BIBLIOGRAPHY: Thos. Wright, Biopraphia Britannica literaria, ii. 187-196, London, 1846; J. H. Newman, Lives of the English Saints, 2 vole., ib. 1845-46; A. P. Forbes. in Lives of St. Ninian, St. Kentipsrn, St. Columba, Introduction, ib. 1875; EUelred, in DNB, aviii. 33-35 (contains list of his writings).
AIMOIN, 6"mwan': The name of two French monks, both known as historians.
1. Aimoin of St. Germain: Teacher in the monal;tery school of Samt-Germain-des-Pr6s near Paris. He seems to have begun his literary career about 865; and to have died at the end of the ninth century or in the beginning of the tenth. His works, all of a hagiographical nature, are in MPL, exxvi. 1009-56.2. Aimoin of Fleury: A disciple of Abbo of Fleury (q.v.), at whose suggestion, and therefore not later than 1004, he wrote a Historic Fran corum, from their origin to the time of Clovis II. (d. 657). His life of Abbo has greater historical value; and his account of the translation of the relics of St. Benedict to Fleury contains numerous data for French history of the tenth century. His works are in MPL, cxxaia. 375-414, 617-870; and there are extracts in MGR, Script.; ix. (1851) 374-376. (A. HAUCK.)
BmwoosAPH:: (1) A. Ebert, Geschichte der Littamtur des Mittalaltsrs, ii. 352-355; W. Wattenbach, DGQ, i. (1904)330.(2) W. Wattenbach, ut sup., pp. 121, 406-470.
RINGER, ALFRED: Church of England; b. at London Feb. 9, 1837; d. there Feb. 8, 1904. He was educated at King's College, London, and Trinity Hall, Cambridge (B.A., 1860), and was ordered deacon in 1860 and priested in the following year. He was successively curate of Alrewas, Staffordshire, in 1860-64, assistant master of Sheffield College School in 1864-66, and reader at the Temple Church, London, in 1866-93. From 1894 until his death he was Master of the Temple. He was likewise made canon of Bristol in 1887, and was elected honorary fellow of Trinity Hall in 1898, being also select preacher at Oxford in 1891 and 1898, as well as honorary chaplain to the queen in 1895-96 and chaplain in ordinary to the king after the latter year. In addition to a number of monographs on English authors, and besides contributions to the Dictionary of National Biography, he wrote Sermons Preached in the Temple Church (London, 1870). He is best known for his biography of Charles Lamb (London, 1882) and his editions of Lamb's works (1883 aqq.). His genial humor and whimsical temperament peculiarly fitted him to be the editor of Lamb, and, with his uncommon personality and exquisite literary taste, made him one of the most popular clergymen of London. He attracted to the Temple Church perhaps the most distinguished congregation in the city.BIBwOUBAPHY: E. 8ichel, Life and Letters of Alfred Ainper, New York, 1906.
AINSWORTH, HENRY: English separatist; b., probably at Swanton, near Norwich, 1571; d. at Amsterdam 1622 or 1623. Driven from England, about 1593 he went to Amsterdam, and in two or three years became " teacher " of the congregation of which Francis Johnson (q.v.) was minister. He and Johnson could not agree and the congregation divided in 1610. In 1612 Johnson went to Emden, and thenceforth Ainsworth had the field to himself. It has been inferred that he lacked a university training from a statement of Roger Williams, that " he scarce set foot within a college walls " (Bloody Tenet, 1644, p. 174; of. Dexter, 270, note 68); but the register of Caius College, Cambridge, shows that he was admitted there Dec. L5, 1587, and was in residence there as a scholar for four years. He was unquestionably a learned man, wrote excellent Latin, and had a knowledge of Hebrew (perfected by association with Amsterdam Jews), equaled by that of few other Christians of his time. He was earnest and sincere in his faith, conciliatory in spirit, and moderate in controversy. He had the chief part in drafting the Congregational Confession of 1596 (entitled A True Confession of the Faith, and Humble Acknowledgment of the Allegiance which we, her Majesty's subjects, falsely called Brownists, do hold towards God, and yield, to her Majesty and all other that are over us in the Lord; cf. Walker, pp. 41 74, where the full text is given). He wrote many controversial works (for full list consult DNB, i. 192-193) and a series of Annotations upon the books of the Pentateuch, the Psalms, and the Song of Songs (1612 aqq.; collected ed., London, 1626-27; reprinted, 2 vole., Glasgow, 1843), which have still some value.
BIBLIOGBAPBrY: H. M. Dexter, Conpropatiorwtisn of the Lave Three Hundred Years, NewYork, 1880; W. Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism, p. 43, note 1, New York, 1893.
