbert, in Scriptores eccleaiaatici de musica aocra, i., St. Blasien, 1784, pp. 303-312; MPL, cxl. 1109) seems to have been ascribed to him on insufficient grounds.(A. HAucx.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Van der As, Adelbold, biaachap van Utrecht, Utrecht, 1862; Hauck, KD, iii.
ADALDAG, ad'al-ddg: Seventh archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen (937-988); d. at Bremen Apr. 28 or 29, 988. He was of noble birth, a relation and pupil of Bishop Adalward of Verden and became canon of Hildesheim. Otho I. made him his chancellor and notary immediately after his accession, and on the death of Archbishop Unni of HamburgBremen (936) nominated him to the vacant see. None of the early incumbents of the see ruled so long a time; and none did so much for the diocese, though his success was partly the fruit of his predecessors' labors and of peculiarly favorable circumstances. Under Adaldag the metropolitan see obtained its first suffragans, by the erection of the bishoprics of Ripen, Sleswick, and Aarhus; and that of Aldenburg was also placed under Hamburg, though the Slavic territories of the present Oldenburg had formerly belonged to the diocese of Verden. He resisted successfully a renewal of the efforts of Cologne to claim jurisdiction over Bremen (see ADALGAR). He gained many privileges for his see, in jurisdiction, possession of land, and market rights, by his close relations with the emperors, especially Otho I. He accompanied the latter on his journey to Rome, and remained with him from 961 to 965, and is mentioned as the emperor's chief counselor at the time of his coronation in Rome. Otho placed the deposed pope Benedict V. in his custody. After Adaldag's return to Hamburg, he still maintained these relations, and his privileges were confirmed by Otho II. and by the regency of Otho III. The later years of his life were troubled by inroads of the Danes and Slavonians on the north, and he may have witnessed the sack of Hamburg by the latter under Mistiwoi (if its date, as Usinger and Dehio think, was 983). (CARL BERTHEAU.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammenburpensie ecclesioe pontificum, in MGH, Script., vii. (1846) 267-389 (issued separately, Hanover, 1846; 2d ed., 1876); W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutechen Kaiaerzei,t, i., Brunswick, 1874; R. KSpcke and E. Dummler, Kaiser 06to der Grosse, Leipsic, 1878; G. Dehio, Geschichte des Embistume Hamburg-Bremen, i. 65, 104-132, Berlin, 1877; Hauck, KD, vol. ii.
ADALGAR, ad'al-gar: Third archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen (888-909); d. May 9, 909. When Rimbert, who was appointed in 865 to succeed Ansgar, the first archbishop of Hamburg, stopped at the abbey of Corvey on his way to his field of labor, the abbot Adalgar gave him his brother, also named Adalgar, as a companion. The younger Adalgar was then a deacon. Toward the end of Rimbert's life he was consecrated bishop to assist the latter; and he succeeded him in the archbishopric (June 11, 888). During the latter half of his twenty years' rule, age and infirmity made it necessary for him also to have a coadjutor in the person of Hoger, another monk of Corvey; and later five neighboring bishops were charged to assist the archbishop in his metropolitan duties.
Adalgar lived in troublous times. Although Arnulf's victory over the Normans (891) was a relief to his diocese, and although under Louis the Child (900-911) it suffered less from Hungarian
onslaughts than the districts to the south and east of it, yet the general confusion restricted Adalgar's activity, and he was able to do very little in the northern kingdoms which were supposed to be part of his mission. There were also new contests over the relation of Bremen to the archiepiscopal see of Cologne. Bremen had originally been under the jurisdiction of Cologne; but this relation was dissolved on the reestablishment of the archbishopric of Hamburg in 848; and Pope Nicholas I. had confirmed the subordination of Bremen to Hamburg in 864 (see ANSGAR; HAMBURG, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF). In 890 Archbishop Hermann of Cologne wrote to Pope Stephen VI., demanding that the archbishop of Hamburg, as bishop of Bremen be subject to him. The course of the controversy is somewhat obscure; but it is known that Stephen cited both contestants to Rome, and when Adalgar alone appeared, Hermann being represented by delegates with unsatisfactory credentials, the pope referred the matter to Archbishop Fulk of Reims, to decide in a synod at Worms. In the mean time Stephen died; and his successor Formosus placed the investigation in the hands of a synod which met at Frankfort in 892 under Hatto of Mainz. On the basis of its report, Formosus decided that Bremen should be united to Hamburg so long as the latter had no suffragan sees, but should revert to Cologne when any were erected, the archbishop of Hamburg meanwhile taking part in the provincial synods of Cologne, without thereby admitting his subordination. Little is known of Adalgar's personality. From the way in which Rimbert's biographer and Adam of Bremen speak of him, he seems to have been a man of some force, but perhaps not strong enough for the difficult times in which his activity was cast.(CARL BERTHEAQ.) BIBLIOOaAPHY: Vita Rimberti, in MGH, Script., ii. (1829)
784-775, and in MPL, exxvi. 991-1010; Adam of Bremen, Geeta Hammenburgeneie eccleeios pontificum, in MGH, Script., vii. (1846) 287-389 (issued separately, Hanover, 1846; 2d ed., 1876); Jaffd, Repeats, vol. i.; G. Dehio, Geachichte des Erzbietume Hamburg-Bremen, i. 97-100, Berlin, 1877; Hauck, %D, Vol. ii.
ADALHARD AND WALA, ad'al-hdrd, wd'la: Abbots of Corbie (10 m. e. of Amiens) from about 775 to 834. They were brothers, cousins of Charlemagne, pupils and friends of Alcuin and Paul the Deacon, and men of much authority and influence in both church and state. The elder, Adalhard (b. about 751; d. Jan. 2, 826), was interested in the German language and the education of the clergy, and is especially famous for the establishment of diocesan colleges and the foundation of the abbey of New Corbie (Corvey) on the Weser (see CORVEY). He gave new laws to his monastery of Corbie (MPL, cv. 535-550), and defended against Pope Leo III. the resolutions de exitu Spiritus Sancti passed in the autumn of 809 by the Synod of Aachen (see FILIGQUE CONTROVERSY). When Charlemagne's son Pepin, king of Italy, died (810), Adalhard was appointed counselor of his young son Bernard in the government of Italy.
The younger brother, W ala (d. at Bobbio in Italy Sept. 12, 836), also enjoyed the confidence of Charlemagne, and became chief of the counts ofL-3 Saxony. In 812 he was sent to join Adalhard and Bernard in Italy and work for the choice of the last-named as king of the Lombards. After the death of Charlemagne and the accession of the incapable Louis (814), whom the brothers had always op posed, they returned to Corbie, and fell into dis grace for having favored Bernard. They were deprived of their estates and Adalhard was ban ished. After seven years, however, a reconciliation took place between them and Louis. Wala, as suc cessor of Adalhard at Corbie, continued his brother's work and gave especial care to the mission in the north. As head of the opposition to the repeal of the law of succession of 817 and a bold defender of the rights of the Church, he was imprisoned by Louis in 830, and regained his liberty only when, in 833, Louis's eldest son, Lothair, the future em peror, came north with an army, accompanied by Pope Gregory IV. Wala's counsel was gratefully received by both Lothair and Gregory; and the former rewarded him with the abbey of Bobbio in northern Italy. Just before his death Wala became reconciled with Louis, and, at the head of an em bassy sent to that monarch by Lothair, made peace between father and son. A. WER14ER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Paschasiu9 Radbertus, Vita Adelhardi, complete in ASM, iv. 1, pp. 308-344; Vita Wala, ib. pp. 455522; also in MPL, cxx. 1507-1650; extracts in MGH, Script., ii. (1829) 524-589; F. Funk, Ludwig der Fromme, Frankfort, 1832; Himly, Wala et Louis-le-D&onnaire, Paris, 1849; Jaffd, Repeats, vol. i.; A. Enek, De St. Adalhardo abbate Corbeiae antiques et nouie, MQneter. 1873; B. E. Simeon, Jahrbtlcher den frankiecken Reiche unter Ludwip derv Prommen, i., Munich, 1874 ; Hauck. HD, vol. ii.; W. Wattenbach, DGQ, i. (1893) 250, ii. (1894) 170; D. C. Munro and G. C. sellery, Mediaeval Civilization, pp. 319-320, New York, 1904.ADAM. I. Doctrinal. The Biblical Statement Interpreted Literally (§ 1). The Position of Adam to the Race ($ 2). The Orthodox Views (§ 3). The Evolutionary Views (§ 4). II. Historical. The Use of "Adam" as a Proper Name (§ 1). Foreign Influence in P (§ 2). The Aim and Plan of P (4 3). The Narrative of J (§ 4). Parallels in Other Literatures (§ 5). The Literary Material Mythical in Character ($ 6). New Testament References (i 7).
I. Doctrinal: According to the literal statement
of Genesis (v. 2), the name " Adam " (Heb. adham,
" man ") was given by God himself to the first human
being. The important place occupied by man, ac
cording to the Biblical idea, is the
x. The Bib- close, the appointed climax, of creation.
lical State- Inanimate nature looked forward to
meat Inter- man. To his creation God gave special
preted care. It was sufficient for the Creator
Literally. to order the other creatures into be
ing; but man was molded by the
divine fingers out of the dust of the earth. Thus fax
he belonged to' the created world; but into him
God breathed the breath of life, and thus put him
in an immeasurably higher place; for the posses
sion of this breath made him the " image " of God.
What this " image " was is learned from the Bible
(Gen. i. 26, ii. 7); it was likeness to God in the gov
ernment of the creatures and in the possession of
the same spirit (see IMAGE OF GOD). God, the absolute personality, reflects himself in man and, therefore, the latter becomes the lord of creation. Adam was the representative of the race-humanity in person. Opposite to the species and genera of beasts stood the single man. He was not a male, still less a man-woman; he was man. Out of him, as the progenitor of the race, Eve was taken.
But man's true position can not be comprehended until he is considered in relation to Christ, the second man, as is most clearly expressed in Rom. v. 12 sqq.; I Cor. xv. 21-22, 45-49. By Adam's fall, sin and death entered into the world, and condemnation has come upon all through him; but from the second Adam has come just the opposite
righteousness, justification, and life. Those who by sin are united to the first Adam reap all the consequences of such a union; similarly do those who by faith are united to the second Adam. Each is a representative head.
Materialism sees in man a mere product of nature. It is difficult to see how it makes place for self-consciousness. The unity of the race is also given up; and so logically Darwinism leads to belief in a plurality of race origins. Theology,
on the other hand, holds fast to the s. The Posi- personality of man, but has, from thetion of beginning of the science, wavered in Adam to regard to the position occupied by the Race. Adam toward the race. The oldest
Greek Fathers are silent upon this point. Irenteus is the first to touch it; and he maintains that the first sin was the sin of the race, since Adam was its head (111. xxiii. 3; V. xii. 3; cf. R. Seeberg, Dogmengeschichte, i., Leipsic, 1895, p. 82). Origen, on the other hand, holds that man sinned because he had abused his liberty when in a preexistent state. In Adam seminally were the bodies of all his descendants (Contra Celsum, iv.; cf. C. F. A. Kahnis, Dogmatik, ii., Leipsic,1864, pp. 107 sqq.). Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyasa, and Chrysostom derive sin from the fall. Tertullian, Cyprian, Hilary, Ambrose, and Augustine represent the Biblical standpoint. Pelagius saw in Adam only a bad example, which his descendants followed. Semi-Pelagianiam similarly regarded the first sin merely as opening the flood-gates to iniquity; but upon this point Augustinianism since it was formulated has dominated the Church-in Adam the race sinned. (CARL vON BUCHRUCBERt.)
The prominent orthodox views are: (1) The Augustinian, known as realism, which is that human nature in its entirety was in Adam when he sinned, that his sin was the act of human nature,
and that in this sin human nature fell; 3. The that is, lost its freedom to the good,Orthodox becoming wholly sinful and producing Views. sinners. " We sinned in that man when we were that man." This is the view of Anselm, Peter Lombard, Thomas Aquinas, and Luther. (2) The federal theory of the Dutch divines Cocceiua and Witsius is that Adam became the representative of mankind and that the probation of the human race ended once for all in his trial and fall in the garden of Eden. Accordingly the guilt of Adam's sin
was imputed to his posterity. This is the theory of Turretin and the Princeton theologians. (3) The theory of mediate imputation (Placmus) is that the sin of Adam is imputed to his descendants not directly, but on account of their depravity derived from him and their consent to his. sin. (See IMPUTATION; SIN.)
According to the evolutionary view of man's origin, which is not necessarily materialistic, Adam may be designated as the first individual or individuals in the upward process of de4. The Evo- velopment in whom self-consciousnesslutionary appeared or who attained such sta- Views. bility of life that henceforth humanity was able to survive the shock of death. By some, the first man is conceived of as a special instance of creative wisdom and power; by others, as the natural result of the evolutionary process. Whether the human race sprang from one individual or from several is, for lack of evidence, left an open question. In this position the unity of the race is in no wise compromised, since this is grounded not in derivation from a sipgle pair but in identity of constitution and ideal ethical and spiritual aim. This view of the first man brings into prominence the dignity of human nature and its kinship with the divine, yet at the same time profoundly modifies the traditional doctrine of original sin. In the disproportion between the inherited instincts, appetites, and desires of the animal nature and the weak and struggling impulses of the moral consciousness there arises an inevitable conflict in which the higher is temporarily worsted and the sense of sin emerges. By virtue of heredity and the organic and social unity of the race, all the descendants of the earliest man are involved with him in the common struggle, the defeat, and the victory of the moral and spiritual life. This conflict is a sign that man is not simply a fallen being, but is in process of ascent. The first man, although of the earth, is a silent prophecy of the second man, the Lord from heaven. C. A. BECKWrrH.
II. Historical: The sources of knowledge of Adam are exclusively Biblical and, indeed, wholly of the Old Testament, since the New Testament adds nothing concerning his personality and his doings to what is recorded of him in the Book of Genesis. The main inquiry, therefore, must be as to the place occupied by Adam I. The Use in the Old Testament. Here several of "Adam" striking facts confront us: (1) There
as a is no allusion to Adam direct or iaProper direct after the early genealogies.Name. In Deut. xxxii. 8 and Job xxviii. 28 the Hebrew adham (adam) means " mankind." In Hos. vi. 7 the reading should be " Admah " (a place-name). The latest references (apart from the excerpt in I Chron. i. 1) are Gen. iv. 25 (Sethite line of J) and Gen. v. 1, 3 (Sethite line of P). (2) Outside of the genealogies there is no clear instance of the use of the word as a proper name. The definite article, omitted in the Mas oretic text, should be restored in Gen. iii. 17, 21 (J) in harmony with the usage of the whole context, which reads " the man " instead of " Adam."
Eve (Gen. iii. 20; iv. 1) is the first proper name of our Bible. (3) Whatever may have been the origin of the proper name " Adam," its use here seems to be derived from and based upon the original generic sense. Even in the genealogies the two significations are interchanges. Thus while Gen. v. 1 substitutes "Adam" for °°the man" of i. 27, chap. v. 2 continues: " Male and female created he them . . . and called their name Adam." It is a fair inference that the genealogies are in part at least responsible for the individual and personal usage of the name. When it is considered that all Semitic history began with genealogies, of which the standing designation in the early summaries is " generations " (Heb. toledhoth), the general motive of such a transference of ideas is obvious. The process was easy and natural because in the ancient type of society a community is thought of as a unit, is a proper name without the article, and is designated by a single not a plural form. The first community having been " man " (" the adam "), its head and representative was naturally spoken of as " Man " (" Adam ") when there was need of referring to him. On the etymological side a partial illustration is afforded by the French on (Lat. homo) and the German man, which express individualization anonymously.The secondary character of the notion of an individual Adam is also made probable by the fact that the genealogical system of P is artificial and of foreign origin or at least of foreign s. Foreign suggestion. The whole scheme of the
Influence ten generations of Gen. v. is modeled in P. upon and in part borrowed from the Babylonian tradition of the first ten kings of Babylon. Of these lists of ten there are five names in either list which show striking correspondences with five in the other, ending with the tenth, which in either case is the name of the hero of the flood story. These Babylonian kings also were demigods, having lives of immense duration, two of them, moreover (the seventh and the tenth), having, like Enoch and Noah, special communications with divinity.In brief, as regards P, the matter stands as follows:-His first theme was the process and plan of creation according to an ascending scale of being. At the head of creation
g. The Aim were put the first human beings, and Plan "man" or mankind (Gen. i. 26). of P. The second leading thought in P's " generations of the heavens and the earth " was the continuance of the race or the peopling of the earth. Expression was given to it by the statement that " the man " was created " male and female " (i. 27). The third stage in the narrative is reached when the descent of Abraham from the first man is established, in order to provide a necessary and appropriate pedigree for the house of Israel. At the head of this line was placed the individual " Man " or " Adam."
Turning now to the story of Paradise and the Fall, which, as has been seen, speaks of the first man only as " the man " and not as " Adam," the main motive of Gen. ii. iv. is to account for certain characteristics and habits of mankind,
above all to set forth the origin, nature, and consequences of sin as disobedience to and alienation froth Yahweh. Man is presented4. The first as a single individual; next as
Narrative being mated with a woman, with and of J. for whom he has a divinely constituted affinity; then as the head of the race upon which he brings the curse due to his own disobedience. At first sight this might seem to imply a preconception of the individuality and personality of the first man, who may as well as not have borne the name " Adam," which J himself gives him in the fragmentary genealogy of Gen. iv. 25-26. But the inference is not justified. The pictures drawn by J and the conceptions they embody are not spontaneous effusions. They are the result of careful selection and of long and profound reflection, and when the problems which J sets out to solve and the incidents which convey and embody the solution be considered, it must be concluded that the answers to the questions could have been arrived at only through the study of man, not in individuals but as a social being. In other words, this "prophetic" interpreter worked his way backward through history or tradition along certain well-known lines of general human experience, and at the heart of the story appears not a single but a composite figure, not an individual but a type, while the story itself is not history or biography but in part mythical and in part allegorical. Thus the unhistorical character of Adam is even more demonstrable from the narrative of J than from that of P.Some of the primitive mythical material in Genesis has analogies in other literatures. Not to mention the more remote Avesta, attention must again be called to some of the Babylonian parallels. It is now indisputable that Eden is a Babylonian name; that the whole scenery of the region is Babylonian; that the tree of life, the cherubim, and the serpent, the enemy of the gods and men, are all Babylonian. There is also the Babylonian story of how the first man came to forfeit immor tality. Adapa, the human son of the good god Ea, had offended Anu, the god of heaven (see BABYLONIA, VIL, 3, 1 3), and was summoned to heaven to answer for his offense. 5. Paral- Before his journey thither he was le19 in warned by his divine father to refuse Other the " food of death " and " water Liters- of death" which Anu would offer to tures. him. At the trial, Anu, who had been moved by the intercession of two lesser gods, offered him instead "food of life" and " water of life." These he refused, and thus missed the immortality intended for him; for Anu when placated had wished to place him among the gods. Some such story as this by a process of reduction along monotheistic lines may have 00n tributed its part to the framework of the narrative of the rejection of Adam. It is indeed possible that Adam and Adapa are ultimately the same name.
An important element in the whole case is the general character of the literary material of which the story of Adam forms a portion. Apart from
the conceptions proper to the religion of Israel, which give them their distinctive moral value, the events and incidents related 6. The belong generically to the mythical Literary stories of the beginnings of the earth
Material and man, which have been related Mythical among many ancient and modern in Char- peoples, and specifically to the cycleacter. of myths and legends which reached their fullest literary development in Babylonia, and which undoubtedly were orig inally the outgrowth of a polytheistic theory of the origin of the universe. Much weight must also be attached to the fact that the story of Adam is practically isolated in the Old Testament, above all to the consideration that prophecy and psalmody, which build so much upon actual history, ignore it altogether.
The New Testament references show that Jesus and Paul used the earliest stories of Genesis for didactic purposes. The remark is 7. New often made in explanation that their Testament age was not a critical one and that Refer- the sacred authors did not in theirences. own minds question the current belief in the accuracy of the oldest docu ments. This is probably true, at any rate of Paul (cf. especially I Cor. xi. 8-9; I Tim. ii. 13-14). His view of the relation between the first and second Adam (I Cor. xv. 22, 45; Rom. v. 12 sqq.) is the development of an idea of rabbinical theology, and has a curious primitive analogy in the relation between Merodach, the divine son of the good god Ea, and Adapa, the human son of Ea (cf. Luke iii. 38). Jesus himself does not make any direct ref erence to Adam in his recorded sayings. J. F. MCCURDY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: I.§§1,2: Joe. Butler,SermonsonHumanNature, in vol. ii. of his Works, Oxford, 1844; S. Baird, The First Adam and the Second, Philadelphia, 1860; J. Mauer, Christliche Lehre con der Sands, Breslau, 1867, Eng. transl., Doctrine of Ssn, Edinburgh, 1868; Chas. Hodge, Systematic Theology, ii., ch. v., vii., viii., New York, 1872; R. W. Landis,OriginalSinandImputation,Richmond,1884; W. G. T. Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, ii. 1-257, iii. 249-377, New York, 1888 (vol. iii. gives catena of citations from early Christian times to the middle of the eighteenth century); H. B. Smith, System of Christian Theology, pp. 273-301, ib. 1890; W. N. Clarke, Outline of Christian Theology, pp. 182-198, 227-259, ib. 1898; R. V. Foster, Systematic Theology, pp. 348-355, 363-381, Nashville, 1898; A. H. Strong, Systematic Theology, pp. 234-260, 261-272, New York, 1902.
I. § 3: H. B. Smith, System o/ Christian Theology, New York, 1886; G. P. Fisher, Discussions in History and Theology, pp. 355-409, ib. 1880; cf. Calvin, Institutes, book ii., ch. I., §§ 6-8.
I. § 4: H. Drummond, The Ascent of Man, New York, 1894; J. Le Conte, Evolution and its Relation to Religious Thought, ib. 1894; J. Fiske. The Destiny of Man Viewed in the Light of his Origin, Boston, 1895; idem, Through Nature to God, ib. 1899; J. M. Tyler, The Whence and the Whither of Man, ib. 1896; C. R. Darwin, The Descent of Man, pp 174-180, New York, 1896; J. Deniker, The Races of Man, London, 1900.