AITKEN, WILLIAM HAY MACDOWALL HUNTER: Church of England; b. at Liverpool Sept. 21, 1841. He was educated at Wadham College, Oxford (B.A., 1865, M.A., 1867). He was presented to the curacy of St. Jude's, Mildmay Park, London, in 1865, and was ordained priest in the following year. From 1871 to 1875 he was incumbent of Christ Church, Liverpool, but resigned to become a mission preacher. The next year he founded, in memory of his father, Rev. Robert Aitken, the Aitken Memorial Mission Fund, of which he was chosen general superintendent, and which later developed into the Church Parochial Missionary Society. He twice visited the United States on mission tours, first in 1886, when the noonday services for business men at Trinity Church, New York, were begun, and again in 189:-96. Since 1900 he has been canon residentiary of Norwich Cathedral. Two years later he was a member of the Fulham Conference on auricular confession. He has been a member of the Victoria Institute since 1876. In theology he is a liberal Evangelical, but has never been closely identified with any party. He adheres strongly to the doctrines of grace, although he repudiates Calvinism. While not an opponent of higher criticism in itself, he exercises a prudent conservatism in accepting its conclusions. In his eschatology he is an advocate of the theory of conditional immortality. His writings include: Mission Sermons (3 vols., London, 1875-76); Newness of Life (.1877); What is your Lifer (1879); The School of Grace (1879); God's Everlasting Yea (1881); The Glory of the Gospel (1882); The Highway of Holiness (1883); Around the Cross (1884); The Revealer Revealed (1885); The Love of the Father (1887); Eastertide (1889); Temptation and Toil (1895); The Romance of Christian Work and Experience (1898); The Doctrine of Baptism (1900); The Divine Ordinance of Prayer (1902); and Life, Light, and Love: Studies on the First Epistle of St. John (1905).AIR-LA-CHAPELLE. See AACHEN.
ABED, CHARLES FREDERIC: English Baptist; b. at Nottingham Aug. 27, 1864. He was educated at Midland Baptist College and University College, Nottingham, after having passed the early part of his life as an auctioneer. He was then pastor at Syston, Leicestershire, in 1886-88, and at St. Helens and Earlstown, Lancashire, in 1888-90, and from 1890 to 1906 was minister of Pembroke Chapel, Liverpool. In the latter year he was elected pastor of the Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, New York City. From 1893 to 1906 he made yearly visits to the United States as a lecturer and preacher, and was also vicepresident of the United Kingdom Alliance and one of the founders of the Passive Resistance League. In addition to numerous sermons and pamphlets, he has written Changing Creeds and Social Struggles (London, 1893) and Courage of the Coward, arid other Sermons in Liverpool (1905).
AIIBA, d-kR'bd: Jewish rabbi, said to have lived in Jerusalem in the time of the Second Temple, and to have devoted himself to the study of the law when somewhat advanced in years. After the destruction of Jerusalem he retired to the neighborhood of Jaffa and also undertook extensive travels. He was executed during the Jewish insurrection under Hadrian (c. 133); but there is no proof that he was active in the revolt, or took any part in it except to recognize Bar-Kokba as the Messiah (in accordance with Num. xxiv. 17). Jewish tradition assigns as the cause of his death, that he taught the law when it was forbidden to do so.Many sayings are transmitted in Akiba's name. He defended the sacred character of the Song of Songs, which he interpreted allegorically (cf. F. Buhl, Kanon and Text, Leipsie, 1891, pp. 28-29; E. KBnig, Einleitung in dasAke Testament, Bonn, 1893, p. 450). He paid special attention to the develop ment of the traditional law; a Mishnah is known under his name; and to his school no doubt belong the fundamental elements of the present Mishnah. His exegetical method found meaning even in the par ticles and letters of the law (cf. M. Mielziner, Introduc tion to the Talmud, Cincinnati, 1894, pp. 125-126, 182-185; H. L. Straek, Einleitung in den Thalmud, Leipsic, 1894, pp. 100-104). The Greek translation of the Old Testament by Aquila (said to have been Akiba's pupil) seems to have been influenced by such an exegesis (Buhl, Kanon and Text, pp. 152 155). The midrashic works Siphra on Leviticus, and Siphre on Deuteronomy, contain much material from Akiba's school. (G. DALMAN.) BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Grits, &Whichta it, juden, Vol. iv., Lelpeic. 1893; H. Ewald, aeachichte den Volkes Israel, vii. 387, Gottingen, 1888; Aki$a ban Joseph. in JE, i. 304 eqq. AggAD. See BABYLONIA, IV., § 11. AKOMMATOS. See NICETAB.
ALACOQUE, MARGUERITE MARIE. See SACRED HEART OF JESUS, DEVOnON To.
ALARUS, a-ld'nus: Name of at least three writers of the twelfth century.
I. "Mug of Auxerre: Cistercian, abbot of L8riVOur from 1152 or 1153 to about 1167, bishop of Auxerre, and then for about twenty years monk at Cbirvaux. He wrote a life of St. Bernard (in MPL, clxxxv.).
2. Alanus: Abbot of Tewkesbury. He wrote a life Of Thomas Becket (ed. J. A. Giles, in PEA, 1845; MPL, cxc.), letters (MPL, cxc.), and sermons.