II. §§ 1-7: M. Jastrow. Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, pp. 511, 544 eqq., Boston, 1898; idem, in DB, supplement vol., pp. 573-574; H. Gunkel, Schopfung and Chaos, pp. 420 sqq., GSttingen, 1895; idem, Genesis, pp. 5 eqq., 33, 98 eqq., ib. 1902; Schrader, KAY, pp. 397, 520 eqq.
ADAM, BOOKS OF. See PSEUDEPIGRAPHA, OLD TESTAMENT, lI,, 39.
ADAM OF BREMEN: Author of the Gesta Hammenburgenaia ecclmite ponti ficum, a history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen extending down to the death of Adalbert (1072). The work itself tells of its author only that his name began with " A," that he came to Bremen in 1068 and ultimately became a canon there, and that he wrote the book between the death of Adalbert and that of King Svend Estridsen of Denmark (1072-76). But there is no doubt that this is the work referred to by Helmold and assigned to a Magister Adam; in which case the author must be the Adam magister acholarum who wrote and was one of the signatories to an extant document of Jan. 11, 1069, and also the same whose death on Oct. 12, year not given, is recorded in a Bremen register.It may be conjectured from scanty indications that Adam was born in upper Saxony and educated at Magdeburg. His education was in any case a thorough one for his time. His book is one of the best historical works of the Middle Ages. Not only is it the principal source for the early history of the archbishopric and its northern missions, but it gives many valuable data both for Germany and other countries. The author was unusually well pro vided with documents and with the qualities nec essary for their use. His general credibility and love of truth have never been seriously challenged; and his impartiality is shown by the way in which he records the weaknesses of Adalbert, with whom he was in close relations and whom he admired. The best edition of Adam's book is by J. M. Lappen berg, in MGH, Script., vii. (1846) 267-389 (issued separately, Hanover, 1846; 2d ed., with full intro duction and notes, 1876); the work is also in MPL, cxlvi. 451-620. There is a German translation by J. C. M. Laurent (2d ed., revised by W. Wattenbach, Leipsic, 1888). (CARL BERTHEAU.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. H. a Seelen, De Adamo Bremenli, in his Miscellanea, ii. 415-493, Liibeek, 1736; L. Giesebrecht, Historische and Uterarische Abhandlung der K6nigsberger deutschen Gesellschaft, ad. F. W. Schubert, iii. 141, KSnigsberg, 1834; W. Giesebreeht, Geschichte der deutechen Kaiserseit, i. 752, Brunswick, 1874; G. Dehio, Geschichte des Ersbistums Hamburg-Bremen, i. 176-177, Berlin, 1877; W. Wattenbach, DGQ, iii. (1894) 7882; Hauck, KD, iii.
ADAM, MELCHIOR, mel'kf-8r: Protestant biographer; b. at Grottkau (35 m. s.e. of Breslau), Silesia; d. at Heidelberg, where he was rector of the city school, Mar. 23, 1622. He is remembered for his series of 136 biographies, mostly of German Protestant scholars, especially theologians (5 vols., Heidelberg and Frankfort, 1615-20; 2d ed., under the title Dignorum laude virorum immortalitas, 1653; 3d ed., 1706).
ADAM OF SAINT VICTOR: One of the most important of the liturgical poets of the Middle Ages; his nationality is described by the Latin word Brito (" Breton "7), and he was canon of St. Victor of Paris in the second half of the twelfth century. From his sequence upon Thomas Becket of Canterbury it is inferred that he survived the latter's canonization (1174). His poems do not include all of his writings, but are the most important. From the ninth century it was customary to set words (called proea and sequentia) to the melodies
(jubili, sequentia) with which the Hallelujah of the gradual in the mass closed (see SEQUENCE). In the twelfth century a more artificial style of composition, according to strict rules, took the place of the freer rhythms of the earlier time, and for this period of sequence composition Adam has an importance comparable to that of Notker (q.v.) for the former period. He shows a real talent in his mastery of form; and his best pieces contain true poetry, although as concerns power to excite the emotions and the higher flights of the poetic fancy, his compositions are not equal to a Solve caput, Stabat mater, or Lauda Sion. S. M. DEwrsea.
BiBLIOanAPH7: L. Gautier, tEuvres pohiquea d'Adam de St. Victor, 2 vols., Paris, 1858 (complete and critical ed., with life in vol. i.; 3d ed., 1894). reprinted in MPL, cxcvi. 1421-1534 (Eng. tranal. by D. 8. Wranghem, The Liturgical Poetry o/ Adam o/ St. Victor, 3 vole., London, 1881); K. Bartsch, Die latsinischen Sequeneen den Mttlelalters, pp. 170 eqq.. Rostock, 1868; Hiatoire littEraire do to Francs, xv. 39-45; E. Misset, Po&ie rythmique du molten dge; essai . . our las muvres poitiques d'Adam de St. Victor, Paris, 1882.ADAM THE SCOTCHMAft (Adamus Scotua, called also Adamus Anglicus): A mystic-ascetic author of the twelfth century. According to his biographer, the Premonstrant Godefroi Ghiselbert of the seventeenth century, he was of north-English origin, belonged to the Premonstrant order, was abbot at Whithorn (Casa Candida) in Galloway toward 1180, and about the same time also lived temporarily at Pr6montrk, the French parent monastery of tjle order. He seems to have died soon after. It is highly improbable that he was living in the thirteenth century, as Ghiselbert thinks, who identifies him with the English bishop of the Order of St. Norbert mentioned by Csesarius of Heisterbach (Miraculorum, iii. 22). The first incomplete edition of Adam's works was published by Xgidius Gourmont (Paris, 1518). It contains his three principal writings of mystic-monastic content: (1) Liber de ordine, habitu, et professions Presmonstratensium, fourteen sermons; (2) De tripar tito tabernaculo; (3) De triplici genere contempla tionis. The edition of Petrus Bellerus (Antwerp, 1659) contains also Ghiselbert's life and a collection of forty-seven sermons on the festivals of the church year, which seem to have belonged to a larger collection of 100 sermons comprising the whole church year. In 1721 Bernhard Pez (Thesaurus anecdotorum, i. 2, 335 aqq.) published So4loquia de instruetione disoipuli, sive de instructions anima, which has been ascribed to Adam of St. Victor, but belongs probably to Adam the Scotchman. All of these works with Ghiselbert's life are in MPL, cxeviii. 9-872. O. ZOCSLERt.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Godefroi Ghiselbert, Vita Adami, in MPL, excviii.; C. Oudin, De scriploribus ecclesie:, ii. 1544 sqq., Frankfort, 1722 ; A. Mirsrue, Chronicon ordinis Prorrwnstratensis, in M. Kuen, Coiledio seriptorum variorum relipiosorum ordinum, vi. 36, 38, Ulm, 1768; G. Maokensie, The Lives and Characters of the most Eminent Writers of as Seota Nation, i. 141-145, Edinburgh, 1708.
ADAMITES (ADAMIANI): 1. Epiphanius (Hor., Iii.) gives an account of a sect of " Adamiani," that held their religious assemblies in subterranean chambers, both men and women appearing in a state of nature to imitate Adam and Eve, and calling their meetings paradise. Since Epiphaniusknew of them only from hearsay, and is himself doubtful whether to make of them a special class of heretics, their existence must be regarded as questionable. There are further unverifiable no tices in John of Damascus (Opera, i. 88; following the Anakephalaiosis, attributed to Epiphanius), in Augustine (Hwr., lxxxi.), and in Htereticarum fabularum epitome, i. 6). G. KROGER.
2. Charges of community of women, ritual child-murder, and nocturnal orgies were brought by the heathen world against the early Christians, and by the latter against various sects of their own number (Montanists, Manicheans, Priscillianists, etc.). Similar accusations were made against almost all medieval sects, notably the Cathari, the Waldensians, the Italian Fraticelli, the heretical flagellants of Thuringia in 1454, and the Brethren of the Free Spirit. All of these allegations are to be regarded with much suspicion. The doctrine of a sinless state, taught by the Brethren of the Free Spirit, and, in other cases, extravagant acts of overwrought mystics may have furnished a basis, which, without doubt, was often elaborated from the accounts of " Adamites " mentioned above.
3. The name " Adamites " has become the permanent designation of a sect of Bohemian Taborites, who, in Mar., 1421, established themselves on an island in the Luschnitz, near Neuhaus, and are said to have indulged in predatory forays upon the neighborhood, and to have committed wild excesses in nocturnal dances. They were suppressed by Ziska and Ulrich von Neuhaus in Oct., 1421. It is probable that they were merely a faction of the Taborites who carried to an extreme their belief in the necessity of a complete separation from the Church and resorted to violence to spread their principles. The charges against their moral character are in the highest degree suspicious. Even in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries certain religious sectaries were persecuted in Bohemia as " Adamites."
4. An Anabaptist sect in the Netherlands about 1580 received the name " Adamites " because they required candidates for admission to appear unclothed before the congregation and thus show that physical desire had no power over them. Members of an Amsterdam congregation who in 1535 ran through the streets naked and crying wo to the godless were probably insane. The followers of Adam Pastor (q.v.) were called " Adamites " from their leader. Silly stories of orgies by socalled devil-worshipers (the " black mass ") are sometimes heard at the present time.(HERMAN HAUPT. BIBLIOGRAPHY: (1) 1. de Beaueobre, Dissertation sur tes Adamike de Boheme, in J. Lenfant, Histowe de la guerre du Hussius, ii. 355-358, Amsterdam. 1731; C. W. F. Welch, Entwurf siner voltatandigen Historic der Ketaweien, i. 327-335, Leipsic. 1762. (2) J. Nider, Formicarius, 111. vi., Cologne, 1470; C. Schmidt, Hietotre st doctrine de la seete des Cathares, ii. 150 aqq., Paris, 1849; W. Preger, Gesehichte der deutsehen Mystik, i. 207 eqq., 461 aqq., Leip eic. 1874; A. Jundt, Histoire du pandEieme populawe, pp. 48-49. 56, 111 eqq., Paris, 1875; H. Haupt, in ZKO. vi. (1885) 552 sqq.; H. C. Lea, History of the Inquiauion, i. 100 sqq., New York, 1888; K. Miller, Kwdenpesehichte, f. 610, Freiburg, 1892. (3) J. Dobroweky, Oeschxchte der b6hmukhen PLkarden and Adamsten. in Abhandlungen der
b6hmisehen Gesellachaft der Wiasansehaften von 1788, pp. 300-343; K. H6fler, Gesckiehtachresber der huaaitiachen Bmspunp in Behmen, i. 452, 499 aqq. (Fontes remm Aushiacarum, 1. ii., Vienna, 1856), ii. 336, 345 (ib. I. vi., 1865); F. Palacky, Geschiehte von BBhmen, iii. 2, 227 sqq., 238 sqq., Prague, 1851, iv. 1 (1857), 462; A. Gindely, Geschichta der b6hmischen Britder, i. 18, 36, 5667, 97-98, Prague, 1856; Besusobre, ut sup.; J. Goll, Quellen and Untersuchunpen sur Geschichte der bbhmischen Bradar, i.119, Prague, 1878; ii. (1882) 10 aqq.; H. Haupt, Waldenserthum and Inquisition im afadostliehen Deutachland, pp. 23, 109, note 1, Freiburg, 1890. (4) Prateolus, Ds vitis haretieoram, 1, Cologne, 1569; C. Sehliisselburg, Catalogue hweticoram, xu. 29, Frankfort, 1599; F. Nippold in ZHT, xxxiii. (1863) 102; C. A. Cornelius, in AbAandlunpen of the Royal Bavarian Academy, Historischs doses, xi. 2, 67 sqq., Munich, 1872; Natalis Alexander, Hist. aeel., xvii. 183, Paris, 1699; J. Bois, Le Satanisms et to mapis, ib. 1895.