Almus ab InBuiie (Alai, of Lin,; often called MagWer Alanua and Magister universalis)
A native of Lille who taught in pans. He was a man of wide and varied learning and combining philosophical studies and interests with strong adherence to the Church, forms an important connecting link between the earlier and the later scholasticism. His writings include: (1)Nria (called allo ~tis RVUZI de BQCTa dwl*4 Or maxim. ). Like other science. which have their principles, the superclelestis scientia is not lacking fn Maxims. These are here laid down in a series of brief sentences, partly Put in paradoxical form
with minute elucidations. The work has s strong leaning toward Platonism, and contains some very peculiar thoughts. (2) Summa qtiadripartita adversva huius temporis hesreticos, which indicates by its title the ecclesiastical position of the author. The first book is directed against the Cathari, opposes their dualism and docetism, and defends the sacraments of the Church. The second book denies (chap. i.) the right (claimed by the Waldensians) to preach without ecclesiastical commission; insists upon the duty of obeying implicitly the ecclesiastical superiors, and of making confession to the priest (chaps. ii.-x.); justifies indulgences and prayers for the dead (chaps. xi.-xiii.); and denies that swearing in general is prohibited and that the killing of a person is under all circumstances sinful (chap. xviii.). (3) De ante prtsdicandi, a homiletic work which starts with the definition that " preaching is plain and public instruction in morals and faith, aiming to give men information, and emanating from the way of reason and fountain of authority." It tells how to preach on certain subjects, as on mortal sins and the virtues, and how to address different classes. (4) Less certainly genuine are the five books De arts catholicce f dei, whose style is somewhat different. The work makes the peculiar effort to demonstrate the ecclesiastical doctrine not only in a generally rational but by a strictly logical argumentation in modem artis. The fundamental, thought is striking; but the execution is sometimes weak, and the definitions are so made that the inferences become what the author wishes to prove.
(5)De plandu natures, in which Alanus gives, partly in prose, partly in rhyme, a picture of the darker side of the moral conditions of the time. (6) Anticlau dianus. a more comprehensive work, deriving its title from the fact that the author wished to show the effects of virtues as Claudian showed those of vices. It is a kind of philosophico-theological encyclopedia in tolerably correct hexameters which are not devoid of poetic fling. S. M. DEUTSCH.BIBLIOGRAPHY: (1) L. Janauechek, Oripinee Cik,.
Vienna, 1877· (3) Opera, in MPL, eca.; the oldest notices are in Otto of 6t. Blaeien Chronicon, under the year 1194, MOB, Script., xx. (1888j 328, Alberic of Trois-Fontainee, ib. asiii. (1874) 881, Henry of Ghent, De scriptortbua ecckeiaeticia ch. axi.: cf. Oudin Cammentarius de acrip oz, ii. 1387 eqq., Leipeic. 1772; Hiatoire litdo to France xvi. 396 eqq.; e. Bitumlcer, Hand-
&chrifttit*ea to den Werken den Alanus 1894 (reprinted from the PhiJoaophischu Johlbulh of the Gerres-Geeep_ eohaft vi and vii, Fulda . 1893-g4): M. Baumgartner , D"° Philosophic des Alan;; ab Iruulie Monster. 1898; J. E. Eadmann. Orundriae der 0e.AiW j;r Philosophic, 4170, 2 vole., Berlin, 189b-9g.ALARIC. See GoTas, § 3. A LASCo, .ToHAIMs. See Iaco.
ALB: A vestment worn by Roman Catholic priests in celebrating mass, and prescribed also for the Church of England by the filet prayer-book of Edward VI. ( a white albs plain, with a vestment or cope "). See `7 "TMEW78 AND INBI(3NL1, ECCLEsIASmICAL. The name was applied also to the white garments worn by the newly baptized in the early Church; and from this, since Easter was the usual time for baptism, came the name for the Sundayafter Easter, Dominica in alb,8 (Be. deio.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Goewin (canon of Mains), Ex passions S. Albani martyria Mopuntini, in MGH, Script_ xv. 2 (1888), 984-990; J. G. Reuter, Albanepalden, Mainz. 1790; Rettberg, KD, i. 211; Friedrich, KD, i. 314.
ALBAN, SAINT, OF VERULAM: A martyr of the Britons, often mistakenly called " the protomartyr of the English." Bede (Hilt. eccl_ i. 7), doubtless following some unknown acts of St. Alban, says that while still a pagan he gave shelter to a fugitive clerk during the Diocletian persecution; impressed by his guest's personality, he embraced Christianity, and when the clerk was discovered, wrapped himself in the fugitive's cloak and gave himself up to the authorities in his stead; he was scourged and condemned to death, performed miracles on the way to execution, and suffered on June 22; the place of his martyrdom was near Verulamium (St. Albans, Hertfordshire), and after the establishment of Christianity a magnificent church was erected there to his memory. Later accounts elaborate the narrative, and confuse the saint with others named Albanus or Albinus. It is said that the martyr served seven years in the army of Diocletian, and the name of the clerk is given as Amphibalus (first by Geoffrey of Monmouth), probably from his cloak (Lat. amphtbalus). It seems certain that a tradition of the martyrdom of some Albanus existed at Verulamium as early as the visit of Germanus in 429 (Constantius's life of Germanus, i. 25), and there is no reason to deny its truth. But that the martyrdom took place in the Diocletian persecution is first intimated by Gildas (ed. Mommsen, MGH, Chronica minora, iii. 31) and is probably a guess. For Aaron and Julius of Carleon-on-Usk, whose names are joined by Gildas with that of Alban, no local tradition can be shown earlier than the ninth century.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, i. 5-7; Wattenbach. DGQ, ii. 497; W. Bright, Chapters of Early Engkel< Church History. pp. 8-9, oxford, 1897.
ALBANENSES, al"ba-nen'sfz or -sts: A faction of the Cathari. They derived their name from Albania, and maintained, in opposition to the Bogo-
miles of Thracia and the Concorezenses of Bulgaria. and Italy, an absolute dualism, by which good and evil were referred to two eternally opposite and equally potent principles. See NEw MADTICMEAxs, II.
ALBATL See FLAGELLATION, FLAGELLANTS, II., § 5.
ALBER, dl'ber, ERASMUS: Theologian and poet of the German Reformation; b. in the Wetterau (a district to the n.e. of Frankfort) about 1500; d. at Neubrandenburg (75 m. n. of Berlin) May 5, 1553. He studied at Mainz and Wittenberg, and was much influenced by Luther, Melanchthon, and Carlstadt. After teaching in several places, in 1527 he became pastor at Sprendlingen (15 m. s.w. of Mainz), in the Dreieich, where for eleven years he worked diligently for the extension of Reformation doctrines and made himself known as a writer. He was an extravagant admirer of Luther, and possessed a very sharp tongue, which he used as unsparingly against Reformers who did not agree with him as against Roman Catholics. Erratic tendencies grew upon him with years, and, after leaving Sprendlingen, he moved about much and was at times in want. Shortly before his death he was made pastor and superintendent at Neubrandenburg. His writings, though often rude and coarse, were forceful and popular. They include: a rhymed version of &sop's Fables, made at Sprendlingen (ed. W. Braune, Halle, 1892); Der BarfiisserMonche Eulenspiegel and Aicoran (with preface by Luther, Wittenberg, 1542; Eng. transl., 1550), a satire directed against the Minorites, based upon a work of Bartolomeo Albizzi (q.v.); and Wider die verfluchte I-ehre der Carlatadter, Wiedertaufer, Rottengeister, SakrameWdasterer, Ehewhdnder, MusicveracAter, Bilderstiirmer, Feyerfeinde, und Verto"er alley guten Ordnung, published three years after his death. Of more permanent value are his hymns (ed. C. W. Stromberger, Halle, 1857), of which Nun freut each Gotten Kinder all is used in German hymn-books and in English translation (O Children of your God, rejoice). (T. KoLDE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Schnorr von Carolefeld, Erasmus Alber, Dresden. 1888; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 3d-36; H.Barge, Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt, i. 370 eqq.. 491 eqq., ii. 512 eqq., et passim, Leipsic, 1905.
ALBER, MATTHAUS: The " Luther of Swabia "; b. at Reutlingen (20 m. s. of Stuttgart) Dec. 4, 1495; d. at Blaubeuren (30 m. s.e. of Stuttgart) Dec. 2, 1570. He was the son of a well-to-do goldsmith, took his master's degree at Tdbingen in 1518, and was immediately called as pastor to his native city. On Melanchthon's recommendation he received a scholarship, enabling him to continue his studies for three years longer. Dissatisfied with the scholastic theology at Ttibingen, he went to Freiburg in 1521, but soon returned to Reutlingen, where he boldly preached Luther's doctrine and established the new teaching. At Easter, 1524, he abolished the Latin mass and auricular confession. The same year he married, and when brought to account at Esslingen secured an acquittal by skilful management, although the bishop continued to trouble him because of his marriage till 1532. The Reformation made steady progress in
was the son of Duke William IV., whom he succeeded in 1550. The rulers of Bavaria had remained faithful to the Roman Catholic Church during the progress of the Reformation; but in spite of their endeavors the new ideas gained many adherents among both the nobility and the citizen class. Albert was educated at Ingolstadt under good Catholic teachers. In 1547 he married a daughter of Emperor Ferdinand L, the union ending the political rivalry between Austria and Bavaria. Albert was now free to devote himself to the task of establishing Catholic conformity in his dominions. Incapable by nature of passionate adherence to any religious principle, and given rather to a life of idleness and pleasure, he pursued the work of repression because he was convinced that the cause of Catholicism was inseparably connected with the fortunes of the house of Wittelsbach. He took little direct share in the affairs of government and easily lent himself to the plans of his advisers, among whom during the early part of his reign were two sincere Catholics, Georg Stockhammer and Wiguleus Hundt. The latter took an important part in the events leading up to the treaty of Passau (1552) and the peace of Augsburg (1555).
The real beginning of the Counterreformation in Bavaria may be dated from 1557, when the Jesuits first established themselves in the duchy. In summoning them to Bavaria Albert and his advisers were actuated by the desire to use their services as educators in raising the mesa of the clergy from their condition of moral and intellectual stagnation. The Jesuits speedily made themselves masters of the University of Ingolstadt and through the chancellor, Simon Thaddiius Eck, exercised a predominant influence at court. Eck was ably seconded by his associates, who obtained control of the education of the youth and of the clergy, and by their preaching and writings checked the spread of the reformed ideas among the masses of the people. Till 1563 concession still had a part in the programme of the leaders, who hoped that the bestowal of communion in both kinds upon the laity and the abolition of celibacy in the priesthood would bring back many to the fold. Political events, however, led to an abandonment of the conciliatory policy. In 1563 Joachim, Count of Ortenburg, introduced the Augsburg Confession in his dominions, which he held as a direct fief of the empire. Albert discerned in this act a serious menace to the integrity of Bavaria, and took possession of the principality. Thenceforth the reformed religion, se closely connected with political insubordination, was made the object of a ruthless persecution. The opposition of the nobility was speedily overcome, and conformity to the teachings of the Church was enforced under pain of exile. By means of frequent visitations among the clergy and the people, the reorganization of the school system, the establishment of a strict censorship, and the imposition upon all public officials and university professors of an oath of conformity with the decisions of the Council of Trent, heresy was completely stamped out in Bavaria before 1580. The progress of the Counterreformation in the empire was materially helped by Bavaria.