ADAMNAN ("Little Adam"): Ninth abbot of Iona (679-704); b. probably at Drumhome in the southwest part of County Donegal, Ireland (50 m. s.w. of Londonderry), c. 625; d. on the island of Iona Sept. 23, 704. He was a relative of Columba and the greatest of the abbots of Iona after its illustrious founder, famed alike for learning (he had some knowledge of even Greek and Hebrew), piety, and practical wisdom. He was a friend (and perhaps the teacher) of Aldfrid, king of Northumbria (685-705), visited his court in 686 and again in 688, and was converted there to the Roman tonsure and Easter computation by Ceolfrid of Jarrow. He was unable, however, to win over his monks of Iona, but had more success in Ireland, where he spent considerable tine, attended several synods, and warmly advocated the Roman usages. Many churches and wells are dedicated to him in Ireland and Scotland, and his name appears corrupted into various forms, as " Ownan," " Eunan " (the patron of Raphoe), " Dewnan," " Thewnan," and the like.The extant writings of Adamman are: (1) Arculfi relatio de tocis sanctis, written down from informa tion furnished personally by Arculf, a Gallic bishop who was driven -to England by stress of weather when returning from a visit to Palestine, Syria, Alexandria, and Constantinople. Adamnan added notes from other sources known to him, and pre sented the book to King Aldfrid. Bede made it the basis of his De locis sanctis and gives extracts from it in the Hist. ecol., v. 16, lrT. (2) Vita S. Columbo, written between 692 and 697, not so much a life as a presentation without order of the saint's prophecies, miracles, and visions, but important for the information it gives of the customs, the land, the Irish and Scotch tongues, and the history of the time. (3) The "Vision of Adamnan," in old Irish, describing Adamnan's journey through heaven and hell, is probably later than his time, but may present his read spiritual experiences and his teaching. Other works are ascribed to him without good reason. H. HAHN.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For works consult MPL, lxxxviii.; Arculfi relatio, in Itinera Hierosolymitana bdfis sacris anteriora, i., pp. xxx: xxxiii., 139-210, 238-240, 392418 (Publications of the Soei4m de rorisnt latin, S&ie $6opraphique, i., Geneva, 1879), and in Itinera Hierosolymitana smculi iiii.ariii., ed. P. Geyer, pp. 219-297 (CSEL, xxxix., 1898); Eng. trawl. by J. 11. Mamhereon (Palestine Pilgrim)' Text Society, 1889); Vita S. Columba, ed. W. Reeves, Dublin, 1857 (new ed., with Eng. trawl. and an unfortunate rearrangement of the notes, by W. F. Skene,
Edinburgh, 1874); also by J. T. Fowler, Oxford, 1894 (Eng. trawl., 1895); the text of the Vision, with Eng. trawl., has been published by Whitley Stokes, Fie Adamnain, Simla, 1870; E. Windiseh, Irische Tezte, pp. 165196, Leipsic. 1880 (contains the text). For Adamnan's life: Lanigan, Eccl. Hist., passim; Reeves= in his ed. of the Vita Columba, pp. xl-.lxviii., Dublin, 1857; A. P. Forbes, Kalendars of Scottish Saints, Edinburgh, 1872; DCB, i. 41-43; W. F. Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii. 170-175, Edinburgh, 1877; DNB, i. 92-93; J. Healy, Insula Sanctorum, pp. 334-347, Dublin, 1890; P. Geyer, Adamnan, Augsburg, 1895; T. Olden, Church of Ireland, pp. 59, 77, 104, 119, London, 1895; Cain Adamnan, an old Irish Treatise on the Law of Adamnain, ed. Kuno Meyer, in An. ecdota Ozoniensa, Oxford, 1905.
ADAMS, GEORGE MOULTON: Congregationalist; b. at Castine, Me., July 7, 1824; d. at Auburndale, Mass., Jan. 11, 1906. He was educated at Bowdoin College (B.A., 1844), Bangor Theological Seminary (1844-46), the universities of Leipsic, Halle, and Berlin (1847-19), and Andover Theological Seminary (1849-50). He held successive pastorates at Conway, Mass. (1851-63); Portsmouth, N. H. (1863-71); and Holliston, Mass. (1873-89), and also acted as supply at Mentham, Mass. (1890-91), and Waban, Mass. (1905), although after 1889 he was engaged chiefly in literary work. In his theological position he was a Trinitarian Congregationalist. He was historian of the New England Historic-Genealogical Society and a member of its Council, a member of the Board of Overseers of Bowdoin College, the treasurer of the Trustees of Donations for Education in Liberia and of the Mount Coffee Association for the promotion of education in Liberia, and in 1903 was made Knight Commander of the Liberian Humane Order of African Redemption. In addition to a number of briefer studies and occasional addresses, he revised the Biblical Museum of James Comper Gray (8 vols., New York and London, 1871-81) under the title of The Biblical Encyclopedia (5 vols., Cleveland, O., 1903).
ADAMS, JAMES ALONZO: Congregationalist; b. at Ashland, O., May 21, 1842. He was educated at Knox College (A.B., 1867) and Union Theological Seminary (1870), after having served in the Civil war as a member of Company D, 69th Illinois Volunteers. He was pastor of the Congregational Church at Marshfield, Mo., in 1870-71; of the Plymouth Congregational Church, St. Louis, in 1880-86; of the Millard Avenue Congregational Church, Chicago, in 1887-88; and of the Warren Avenue Congregational Church in the same city in 1889-95. In 1891 he was a delegate from the Congregational churches of Illinois to the International Congregational Council in London, and has also been their representative at a number of national councils. He was professor in Straight University, New Orleans, 1873-77, and president in 1875-77, and then became editor of the Dallas Daily Commercial, Dallas, Tex. From 1887 to 1903 he was editorial writer on the Chicago Ad vance, beconung its editor-in-chief in the latter year. His principal works are Colonel Hungerford's Daughter (Chicago, 1896) and Life of Queen Vic toria (1901).
ADAMS, JOHN COLEMAN: Universalist; b. at Maiden, Mass., Oct. 25, 1849. He was educated
Wingrave, Bucks; from 1618 to 1623 preached in London; he was chaplain to Sir Henry Montagu, lord chief justice of England, in 1653 was a " necessitous and decrepit " old -man, and died probably before the Restoration. He published many occasional sermons (collected into a folio volume, London, 1630),besides a commentary on the Second Epistle of Peter (1633; ed. J. Sherman, 1839). His works, ed. Thomas Smith, with life by Joseph Angus, were published in Nichol's Series o f Standard Divines (3 voLs., Edinburgh, 1862-63).
ADAMS, WILLIAM: American Presbyterian; b. at Colchester, Conn., Jan. 25, 1807; d. at Orange Mountain, N. J., Aug. 31, 1880. He was graduated at Yale (1827) and at Andover Theological Seminary (1830); was pastor at Brighton, Mass. (183134); of the Broome Street (Central) Presbyterian Church, New York (1834-53); and of the Madison Square Presbyterian Church, formed from the Broome Street Church (1853-73). From 1873 till his death he was president and professor of sacred rhetoric and pastoral theology in Union Theological Seminary. He was one of the leading clergymen in New York in his time, and his influence was not bounded by his own denomination or land. Besides many individual sermons he published an edition of Isaac Taylor's Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, with a biographical introduction (New York, 1862); The Three Gardens (1856); In the World and not of the World (1867); Conversations of Jesus Christ with Representative Men (1868); Thanksgiving (1869).
ADAMS, WILLIAM FORBES: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Easton (Md.); b. at Enniskillen (70 m. s. w. of Belfast), County Fermanagh, Ireland, Jan. 2, 1833. He came to America at the age of eight, was educated at the University of the South, and was admitted to the Mississippi bar in 1854, but subsequently studied theology, and was ordained deacon in 1859, and priest in the following year. He was rector of St. Paul's Church, Woodville, Mass., from 1860 to 1866, when he was called to the rectorate of St. Peter's, New Orleans, but went in the following year to St. Paul's in the same city, where he remained until 1875. In that year he was consecrated first missionary bishop of New Mexico and Arizona, but was compelled by illness to resign. He then accepted the rectorate of Holy Trinity Church, Vicksburg, Miss., where he remained from 1876 to 1887, when he was consecrated bishop of Easton.
ADAMSON, PATRICK: Scotch prelate; b. in Perth Mar. 15, 1537 (according to another account, 1543); d. at St. Andrews Feb. 19, 1592. He was educated at the University of St. Andrews; preached for two or three years in Scotland; was in France as private tutor at tIta time of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew; returned to Scotland and to the ministry ; and was made archbishop of St. Andrews in 1576. Thenceforth his life was a continual struggle with the Presbyterian party, and he died in poverty. His enemies have assailed his character, but all agree that he was a scholar and an able preacher and writer. He composed a Latin cate-
chism for the young King James, translated the Book of Job into Latin hexameters, and wrote a tragedy on the subject of Herod. His collected works were published by his son-in-law, Thomas Wilson (London, 1619), who also added a life to an edition of his treatise De pastoris munere, published separately the same year.
ADAMSON, WILLIAM: Evangelical Union; b. at New Galloway (20 m. w. of Dumfries), Kirkcudbrightshire, Aug. 29, 1830. He was educated at Glasgow and St. Andrews Universities and at Evangelical Union Theological Hall. He was pastor in Perth eleven years and in Edinburgh twentyseven years, and also conducted a public theological class in the latter city for eighteen years. He was for several years a member of the Edinburgh School Board, and took an active interest in politics and movements for reform. He is now pastor of the Carver Memorial Church, Windermere, Westmorelandshire. His writings include The Righteousness of God (London, 1870); The Nature of the Atonement (1880); Religious Anecdotes o f Scotland (1885); Knowledge and Faith (1886); Robert Milligan
A Story (Glasgow, 1891); Missionary Anecdotes (1896); Argument of Adaptation (London, 1897); Life of the Rev. James Morison (1898); Life of the Rev. Fergus Ferguson (1900); and Life of the Rev, Joseph Porker (1902). He is also the editor of The Christian News.
ADDICKS, GEORGE B.: Methodist Episcopalian; b. at Hampton, Ill., Sept. 9, 1854. He was educated at the Central Wesleyan College, Warrenton, Mo., and at the Garrett Bible Institute, Evanston, Ill. (1876-77). He taught in the preparatory department of the Central Wesleyan College in 1875-76, and in 1877-78 preached at Gene_ seo, Ill., being ordained to the Methodist Episcopal ministry in the latter year. From 1878 to 1885 he taught the German language and literature in Iowa Wesleyan University and German College, Mount Pleasant, Ia., and from 1885 to 1890 held a pastorate at Pekin, Ill. In 1890 he returned to the Central Wesleyan College as professor of practical theology and philosophy, and since 1895 has been president and professor of philosophy of the same institution. In 1900 he was a delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was a member of the University Senate of the same denomination from 1896 to 1904.
ADDIS, WILLIAM EDWARD: Church of England; b. at Edinburgh May 9, 1844. He was educated at Glasgow University and Balliol College, Oxford (B.A., 1866). Originally a member of the Church of England, he became a convert to the Roman Catholic Church in 1866, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1872 at the London Oratory, being parish priest of Sydenham from 1878 to 1888. In the latter year he renounced this faith and became minister of the Australian Church, Melbourne, Australia, an undenominational institution, where he remained until 1892, when he took a similar position at the High Pavement Chapel, Nottingham (1893-98). In 1899 he was appointed Old Testament lecturer at Manchester College, Oxford, and shortly afterward returned to the Church of England.
His college accordingly attempted to expel him and to declare itself officially non-conformist, but the movement was proved illegal, and he still retains his position, although the hostile attitude of the trustees of Manchester College prevents him from resuming his work as a priest of the Church of England. He has written A Catholic Dictionary (London, 1883; in collaboration with Thomas Arnold); Christianity and the Roman Empire (1893); Documents of the Hexaxeuch (2 vols., 1893-98); and Hebrew Religion to the Establishment o f Judaism Under Ezra (1906).
ADDISON, DANIEL DULANY: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Wheeling, W. Va., Mar. 11, 1863. He received his education at Union College and the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. (1886). He was curate of Christ Church, Springfield, Mass., in 1886-89 and rector of St. Peter's Church, Beverly, Mass., in 1889-95, while since 1895 he has been rector of All Saints' Church, Brookline, Mass. He is examining chaplain to the bishop of Massachusetts, director of the Church Temperance Society, member of the executive committee of the archdeaconry of Boston, president of the New England Home for Deaf-Mutes and the Brookline Education Society, vice-president of the Trustees of Donations for Education in Liberia, and a trustee of the College of Monrovia, Liberia, and of the Brookline public library. In 1904 he was made Knight Commander of the Liberian Humane Order of African Redemption. He has written: Lucy Larcom, Life, Letters and Diary (Boston, 1894); Phillips Brooks (1894); Life and Times of Edward Bass, First Bishop of Massachusetts (1897); All Saints' Church, Brookline (Cambridge, 1896); The Clergy in American Life and Letters (New York, 1900); and The Episcopalians (1904).ADELBERT. See ADALBERT.
ADELMANN: Bishop of Brescia in the eleventh century. The time and place of his birth are unknown, and the date of his death, as well as that of his consecration as bishop, is uncertain. G ams (Series episcoporum, Regensburg, 1872, p. 779) assigns the latter two events to 1053 and 1048, respectively. Adelmann himself states that he was not a German; he has been commonly taken for a Frenchman, but may have been a Lombard. The first certain fact of his life is that, together with 8erengar of Tours, he studied under Fulbert at Chartres. Afterward he studied, and later taught (probably from 1042), in the school of Lidge, then at Speyer. The works which have made him known are: (1) a collection of Rhythmi alphabetici de viris illustribus sui temporis, devoted to the praise of Fulbert and his school, and (2) a letter to Berengar on his eucharistic teaching; the letter was written before Berengar's first condemnation, but after his departure from the traditional doctrine was notorious (both works in MPL, cxliii. 1289-98). The letter is not so much an independent investigation as a solemn warning to his friend against the danger of falling into heresy. Adehnann treats the subject from the purely traditional standpoint, and considers it settled by the words of institution.
Bibliography: Histoire littiraire de la France, vii. 542; Hauck,KD, vol. iii., p. 963.
ADELOPHAGI, ad"el-ef'a-jai or -gf (" Not Eating in Public "): Certain people, mentioned in Pradestinatus (i. 71), as thinking it unseemly for a Christian to eat while another looked on. They are also referred to by Augustine (Har., lxxi.), who copies Philastrius (Hwr., lxxvi.) and is uncertain whether their scruple included members of their own sect or applied only to others. Further statements in Pradestinatus are to be accepted with extreme caution. G. KRtGER.
ADENEY, WALTER FREDERIC: Congregationalist; b. at Ealing (9 m. w. Of London), Middlesex, Eng., Mar. 14, 1849 He received his education at New College and University College, London. He was minister of the Congregational Church at Acton, London, from 1872 to 1889,and from 1887 to the same year was lecturer in Biblical and systematic theology at New College, London. In 1889 he was appointed professor of New Testament exegesis and church history in the same institution, holding this position until 1903,as well as a lectureship on church history in Hackney College, London, after 1898.In 1903 he was chosen principal of Lancastershire College, in the University of Manchester, and two years later was appointed lecturer on the history of doctrine in the same university. As a theologian, he accepts the results of Biblical criticism which he feels to be warranted, and welcomes scientific and philosophic investigation and criticism of religion, although he seeks to adhere firmly to basal Christian truths and to harmonize them with what he holds to be other ascertained verities. His works include, in addition to numerous articles in magazines and Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, as well as in nine volumes of the Pulpit Commentary (1881-90), The Hebrew Utopia (London,1877); From Christ to Constantine (1886); From Constantine to Charles the Great (1888);two volumes in theExpositor's Bible (1893-94; the first on Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther; and the second on Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon);The Theology of the New Testament (1894); How to Read the Bible (1896); Women of the New Testament (1899);the section on the New Testament in the Biblical Introduction written by him in collaboration with W. H. Bennett(1899); and A Century's Progress (1901).He is likewise editor of The Century Bible, to which he himself has contributed the volumes on Luke (London, 1901)and the Epistles to the Thessalonians. (1902).
ADEODATUS, ad"i"-o-da'tus: Bishop of Rome from Apr. 11, 672,to his death, June 16, 676. His pontificate was unimportant. The Liber pontificalis(ed. Duchesne, i.346) ascribes to him the restoration of the basilica of St. Peter at Campo di Merlo, near La Magliana (7 1/2 m. from Rome), and the enlargement of the monastery of St. Erasmus in Rome, where he had been a monk. The only documents of his extant (MPL, lxxxvii. 1139-46) are concessions of privileges to the churches of St. Peter at Canterbury and St. Martin at Tours. For his participation in the Monotbelite controversy, see MONOTHELITES.He is sometimes known as Adeodatus B., because the form " Adeodatus " is used also for the name of a former pope Deusdedit (615-618).
ADIAPHORA, ad"i-af'o-ra, AND THE ADIAPHORISTIC CONTROVERSIES.
Classical Greek Usage (§ 1).
Christ's Usage (§ 2)
Paul's Usage ( § 3)
Patristic and Medieval Usage (§ 4).
Luther's Usage (§ 5).
First Adiaphoristic Controversy ( § 6).
Flacius's Restriction of Adiaphora (§ 7).
Second Controversy (§ 8).
Recent Discussion (§ 9).
1. Classical Greek Usage
In the history of Christian ethics the term "adiaphora " (pl. of Gk., adiaphoron, " indifferent ") signifies actions which God neither bids nor forbids, the performance or omission of which is accordingly left as a matter of indifference. The term was employed by the Cynics, and borrowed by the Stoics. To the latter that only was good or evil which was always so and which man could control. Such matters as health, riches, etc., and their opposites were classed as adiaphora, being regarded for this purpose, not as actions, but as things or conditions. Adiaphora were divided into absolute and relative; the former being such as had to do with meaningless distinctions, while the latter involved preference, as in the case of sickness versus health. The Stoics did not, however, from the adiaphoristic nature of external things deduce that of the actions connected therewith.
2. Christ's Usage
Jesus's ideal of righteousness as devotion of the entire person to God revealed as perfect moral character, signified, on the one side, freedom from every obligation to a statutory law, particularly precepts concerning worship. He regarded the observance of external rites as a matter of indifference so far as real personal purity was concerned, and, with his disciples observed the Jewish rites as a means to the fulfilment of his mission to Israel when they did not interfere with doing good (Mark iii. 4). Yet this ideal involved such a sharpening of moral obligation that in the presence of its unqualified earnestness and comprehensive scope there was no room for the question, so important to legalistic Judaism, how much one might do or leave undone without transgressing the Law. The slightest act, like the individual word, had the highest ethical significance to the extent that it was an expression of the " abundance of the heart " (Matt. xii. 25-37).
Paul emphasizes, on the one hand, the comprehensive character of Christian ethics and, on the other, the freedom which is the Christian's; and he concludes that the observance or disregard of dicta pertaining to external things is a matter of
indifference in its bearing on the kingdom of God (Rom. xiv. 17; I Cor. vi. 12, viii. 8; Gal. v. 6; Col. ii. 20). He recognizes, with the exception of the Lord's Supper, no forms for Chris-
tian worship, but merely counsels that " all things be done decently and in order " (I Cor. xiv. 40). From the
fact that the Christian belongs to God, the Lord of the world, Paul deduces the authority (Gk. exousia) of Christians over all things (I Cor. iii. 21-23), especially the right freely to make use of the free gifts of God (I Cor. x. 23, 26; Rom. xiv.14, 20). Ability to return thanks for them is made the subjective criterion of their purity (Rom. xiv. 6; I Cor. x. 30). Those things also are permissible which are left free by implication in the ordinances of the Church, or are expressly allowed. But action in the domain of the permissible is restricted for the individual by ethical principles according to which he must be bound (Rom. xiv. 2 aqq.; I Cor. vi. 12, viii. 9, x. 23). Concrete action in all such cases he regards as not at the pleasure of the individual, but as bidden or forbidden for the sake of God.
In place of this view of freedom, combining obligation with unconstraint, there soon arose one of a more legal cast. At the time of Tertullian there was in connection with concrete questions a conflict between the two principles (1) that what is not expressly permitted by Scripture is forbidden; and (2) that what is not expressly forbidden is permitted. The restriction of the idea of duty by that of the permissible, and the recognition of an adiaphoristic sphere were further confirmed by the distinction between prcecepta and consilia and by the doctrine of supererogatory merits. The question of adiaphora was argued by the achoolmen. Thomas Aquinas and his followers held that4. Patris- there were certain actions which, so tic and far as being intrinsically capable of Medieval subserving a good or an ill purpose, Usage. were matters of indifference; but they recognized no act proceeding from conscious consideration which was not either dis posed toward a fitting end or not so disposed, and hence good or bad. Duns Scotus and his adherents recognized actions indifferent in individuo, i.e., those not to be deemed wrong though without reference, actual or virtual, to God. The early Church at first appropriated the Cynic and Stoic opposition to culture, holding that it interfered with the con templation of God and divine things. But with large heathen accessions, this attitude was no longer maintained. The primitive Christian ideal was, to be sure, preserved; but its complete fulfilment was required of only those bound thereto by the nature of their calling.