advice of Erasmus (in a letter of Nov. 1, 1519), to have as little as possible to do with him, if he cared for his own tranquillity. So long as his personal interests did not suffer, he found it easy to be tolerant. When Luther, at the wish of his elector, wrote a second letter (Feb. 4, 1520), Albert replied quite in the spirit of Erasmus. He did not interfere when Hutten issued his anonymous antiRoman pamphlets, and he showed himself unfriendly to the mendicant friars. But when papal legates brought him (Oct., 1520) the Golden Rose and definite orders concerning Hutten and Luther, he was ready at once to expel the former from his court and to burn the latter's books.
After the Diet of Worms (1521) Albert pretended to favor certain reforms, and many, like Carlstadt, put confidence in him. Luther, however, addressed to him a letter from the Wartburg (Dec. 1, 1521), threatening to attack publicly his "false god," the indulgences, if the sale did not cease, and to expose him before the world. Albert yielded as a matter of policy, and because no other course was open to him. He was also unable to prevent the introduction of the Reformation into Erfurt and Magdeburg. He was not on good terms with his chapter in Mainz, and during the Peasants' War the city made a compact with the peasants. It was suspected that he had in mind to follow the example of his cousin in Prussia (see ALBERT OF PRussuA) and to secularize his bishopric -a course which Luther openly (in a letter of June 2, 1525) called upon him to take. On the same day, however, the peasants were defeated at K6nigehofen, and the immediate danger being over, Albert made an alliance with Luther's most determined opponents, Joachim of Brandenburg and George of Saxony, for mutual protection and for the extermination of the Lutheran sect. For a time he continued to oppose the evangelical movement in a half-hearted way, requesting his subjects to abide by the old teaching of the Church. He introduced some outward changes in opposition to the Reformation, but without effect; his territory became smaller; and his influence in the kingdom grew less. The so-called alliance of Halle with his brother Joachim and other Catholic. princes in 1533 could not retard the movement. His opposition in Dessau was in vain (1534). Even in Halls, his own city, he could not hinder the victory of the Reformation proved by the call of Justus Jonas in 1541. As early as 1536 Albert anticipated coming events, by removing his valuable collections of objects of art to Mainz and Aschaffenburg; and in 1540 he left Halle forever. In 1541 he urged the emperor at Regensburg to proceed against the Protestants with arms, if he really meant to be emperor; otherwise it were better if he had stayed in Spain. Albert had become, possibly under Jesuit influence, the most violent of the princely opponents of the Reformation. He met with continual disappointments, however, and steadily became more isolated. He took a deep interest in the Council of Trent, and appointed his legatee in Apr., 1545, but did not live to see its opening. His last years were harassed by quarrels with his chapter and the importunities of his creditors, and
Intercourse with Luther and Melanchthon and Aid to the Reformation (§ 2).Progress of the Reformation (¢ 3). Reorganizat.on of Ecclesiastical Affairs (¢ 4). B is Visitation and its Consequences (§ 5). Ordinances of 1540 and 1544 (¢ 8). Later Efforts in Behalf of the Reformation (§ 7).
Albert, margrave of Brandenburg-Anabach, last grand master of the Teutonic order, first duke of
Prussia, founder of the Prussian nai. Early tional Church, was born at Ansbach Life and (25 m. s.w. of Nuremberg) May 17, Conversion 1490; d. at Tapiau (23 m. e. of Kbnto Protes- igsberg) Mar. 20, 1568. He was the tantism third son of the Margrave Frederick the Elder of Brandenburg-Ansbaeh, received a knightly education at various courts, and was made a canon of the Cologne Cathedral. In 1508, with his brother Casimir, he took part in the Emperor Maximilian's campaign against Venice. He was elected grand master of the Teutonic order Dec. 15, 1510, was invested with the dignity of his office in 1511, and made his solemn entry into KSnigsberg in 1512. His efforts to make his order independent of Poland (to which it had owed fealty since the peace of Thorn, 1466) involved him in a war with the Polish king, which devastated the territory of the order until a truce for four years was made in 1521. Albert then visited Germany and tried in vain to obtain the help of the German princes against Poland. While attending the Diet of Nuremberg in 1522-23 he heard the sermons of Andreas Osiander (whom he afterward called his " father in Christ "), and associated with others of the reformed faith in that city. By such influence, as well as by the writings of Luther from the year 1520, he was won to the new teaching and openly avowed his convictions.