Luther based his position on that of Paul. He appears, indeed, to determine the idea of adiaphora (the expression does not occur in his works) according to a legalizing criterion when he distinguishes between things or works which are clearly bidden or forbidden by God in the New Testament and those which are left free-to neglect which is no wrong; to observe, no piety. But he further says in the same connection that under the rule of faith the conscience is free, and Christians aresuperior to all things, particularly externals and precepts in connection therewith. In accordance with this view he considers that an g. Luther's external form of divine worship is Usage. nowhere enjoined (the Lord's Supper is a bene ficium, not an o f fieium); and he distinguishes between the necessary and the free in churchly forms by their effects. Prayer, the Lord's Supper, and preaching are necessary to edification; but the time, place, and mode have no part in edification, and are free. His standpoint, then, was not simply that there were certain things left free, but that the assertion of freedom (or adi aphorism) applied to the whole realm of externals.
I In individual cases, however, a limitation was imposed by ethical aims and rules. Christians were to take part in the external worship of God to fulfil the duty of public confession and that they might " communicate " (Heb. xiii. l6). Ceremonial forms served to perpetuate certain effective modes of observance; but they were not to be idolatrous, superstitious, or pompous. Luther, in opposition to Carlstadt, urged that in the forms of worship for the sake of avoiding offense to some, whatever was not positively objectionable should be suffered to remain. He was ready to concede the episcopal form of church government and other matters, if urged not as necessary to salvation, but as conducive to order and peace. He wished, also, to maintain Christian freedom against stubborn adherents of the Law.
The churchly adiaphora formed the subject of the first adiaphoristic controversy. The Wittenberg theologians believed that the6. First concessions on the basis of which
Adiapho- the Leipsic interim was concluded ristic Con- could be justified by the principlestroversy. enunciated and exemplified at the outset of the Reformation. They held that, despite formal modifications, they had surrendered only traditional points of church government and worship, and even then only such as were unopposed by Scripture, had bin so recognized in the primitive Church, and had seemed to themselves excellent arrangements, conducive to order and discipline. Further, they maintained that every idolatrous usage had been discountenanced, and that from what was retained idolatrous significance had been excluded. It may be mentioned, by way of example, that the Latin liturgy of the mesa was admitted, with lights, canonicals, etc., though with communion and some German hymns; also confirmation, Corpus Christi day, extreme unction, fasting, and the jurisdiction of bishops.
Before the interim had been authentically published there arose a controversy in which the attack was led by Flacius. In his De veris et falsis adiaPhoris (1549), he raised the question by not only maintaining that preaching, baptism, the Lord's Supper, and absolution had been commanded by God, but even by concluding from I Cor. xiv. 40 that the ceremonial usages connected therewith had been divinely ordained in genere. He also sought to limit the Lutheran indifference to detail by insisting on what he deemed seriousness and
dignity in the liturgy, as opposed to the canonicals, music, and spectacles of the Catholic Church. In addition he protested that what might be called the individual character of the Church q. Flacius's was to be conserved, and that existing Restriction means of edification should be altered of Adi- only in favor of better ones. Under aphora. the circumstances obtaining at the time, he said, even a matter in itself unessential ^,ould not be treated as permissible, and the concessions of the interim were an act of treachery: they were occasioned by the endeavors of the emperor to restore the Catholic Church, the promulgators being moved by fear, or at best by lack of faith; and in effect they were an admission of past errors, strengthening their opponents, while the rank and file, looking at externals only, would see in the restoration of discarded usages a reversion to the old conditions. The dispute continued of ter the peace of Augsburg; and the Formula Cancardice not only drew the distinction (art. X.) that in time of persecution, when confession was necessary, there should be no concession to the enemies of the Gospel, even in adiaphora, since truth and Christian freedom were at stake, but to some extent appropriated Flacius's restriction of the idea of adiaphora.
In the so-called second adiaphoristic controversy the Lutheran and Calvinistic systems came into conflict. Luther had maintained the right of temperate enjoyment of secular amusements. Calvin, on the other hand, stood for fundamentally different principles, in accordance with which he enforced his Genevan code of discipline. Voetius carried these principles still further. On the Lutheran side was Meisner, who is in this respect the classic opponent of the Calvinists. He puts secular amusements under the head of adiaphora as being actions neither right nor wrong per se but per aliud,-the person and the purpose especially to be considered,-and in concrete instances becoming always either right or wrong. The controversy began at the close of the seventeenth century, when secular amusements were attacked per se by several writers, such as Reiser and Winkler, the Pietistic theologians of Hamburg, Vockerodt, Lange, and Zierold. Lange, for example, contended that in the light of revealed law there
& Second are no indifferent acts. Those actions Contro- alone are right which are under the versy. influence of the Holy Spirit for the honor of God in the faith and name of Christ; and he holds that the divine will exercises a direct and immediate control. Hence actions not bidden of God are necessarily actions which profit not and are therefore collectively wrong. He enumerates nineteen separate reasons why Christians should take no past in secular amusements and would exclude from the Lord's Supper those who do. He regards the defense of adiaphora as a heresy which abrogates all evangelical doctrine. Spener's theory was equally severe, but his practise was wisely modified. He counseled that those who participated in secular amusements should be dissuaded therefrom not harshly, but by indirect exhortations to follow Christ; and he
would not refuse absolution to such, since many of them did not really appreciate the wrong of those things. Rothe, Warnsdorf, and Schelwig were the principal champions of the previously existing Lutheran teaching; but their defense was far less resolute than the attack.
The question of adiaphora has subsequently been a subject of discussion. The first to introduce a new point of view of any con-
9. Recent siderable value was Schleiermacher Discussion. (Kritik der bisherigen Sittenlehre, 2d ed.; Werke zur Philosophie, ii.), who contested the ethical right of adiaphora on the basis of the necessity in the moral life of unity and stability. Only in the realm of civil law, and in the moral judgment of others whose actions must frequently, for lack of evidence, remain unexplained, does he admit of adiaphora. Most later evangelical authorities, for example Martensen, Pfieiderer, Wuttke, and, most closely, Rothe, are in substantial agreement with this position, though introducing some variations and modifications.(J. GorrscmcK.)
Among British and American Christians no adiaphoristic controversy has found place; but the types of religious and ethical thought that underlay the opposing forces in the controversies above considered have been in conflict at all times and everywhere. English Puritanism and early Scottish Presbyterianism, as well as New England Puritanism, either rejected adiaphora wholly or reduced them to the smallest proportions. The English Tractarians in seeking to overcome the difficulties involved in uniting with the Church of Rome gave earnest attention to adiaphora. A sign of the times is the watchword of the Evangelical Alliance, " In essentials, unity; in nonessentials, liberty; in all things, charity." The Lambeth articles proposing the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds, the two sacraments, the open Bible, and the historic episcopate as the basis of union with non-conforming Churches treated as adiaphora the Athanasian Creed, uniformity of worship, and use of the Prayer Book. The Protestant 'Episcopal Church in America has settled the chief point in dispute between Churchman and Puritan by eliminating the State from necessary union with the Church. In the union of religious bodies both in Great Britain and America, for which there is a growing tendency, minor differences are ignored in favor of essential principles. In all Churches some dogmas once deemed essential to the integrity of truth are laid aside never to regain their former position (cf. the Westminster Confession with the " Brief Statement of Faith" published by authority of the Presbyterian Church in the United States). With reference to conduct prescribed by ecclesiastical bodies or recognized as belonging to personal responsibility-the " personal instance "-two diametrically opposite tendencies are evident. In the first case, the spirit of democracy and of enlightened public sentiment is rapidly withdrawing many actions once regarded as legitimately under church jurisdiction, as amusements and the like, from such supervision. In the second case, if life is to be ruled by moral
ADLER, HERMANN NATHAN: Chief rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Empire; b. at Hanover, Germany, May 30, 1839. He was educated at the University College School and University College, London (B.A., 1859), and also at the universities of Prague and Leipsic (Ph.D., Leipsic, 1861). He received the rabbinical diploma at Prague in 1862, and in the following year was appointed principal of Jews' College, London. In 1864 he became minister of the Bayswater Synagogue, London, but continued to be tutor in theology in Jews' College until 1879, when he was appointed delegate chief rabbi to relieve his father, Nathan Marcus Adler, whom age had rendered unable to perform all the duties of chief rabbi. On the death of his father, Adler was chosen his successor as chief rabbi in 1891, and at the same time was elected president of Jews' College, where he had already been chairman of the council since 1887. He is also president of Aria College and the London beth din, vice-president of the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and the Mansion House Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Poor, governor of University College, and a member of the committee of the King Edward Hospital Fund and the Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund. He has likewise been president of the Jewish Historical Society, vicepresident of the Jewish Religious Educational Board and the Anglo-Jewish Association, and representative of the Russo-Jewish Committee at Berlin (1889) and Paris (1890). In addition to numerous briefer contributions, he has written Solomon t7m Gabirol and his Influence upon Scholastic Philosophy (London, 1865) and Sermons on the Biblical Passages adduced by Christian Theologians in Support of the Dogmas of their Faith (1869).
ADLER, NATHAN MARCUS: English chief rabbi; b. at Hanover, Germany, Jan. 15, 1803; d. at Brighton (501 m. a. of London), Sussex, England, Jan. 21, 1890. He was educated at the universities of GSttingen, Erlangen (Ph.D., 1826), Wilrzburg, and Heidelberg, and in 1830 was appointed chief rabbi of Oldenburg. Before a year had passed he was made chief rabbi of the kingdom of Hanover, and in 1845 he was installed in the far more important post of chief rabbi of the British Empire. In 1845 he received the assistance of a deputy delegate chief rabbi, but retained his own position until his death. Active both in philanthropic and educational measures, he was the founder of Jews' College, London, in 1855, besides being the real originator of the Hospital Sabbath among his coreligionists. He was the author of many works in English, German, and Hebrew, including Die Liebe zum Vaterlande (Hanover, 1838); The Jewish Faith (London, 1867); and Nethinah ld.Ger (commentary on the Taagum of Onkelos, Wilna, 1875).ADO, a" d8': Archbishop of Vienne 860-875; b. near Sens about 800; d. at Vienne Dec. 16, 875. He was considered one of the principal upholders
of the papal hierarchy, and wrote a Martyrologium (best ed. by D. Giorgi, 2 vols., Rome, 1745), which surpasses all its predecessors in richness of material, and a Chronicon de sex cstatibus mundi (Paris, 1512; Rome, 1745 et al.; extracts in MGH, Script., ii., 1829, pp. 315-323) from the creation of the world to 874. His works are in MPL, exxiii. 1-452.ADONAL See YAxwEx.
ADONAI SHOMO. See COMMUNISM, II., 1. ADOPTION.Old Testament Conception The Apologists (§ 5). (¢ 1). Augustine Q 6). The Conception of Jesus (§ 2). Scholasticism (5 7). Paul's Conception (¢ 3). Luther (1 8). The Gospel and Epistles of Later German Theology (4 9). John (§ 4). Two Views Held at Present (g 10).
Adoption is a term of theology denoting the new relation to God which Jesus experienced and into which he brings his followers. In tracing the history of this conception, attention is to be paid to the different senses in which the analogy is used in religion, the idea of homogeneousness with God, of the relation to him, and the divine basis of both.In the Old Testament, the people, the king, and individual pious men and women are called children of God. The people become children of God by their introduction into the promised land, the king by his election, individual persons by their physical creation. It is only with regard to the heavenly spirits that the state of being a child of God (Gotteakindschaft) expresses i. Old homogeneousness of being. The rela- Testament tion is one in which God helps, par- Con- dons, educates, even through suffering, ception. and in which men have to obey God and trust in him. But the obedience of chil dren is not different from that of servants, and their trust is paralyzed by God's inexplicable disposition to wrath. In later Judaism the relation became one of right,-the pious man must secure his reward, which is a matter of natural desire, by his own merits and sacrifices, and he always wavers between self-righteous security and anxiety.
Jesus as seen in the synoptic Gospels, knows God as the lofty lord to whom men are subjected in service, and as the just judge; but by inner experiences he recognizes this God as his father who discloses to him his love, and he encourages men to believe not that they are God's children, but that they become such by conducting themselves and feeling as children. The innovation lies in the quality of the relation. In spite of God's physical and spiritual superiority, man is free from the feeling of oppression and insecurity, in the first place, before the demanding will of God. Through the recognition of God as Father, Jesuss. The knows himself urged to the service of Concep- saving love, renouncing every worldly tion of desire, but this service means for him Jesus. freedom and blessedness (Matt. xi. 28-30), because he feels it as the ful filment of his own desire (Matt. ix. 36-38), and even as a gain in greatness and power (Matt. xx. 25-28), because in it he is raised above the Mosaic law (Matt.
v. 22). In the same way he delivers these whom he encourages to believe in God's fatherly love and forgiveness, from the oppression of the law by showing them as its innermost core (Matt. v. 9, 48) the imitation of the example of the perfect God in a love which surpasses all bounds of human love. From this conception of the divine law all hedonistic elements have been removed; it expresses a reverent and cheerful devotion to an ideal. Where Jesus also uses God's retribution as an ethical motive and thus seems to substitute a relation of right for the relation of adoption, he deepens and purifies the traditional view. Reward goes hand in hand with conduct; a childlike disposition is rewarded with the dignity due to God's children (Matt. v. 9) and with physical homogeneousness (Luke vii. 36); justice is rewarded with justice (Matt. v. 6; vi. 33). He promises the kingdom (Matt. x. 13-16) to the unassuming childlike disposition, and promises reward, not to individual performance, but to the spirit which reveals itself in it (Matt. vii. 15, xxv. 23), excludes the equivalence between work and reward (Matt. xx. 1-16), and appeals to fear not as dread of physical evil, but as anxiety lest the life with God (Matt. x. 18) be lost. In the second place, the trust in God's fatherly guidance which Jesus himself proves and encourages, is of a singular surety and joyfulness. Whoever through fear of God is kept in his way, may be certain of the acquisition of salvation (Luke x. 20) and may hope not only to gain eternal life (Luke xii. 32), but already here on earth he knows himself to be lifted above all oppression of the world since he may be sure that his prayers are granted (Matt. vii. 7) and may expect from God his daaily bread and know himself protected by God in every way (Matt. x. 28-31) and may venture even that which seems impossible (Mark xi. 22) and be sure of the forgiveness of his sins and of his protection in temptation (Matt. vi. 12, 13) and triumph over all hostile powers (Luke x. 19).
In opposition to philosophy, this idea is new in so far as God in the current systems of philosophy was represented as father only as the shaper of the world, and the capacity of becoming a child of God was merely a general function of reason. The religious importance of the ideal is here only secondary; it originates rather in personal dignity and is an altruism which does not extend to the love of enemies. As faith in a fatherly providence, it believes only in an order of the world which offers an opportunity to prove one's strength of will, and thus does not attain submission as expressed in Christian adoption, but only resignation.
Jesus speaks of adoption only in the imperative, -we must become children of God by imitation of God and trust in God; but he admonishes to become such by pointing to God's disposition and promise. His word teceives additional emphasis from his personality which lives in God; and he judges the conduct of God's child in the last analysis as an effect of God (Matt. xi. 28, xv. 3; Mark x. 27). Therefore it is the natural expression of the experience of the Christian Church when in the New Testament the awakening of the child's life by the
effect of divine grace is considered fundamental (II Cor. v. 17; I Pet. i. 3, 23; John iii. 5).This effect, according to Paul, is juridical, i.e., a real adoption, a granting of the right of children (Gal. iii. 26-27), synonymous with justification; but it is also a real change through the overwhelming influence of the Holy Spirit as an unconscious power like the impersonal powers of nature (Rom. viii. 11; Gal. v. 22). Paul bases the certainty of the right of children upon the fact that through faith and baptism believers belong to Christ, but also upon the ex perience of the liberating effect of the 3. Paul's spirit. The right of children means
Concep- for him the claim upon the future tion. heritage of the kingdom of God; namely, the participation in God's fatherhood (Rom. iv. 3) and the spiritualization of the body in conforming it to the body of Christ, the first of the sons of God (Rom. viii. 29-30). These figures express the idea that the prevening grace of God establishes a personal relation of love which has an analogy in the intimate communion between father and child. As I am certain that God is on my side and that I am called to eternal life, I may surely trust that he will grant me everything (Rom. viii. 31-32), not only eternal life, but also everything in the world which is not against God (I Cor. iii. 21-22) and that he will lead me through all temptations to that sanctity which belongs to the kingdom of God (I Theaa. v. 23). The faith which corresponds on our part to God's intention of love remains secure even against troubles and hostile world powers because the latter can not separate from the love of God (Rom. viii. 38-39) and the former must subserve the upbuilding of the inner man (II Cor. iv. 16-18). Thus the essential feature of this child-life is not fear, as under the Law and its curse, but rather unshakable joy which expresses itself in giving thanks as the key-note of prayer. The unconscious impulse which the ethical life of the Christian assumes if he puts the impulse of the spirit in place of the Law, he modifies by bringing to expression also conscious ethical motives; namely, the love of God as experienced by him, and his call to the kingdom of God, which demand a conduct worthy of both. Even an overpowerful desire of his nature he begins to. transform into an impulse for consciousness if he guides it into the channel of experienced love (II Cor. v.15; Gal. ii. 20). But in all joy,. happiness, and freedom with relation to God, the Christian is prevented from excesses by that humility which in all progress and success gives due honor to God (I Cor. xv. 10). It seems a contradiction when Paul in spite of all speaks of a retribution on the part of God according to works and awakens fear of the judgment. The seeming relation of right is only an expression for the fact that the relation of father and children, although resting upon God's free love, is mutual. The reward is a success of mutual effort (Gal. vi. 7, 8). It is attained, not by a sum of individual works, but by a sanctified personality (These. v. 23) which is absorbed in a uniform activity of life (II Cor. v. 10; I Cor. iii. 13). The fear of which Paul speaks is the fear of watchfulness which takes possession of us in looking at the world and the flesh, but this_~. r^:_ . :-.-=::,M ,
disagreeable feeling is immediately conquered by the joyful trust that God will protect and perfect us (I Cor. xv. 2; Rom. xi. 20-21).
The Gospel and Epistles of John trace adoption back to the testimony of God (Gospel iii. 5; First Epistle ii. 19). According to them, adoption consists in a close and intimate life in and with God by which there is vouchsafed, on the one hand, the impossibility of sinning and the self-evidence of justice and love to God and our brethren, and, on the other hand, the victory over the world and blessing and the future homogeneousness with God (I John iv. 3; v. 4; 18). However natural all this may sourni, these expressions are only figures for an ethico-personal communion with God, analogous to that between father and child which has its basis in the influence of Christ upon our consciousness, not in a reflected, but spontaneous
4. The way. The knowledge of God or the Gospel and word of Christ (I John ii. 3; GospelEpistles xv. 3) is parallel to the seed of God of John. which remains in the regenerated per son and guarantees his sanctity (I John iii. 9). Unity of life with God is an analogon for that unity which on earth exists between the Father and Jesus (John xvii. 21-22), where the Father in preceding love discloses to his Son his whole work and the Son remains in the love of the Father (John xv. 10) by speaking and acting according to the commandment of the Father and being solely concerned with his Father's honor (John v. 44) and yet enjoying full satisfactipn, eternal life (John iv. 34, xii. 50),,and at the same time fully trusting that the Father is with him and always hears him and in spite of the world brings his work to perfection which through death leads to glory (John viii. 29, xvi. 32, xvii. 4). Correspondingly there follows for his disciples from the certainty of the love of God the duty to love one another and to show the self evident love of children by keeping the command ments (I John iv. 11, v. 3) which are freedom and life because the disciples are not slaves, but friends of the son of God (John xv. 15) and continuators of his work (John xviii. 18). In this tendency of life they may possess joyfulness (I John ii. 28, iv. 17, 18) in a world full of temptations and enemies and in face of death and judgment and may count upon the return of their love on the part of God through the gift of the spirit and the help of God which is always near, upon the forgiveness of accidental sins, purification, hearing of their prayers, and a place in the heavenly mansion of the Father (John xiv. 2, 3; xiii. 21-22; xv. 2; xvii. 17; I John i. 9).
According to Jesus, Paul, and John, the child of God is independent of men and yet he must seek communion with men. Jesus teaches to pray " Our Father "; and according to Paul and John, the spirit communicates with the individual through baptism and makes him a member of the community.
The Church has not always maintained this ideal. When its growth necessitated a stricter inculcation of the ethical conditions of salvation, the relation of children was changed under the influence of the Jewish idea of retaliation, of philosophical moralism, and the ideas of Roman law. According to the apolo-
getic writers, to be a child of God means subjectively the ethical resemblance with God which man realizes in himself by his free action on the basis of the knowledge of God as taught by Christ. Since ethics was absorbed in individual practise of virtue and consciousness of moral freedom, the desire for a counterbalance against the moral checks from the world was not felt so much. Irenacus follows Paul by conceiving adoption as the specific effect of redemption; but he understands it, in the5. The first place, in a moralistic sense, as a Apologists. call to the fulfilment of the deepened law of nature, not only in increased love, but fear; in the second place, in a physical sense, as the sacramental elevation of the spirit to deification or imperishableness. This combination remains a characteristic feature of the Greek Church. Augustine deepened the physical change into an ethical change which governs ethical actions. Because God's nature is first of all justice, and only secondarily immortal, adoption, as being deifica tion, is in the first place justification, infusion of love (amando Deum effurimur dii-" by loving God we are made gods"; again-" he who justifies also deifies, because by justifying he makes sons of God "), which takes place under the influence of faith, i. e., hopeful prayer, or through baptism. Thus man faces the task-Reddite diem, e f f iximini spiritus (" Do your part, and become spirit "). Adoption becomes a reality in a process in which the capacity for it increases by continual forgive ness and inspiration of love until after death the second adoption occurs, the liberation from the body which contains the law of sin.
6. Augus- Our life is a relation between child tine. and father in so far as love to God, childlike fear, and hope rule in it. But the idea of the New Testament is curtailed in so far as forgiveness concerns always only past sins, and hope is bound to rely upon one's own consciousness of love to God and upon merit, and forgiveness becomes uncertain in consequence of predestination, and in so far as, with the task to serve God in the world, the New Testament manner of trusting in God is also done away with, and a holy indifference takes its place. The relation of God seems to be intensified in so far as there is added as a new element the highest stage of divine lovethe mystical contemplation of God; but the apparent plus discloses itself as a minus, since love to God is now conceived of by analogy with that between man and woman instead of that between father and child. Mysticism, it is true, elevates man to freedom from the Church, but it effects also indifference toward men; however, in the premystical stage there shows itself lack of independence of the Church.