In June, 1523, he addressed a confidential letter to Luther, requesting his advice concerning the reformation of the Teutonic order and the means of bringing about a renewal of Christian life in its territory. In reply Luther advised, him to convert the spiritual territory of the order into a worldly principality. In Sept., 1523, he visited the Reformer at Wittenberg, when Luther again advised him, with the concurrence of Melanchthon, to put aside the foolish and wrong law of the order, to enter himself into the estate of matrimony, and to convert the state of the order into a worldly one. This interview was the beginning
of an intimate connection between Albert and the two Reformers of Wittenberg, and was immediately followed by Luther's Ermahrtuny an die Herren
Deutaehert Orders falsche Ifeuschheit a. Inter- xu maiden and zu rec7vtert ehelicieen course with If<euach)atrit zu greifert. With the advice Luther sad and help of Luther, Albert providedMelanch- pure Gospel preaching for his capital thon and by calling thither such men as Johann Aid to the Briessmann and Paulus Speratus Reforms- (qq.v.). Johannes Amandus, called tion. about the same time as Brieasmann,
while a popular and gifted preacher, proved a fanatic and agitator, and was obliged to leave the city and country in 1524. His place was taken by Johannes Poliander (q.v.). Authorized by Albert, Bishop George of Polentz (q.v.), who favored the Reformation, sent learned men to preach through the country; and evangelical writings, supplied by Albert's friend, Georg Vogler, chancellor of his brother at Ansbach, were carefully disseminated. At Christmas, 1523 George of Polentz openly embraced the new faith; and the next year, with the consent of his sovereign, he advised the ministers not only to preach the pure Gospel, but also to use the German language at the administration of baptism and the Lord's Supper. At the same time he recommended the reading of Luther's writings, and declared excommunication to be abrogated.
The cause made steady progress in KSnigsberg. Briessmann delivered free lectures to the laity
and ministers, aiming to promote a 3. Prog- knowledge of the gospel; Speratusress of preached to large crowds; and a newly the Refor- established printing-office published oration various evangelical writings, especially the sermons and pamphlets of Briess mann and Speratus. Abuses and unevangelical elements in divine service and in the inner con stitution of the churches, images and altars serv ing the worship of saints, the multitude of masses and the sacrifice of the mass, were abolished. A common treasury was established for the aid of the poor. The reformatory movement acquired new impetus from the conversion of a second Prus sian Prelate, Erhard of Queiss, bishop of Pome sania, who, under the title Thamata issued a Reformation-programme in his diocese for the renewal of the spiritual life on the basis of the pure Gospel. The moat important of all, however, was the carrying out of Luther's advice with regard to the transformation of the territory of the order into a hereditary secular duchy under the suzerainty of Poland, after the period of the truce had expired and peace had been made with Poland. On Apr. 10, 1525, the formal investiture of Albert as duke of Prussia took place at Cracow, after he had sworn the oath of allegiance to King Sigiemund. Toward the end of the following month he made his solemn entry into Ktinigsberg and received the homage of the Prussian Prelate,, the knights of the order,
and the states. On July 1, 1626, he was married in the castle of KBnigsberg to the Danish princess Dorothea, like himself a faithful adherent of the Gospel.
A reorganization of ecclesiastical affairs on the basis of the existing episcopal constitution now
took place. The two bishops, George 4. Reor- of Polentz and Erhard of Queiss, who ganization were separated from Rome by their
of Eccle- evangelical faith and reformatory siastical activity, married. As the first evanAffairs. gelical bishops they confined themselves to purely ecclesiastical functions -ordination, visitation, inspection, and the celebration of marriage. The duke, as evangelical sovereign, felt himself obliged in publicly professing the Reformation and reserving the right to call a diet for regulating the affairs of the Church, to issue a mandate (July 6, 1525) requesting the ministers to preach the Gospel in all purity and Christian fidelity, and to testify against the prevailing superstition, as well as against the widespread godless and immoral drunkenness, lewdness, cursing, and frivolous swearing. The first diet to regulate the affairs of the Church was held in Dec., 1525, at Kbnigsberg. The result was the Landesordnung, which regulated the appointment and support of ministers, the filling of vacancies, the observance of the feast-days, the appropriation of moneys received for the churches, for pious foundations, and for the poor. The Landesordnung contained also regulations for divine service, drawn up by the bishops and published by Albert (Mar., 1526) under the title Artikel der Ceremonien and andere Ordnung.
For the better regulation of existing evils, Albert, in agreement with the bishops, appointed a com-
mission of clerical and lay members, g. His Visi- to visit the different parishes, to investation tigate the life and work of the minis-
and Its ters, and, where necessary, to give Conse- them instruction and information.quences. The result of this visitation, the first in Prussia, was such that in a mandate dated Apr. 24, 1525, Albert recom mended the two bishops to continue such visita tions in their dioceses and to impress upon the ministers their task with reference to doctrine and life. That such supervision might be permanent he ordered the appointment of super intendents. For the benefit of the many non Germans, the ministers were supplied with trans lators of the preached word. Albert recommended Luther's Postilla as pattern for the preaching of the Gospel and caused a large number of copies to be distributed among the ministers. He also or dered quarterly conferences under the presidency of the superintendents, and in July, 1529, he author ized the bishops to arrange synodical meetings, at which questions pertaining to faith, doctrine, mar riage, and other matters of importance to the pastoral office were considered. He induced Spera tus (who had succeeded Queise as bishop of Pome sania) to prepare an outline of doctrines, which was published under the title Christliche statuta synodalia, and distributed among the ministers as the sovereign's own confession, as is indicated by the preface, dated Jan. 6, 1530. This precursor of the Augsburg Confession the bishops assigned to the ministers in 1530 as their canon of doctrine.
It was of special importance during a crisis brought on by the duke. Influenced by his friend Friedrich von Heideck, he favored the teachings of the enthusiast Kaspar Schwenckfeld (q.v.), whom he met at Liegnitz, and gave appointments to his adherents. The new ordinances of the bishops were at first not heeded. A colloquy held at Rastknburg in Dec., 1531, under the presidency of Speratus brought about no satisfactory results. Luther's representations, at first unsuccessful, finally evoked the duke's prohibition of the secret or public preaching or teaching of the enthusiasts; at the same time he stated that he allowed his subjects liberty in matters of faith, since he would not force a belief upon the people. His eyes were finally opened by the Anabaptist disorders at Munster (see MtfrrsTER, ANABAPTIs19 inr) and he saw the political danger of such fanaticism. In Aug., 1535, he issued a mandate to Speratus enjoining him to preserve the purity and unity of doctrine. He renewed his assurance to his brother, Margrave George, " that he and his country wished to be looked upon as constant members in the line of professors of the Augsburg Confession," and to this assurance he remained faithful to the end.
In 1540 Albert issued an ordinance treating of the many evils in the life of the people and theircure, and another concerning the 6. Ordinan- election and support of the ministers, ces of 1540 their widows and orphans, as a supple- and:544. meat to the Landesordnung of 1525.
Assisted by the two bishops, he made a tour of inspection in the winter of 1542-43 to obtain a true insight into the religious and moral condition of the country. Toward the end of this tour, he issued (Feb., 1543) a mandate in the German and Polish languages, exhorting the people to make diligent use of the means of grace and admonishing those of the nobility who despised the word and the sacrament. Each house had to appoint in turn an officer to keep watch, from an elevated place, over the church attendance. Besides the Sunday pericopes the minister was to spend a half-hour in explaining the catechism. During the week devotional meetings were to be held in the houses, at which the people were to be examined as to their knowledge of the word of God. To maintain the episcopal constitution Albert, in a memorandum of 1542, assured the continuance of the two ancient bishoprics with the provision that godly and learned men should always be chosen for them. To promote Church life he issued an Ordnung vom dusserlichen Gottesdienst and Artikel der Ceremonien (1544), supplementing the Artikel of 1525. To improve the service in the churches he required the schools to train the children in singing, and had a hymn-book prepared by Kugelmann, the court band-master.
Albert continued to correspond with Luther and Melanchthon, and many notes from his hand, remarks on the Psalms and the Pauline epistles, show how deeply he endeavored to penetrate into the Scriptures. To promote Christian culture he established a library in his castle, the basis of the public library founded by him in 1540. For
the benefit of a higher evangelical education he established Latin high-schools, and founded at
Konigaberg a school which in 1544, 7. Later Ef- with the assistance of Luther and
forts in Melanchthon, he converted into a uniBehalf of versity. As first rector he called Georg the Refor- Sabinus, son-in-law of Melanchthon,mation. but his character rather hampered the development of the institution. A still greater impediment was the appointment, in 1549, of the former Nuremberg reformer Andreas Osiander as first theological professor, his doctrine of justification calling forth controversies (see OsI ANDER, ANDREAS). After Osiander's death (1552), his son-in-law Johann Funck (q.v.) gained such in fluence over the duke that he appointed none but followers of Osiander, whose opponents, headed by J. Morlin, were obliged to leave the country. The political and ecclesiastical confusion finally became so great that a Polish commission was forced to interfere, and in 1566 Funck and two of his party were executed as " disturbers of the peace, traitors, and promoters of the Osiandrian heresy." The former advisers of the duke were then rein stated.
These painful experiences caused Albert to long for rest and the restoration of peace in Church and country. He recalled Morlin and Martin Chemnitz, and, in consequence of a resolution of the synod, which met in 1567, to abide by the corpus dodrinte of the Lutheran Church, he caused them to prepare the Corpus dodrince Pruthenicum (or Wiederholung der Summa and Inhalt der rechten allgemeitnen christlichen Kirchenlehre-repetitio corporis dodrinas chris tiarrte) in which the Osiandrian errors were also refuted. This symbol, which was approved by the estates; Albert published with a preface, dated July 9, 1567, in which it was stated that " no one shall be admitted to any office in Church or school who does not approve of and accept it."After the settlement of the doctrinal questions, a revision of the former church-order was undertaken, the outcome of which was the Kirchenordnung and Ceremonien, published in 1568. The vacant epis copal sees of Pomesania and Samland were filled by the appointment of G. Venediger (Venetus) and J. M6rlin respectively, after arrangements had been made with the estates as to the election, juris diction, and salary of the bishops, whereby the old episcopal constitution of the Prussian Church was established and assured. Thus, notwithstanding the trials of his last years, Albert saw the full development of the Evangelical Church in the duchy of Prussia, and quiet and peace restored before his death. He left a beautiful testimony of his