In the Occident the curtailment of the childlike in Christian life was still further indulged in by bringing to prominence the ideas of q. Scholas- the natural, juridical, and mystical;ticism of the natural in so far as according to the scholastics a habit of grace is in fused into the secret recesses of the soul, the exist ence of which can only be surmised by way of infer ence from one's own ethical transformation; of the
juridical in so far as the provenience of hope from merit (" spes provenit ex meritis ") is more strongly emphasized; of the mystical inasmuch as the higher stage of the love of God seems realizable only in a thorough separation from occupation with worldly matters (the lower stage is identified with childlike fear) and inasmuch as even the mysticism of calmness and resignation over against an arbitrary Lord is far inferior to trust in the Father.
It was Luther who again conceived the relation of Christians to God as that of children to a father in the full sense of the word. For Luther Christ is the " mirror of the fatherly heart of God," the revelation and security of God's gracious disposition, and he draws from this " image of grace " faith and individual trust. He differs from Paul in so far as he understands by the inner testimony of the Holy Spirit the personal certainty of faith which has its basis in Christ. As for Paul, so for Luther,
forgiveness of sins or justification or S. Luther. adoption is a declaration of the will of
God that he adopts us as children. It is more than the remittance of past sins, it is the reception of the whole personality into the grace of God, the transposition into a permanent state which always has to be seized again by faith. Thus it is shown to be an error that meritorious works are necessary in order to obtain grace and eternal life. In this way Luther does not destroy the ethical quality of adoption, but makes it more prominent. For secure trust unites the will with God's entire will in love and thus spontaneously produces, without needing the instruction and inculcation of the law, the free and cheerful fulfilment of the will of God which takes place without any thought of reward and in which eternal life is enjoyed. This psychological derivation of morality from the nature of faith actually invalidates Luther's other derivation from the natural or unconscious impulse of the Holy Spirit. Only his opposition to the doctrine of merits made him forget to do justice to the eschatological motives of morality as they are found in Jesus aLd Paul, although he might have done so, considering his premises; for will needs an aim and for the will united with God in faith and love, this aim can only be the completion of that which was begun here. Faith gives him new courage and power for trust in the guidance of the whole life by the Father in which again the joy of eternal life is anticipated, and thus lays the basis for the freedom of the Christian or his royal dominion over all things which manifests itself in fearlessness and pride and defiance of Satan, world, and death as the counterpart of humble submission to God and which through the certainty of the blessing of divine guidance surpasses mysticismecatasies as well as resignation in God. This attitude of children is a life which is homogeneous to that of the Father, in the first place, to his disposition, in so far as our trust is a reflex of God's disposition toward us and our love corresponds to the love of God since it is not borrowed from the amiability of men, but is spontaneous, and not a divided love like that of men, but an all-comprehending one; in the second place, to the nature
Gepenaats sum Judentum, pp. 41-42, G6ttingen, 1892; H. Shultz, Old Testament Theology, ii. 264 eqq., Edinburgh, 1892; R. A. Lipsius, Lehrbuch der evanpelisch-proteatantischen Dopmatik, pp. 126-129, 684-698, 663-703, Brunswick, 1893; J. MeL. Campbell, Nature of the Atonement, pp. 298 sqq., London, 1896; A. Titius, Die neuteetamentliehe Lehre -von der Selipkeit, i. 103-104, ii. 27-28, 138139, 288-267, TObingen, 1896-1900; W. Beysehlag, New Testament Theology, i. 60-70, 241, 310, ii. 418-419,480, Edinburgh, 1896; E. Hatch, Greek Ideas and Usages, their Intuence upon the Christian Church, London, 1897; R. V. Foster, Systematic Theology, p. 679, Nashville, 1898; H. Cremer, Die paulinische Rechtfertipungelehre, pp. 71-78, 224-233, 247-248, 266-268, 369-370, GOtersloh, 1899; A. Ritsehl, Christian Doctrine of Juetifteation and Reconciliation, pp. 76, 98, 607, 634, 603, New York, 1900.ADOPTIONISM (ADOPTIAHISM).
The Controversy of the Eighth Century. Its Roots (1 1). Elipandus, Bishop of Toledo (1 2).Felix, Bishop of Urgel (§ 3). Recantation of Felix (¢ 4).
Later Adoptionist Tendencies (§ 6). Explanation (§ 6).
Adoptionism-a heresy maintaining that Christ is the Son of God by adoption-is of interest chiefly for the commotion which it produced in the Spanish and Frankish Churches in the latter part of the eighth century, although the for:. The Con- mulas around which the conflict raged troversy of can indeed be traced back to the the Eighth earliest period of Western theology; Century. but the spirit of the controversy and Its Roots. the result showed that the orthodoxy of the eighth century could no longer entirely accept the ancient formulas. The phrases in which such writers as Novatian, Hilary, and Isidore of Seville had spoken not merely of the assumption of human nature by the Son of God, but also of the assumption of man or the eon of man, led by an easy transition to words which seemed to imply that Christ, according to his humanity, was the adopted eon of God; and formulas of this kind occur not infrequently in the old Spanish liturgy.
The Spanish bishops of the eighth century, and especially their leader, Elipandus (b. 718; bishop of Toledo from about 780), so used such phrases as to provoke criticism and disapproval first in Asturia, then in the neighboring Frankish kingdom, and finally at Rome. A certain Migetius (q.v.), preaching in that part of Spain which was held by the Moors, had given a very gross exposition of the doctrine of the Trinity, teaching that there were three bodily persons, and a triple manifestation in history of the one God. Against him Elipandus wrote a letter vindicating the orthodox idea of the immanence of the Trinity, but at the same time establishing a very sharp distinction between the second person of the Trinity and the s. Elipan- human nature of Christ. The person dus, Bishop of the Son was not that made accordof Toledo. ing to the flesh, in time, of the seed of David, but that begotten by the Father befofe all worlds; even after the incarnation, the second person of the Godhead is not the bodily, of which Christ says " My Father is greater than I," but that of which he says " I and my Father are one." Elipandus did not mean to do violence to the orthodox teaching by this distinction; but if the expression were pressed, the human nature
contumelious answer, and was anxious to cross swords personally with his antagonist.
Leidrad induced Felix to appear before Charlema,gne, with the promise of a fair hearing from the bishops. They met at Aix-la-Chapelle
4. Recan- in June, 799 (others say Oct., 798). tation of After a lengthy discussion Felix ac-Felix. knowledged himself defeated and was restored to communion, though not to his see, and he was placed in Leidrad's charge. Felix then composed a recantation, and called on the clergy of Urgel to imitate his example. Leid rad and Benedict renewed their endeavors, with such success that Alcuin was soon able to assert that they had reclaimed 20,000 souls. He supported them with a treatise in four books against Eli pandus, and prided himself on the conversion of Felix. The heretical leader seems, however, to have quietly retained his old beliefs at Lyons for the rest of his life, and even to have pushed them logically further, since Agobard, Leidrad's succes sor, accused him of Agnoetism, and wrote a reply to some of his posthumous writings. In the Moorish part of Spain, Elipandus seems to have had a numerous following; but here also he found determined opponents. The belief was gradually suppressed, though Alvar of Cordova (d. about 861) found troublesome remnants of it.
With the rise of scholastic theology there was a natural tendency of rigid dialectic to lead away from the Christology of Cyril and Alcuin toward a rational distinction between the two natures, not so much with any wish to insist on this as from a devotion to the conception of the immutability of God. This caused the charge of Nestorianism to be brought against Abelard. Peter Lombard's explanations of the sense in which God became man leaned in the same direction. A German defender of this aspect of the question, Bishop Eberhard of Bamberg, in the twelfth century, accused his opponents roundly of Eutychianism. In fact, the assailants of Adoptionism, starting from their thesis that Christ is really and truly the Son of God, even according to his human nature, because this nature was appropriated by the Son of God, came ultimately, for all their intention of holding the Church's doctrine of theg. Later two natures and the two wills, to a Adoptionist quite distinct presentation of an Tendencies. altogether divine Person who has assumed impersonal human substance and nature. They really deserted the posi tion taken by Cyril, though he was one of their main authorities. If one seeks the his torical origin of this late form of Christological controversy, distinguishing it from the immediate cause, it must be found in the unsettlement of mind necessarily consequent upon the attempts of the ecclesiastical Christology to reconcile mutually exclusive propositions.
The intellectual mood which led directly to this distinction between the Son of God and the man in Christ has been variously explained. Some ascribe it to the surrounding Mohammedanism, making it an attempt to remove as far as possible the stumbling-blocks in the doctrine of Christ's
6. Expla- and is begotten-remain untouched. nation. Others see in it a survival of the spirit of the old Germanic Arianism, which is excluded by the adherence of the Adoptionists to the orthodox Trinitarian teaching. The obvious relation with Nestorianism and the theology of the school of Antioch has led others to assume a direct influence of the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia; but there is as little evidence for this as there is for the theory that those whom Elipandus calls his " orthodox brethren " in Cordova, and whom Alcuin supposes to be responsible for these aberrations, were a colony of eastern Christians of Nestorian tendencies who had come to Spain with the Arabs. (A. HAuCg.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The writings of Elipandus, Felix, and Heterius in MPL, xevi.; Paulinus, Vita et Litter, ib. xcix.; Alcuin, Opera, ib. c: ci.; Monuments Alcuiniana, in JaffB, Bibliotheca rerum Gemaanicarum, vol. vi., Berlin, 1873; MGH, Epist iv., 1895; Agobard. Vita et Opera, in MPL, civ.; the Acta of the Synods of Narbonne, Ratisbon, Frankfort, and Aix-la-Chapelle, in Harduin,. Con. cilia, iv., in Mansi, Concilia, xiii., in Gallandi, Bibliotheca, xiii., and MGH, Concilia, ii., 1904; C. W. F. Walch, Historic Adoptianorum. GSttingen, 1755; idem, Entwur/ finer vollstandigen Historie der Ketureien, Vol. iii., 11 vols., Leipsic, 1762-85; F. C. Baur, Die Christliche Lehre von der Dreieinigkeit and Menachwwrdung Gotdes, 3 vols., Berlin, 1841-43; Rettberg, i. (1846) 428; J. C.Rob'ertson, History o/ the Christian Church, 590-1122, London, 1856; A. Helfferich, Der westgothieche Arianismw and die apanische Kettergeechichte, Berlin, 1860; J. Bach, Dopmenpeschiehte des Mittelalters, i. 102 sqq., Vienna, 1873; K. Werner, Alcuin and afro Jahrhundert, Paderborn, 1876; C. J. B. Gaekoin, Alcuin, pp. 79 eqq., London, 1904; DCB i. 44-47; Hefele, Concilieweschichte, iii. 642-693, 721-724; Hauck, KD, ii. 289 sqq.
Calvin College. Last modified on 10/03/03. Contact the CCEL.