evangelical faith in his testament for Albert Frederick, his son by his second wife, Anna of Brunswick, whom he had married in 1550. His last words were: °1 Into thy hands I commit my spirit, thou hast redeemed me, 0 Lord God of Truth." DAVID ERDMANNt. BIBLIOagAPgy: Sources: M. Luther, Briefs, ed. by W. M. L. de Wette and J. K. Seidemann 6 vole., Berlin, 1826 73; P. Melanchthon, B rlete an Albrecht Herzog von Preut esn, ed. by K. Faber Berlin, 1817; J. Voigt, Brietweehael der bsrttAmtastan Gelakrkr des Zeftalters der Reformation mit Herzog Albrecht von Preussen, K6nigeberg, 1841; T. Kolde, Analeda lutherana. Goths, 1883; P. Taehaokert, Urkundanbueh sur Re%rmationepekhickts des Hersoptume Preussen, vols. i: iii. (vols. zliii: Av. of Publikationen aus don k. preussiaehen Stoats-Arehiven. Berlin, 1890). Gen eral Literature: D. H. Arnold, Historie der Kbniflabager UniversitSE, vol. i., K6nigsberg, 1746; idem, Kurzpejawts Kirchengeachichte von Preussen, ib. 1.769; F. S. Bock, Leben and Thaten AibrecAts des Aeltern, ib. 1750; L. von Baesko, Oesehichte Preussen*, vol. iv., ib. 1795; A. R. Gebser and C. A. Hagen, Der Dom su Konipsberg, ib. 1835; L. von Ranke, Deutsche Gewhichte im Zeitalter der Reformation, vol. ii., Berlin, 1843, Eng. transl., new ed., Robert A. Johnson London, 1905 (very good); W. M611er, Andreas Osiander, Elberfeld, 1870; ADB, vol. i_ K. A. Hale, Her zopAlbrecht won Preuasen and seine Hofprediper, ib.1879 (an elaborate monograph); K. Lohmeier, Herzog Albrecht won Preussen, Danzig, 1890; H. Pruts, Herzog Albrecht von Preussen, in Preuesische Jabrbticher, 1xvi. 2, Berlin, 1890; E. Joachim, Die Politik des letzten Hochmsieters in Preussen, Albrecht von Brandenburg, 3 vols., Leipsie, 1892 94; P. Teehsekert, Herzog Albreckt von Preussen ale rejor matorische Peraonlichkeit, Halle, 1894.
ALBERT OF RIGA: Founder of the German power among the Esthonians and Letts; d. at Riga Jan. 17, 1229. He was a nephew of Hartwig, archbishop of Bremen, and is first mentioned as canon in that city. In 1199 he was ordained bishop of Uexkiill, in the territory of the Livonians, as the successor of Bishop Berthold (see BERT$OLD OF LIVONIA) who had perished the previous year in an uprising of the pagan inhabitants. Though organized missionary work had been carried on among the Letts and the Livonians since 1184, they had shown themselves hostile to the new creed, and it fell to Albert to maintain his episcopal title and to spread the Gospel by the sword. Aided by a papal bull he succeeded in raising a large force of crusaders, and in the year 1200 appeared on the shores of the Dwina, where he met with little resistance from the Livonians. In 1201 he founded the town of Riga, and for the protection of his dominions and the extension of his conquests organized the Order of the Brothers of the Sword (q.v.), whose grand master was made subordinate to his authority. The Christianizing of the country was promoted by the introduction of Cistercian and Premonstrant monks, and by 1206 almost the entire Livonian population had been baptized. In 1207 Albert received Livonia as a fief from the German king, together with the title of " Prince of the Empire." Three years later he was confirmed by Innocent III. as bishop of the territories of the Livonians and the Letts, and, without receiving the dignity of archbishop, was granted the right to nominate and ordain bishops for such territorial conquests as might be made from the heathen peoples to the northeast. He now met with formidable rivalry from the Brothers of the Sword, whose grand master desired to make himself independent of the bishop. The Danes, also, by the acquisition of LUbeck in 1215, became a powerful factor in the politics of the eastern Baltic. Though forced for a time to make concessions to both, Albert by courage and a wise use of circumstances, succeeded in retaining his power unimpaired. From 1211 to 1224 vigorous campaigns were carried on against the heathen Esthonians to the northeast, who although sided by the Russian rulers of Novgorod and Pskov, were compelled to submit to the German power. The Danish influence speedily disappeared, and the
Brothers of the Sword were forced in time to take their lands in Esthonia as a fief from Albert and from his brother Hermann, whom he had made bishop of southern Esthonia, with his seat at Dorpat. In 1227 the island of Oesel, the last stronghold of the heathen resistance and the refuge of pirates who held the eastern Baltic in terror, was overrun by a crusading army, and the conversion of the country was completed. Albert is a striking type of the militant ecclesiastic of the Middle Ages. In spite of his great services in the spread of Christianity in the Baltic lands, it is as the warrior, prince, and diplomat, rather than as bishop, that he stands out most prominently. (F. LEzicvs.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Heinricus de Lettis, Chronieon Livonia, 1125-1227, in MGH, Script., xxiii. (1874) 231-332; K. von Sehl6ser, Livland and die An/Cnpe deutechen Lebxns im Norden, Berlin, 1850; F. Winter, Die Pramonebatenser des swolften Jahrhunderta, ib. 1865; idem, Die Cietercienser do& nord,5aaichen Deutechlands, Goths, 1868; R. Hausmann, Das Ringen der Deutschen and Danen un den Besita Retlande, Leipeie, 1870; G. Dehio, Geschiehte des Embiatums Hamburg-Bremen, ii. 160 aqq., Berlin, 1877; T. Schiemann, Rusaland, Polen and Livland, in Allpemeine Oeschichte, ii. 1 sqq., ib. 1887.
ALBERTI, 81-bar'-tf, VALENTIN: Lutheran; b. at Ulm (60 m. w.s.w. of Breslau), Silesia, Dec. 15, 1635; d. in Leipsic Sept. 19, 1697. He studied in the latter city and spent most of his life there, being professor extraordinary of theology from 1672. As a representative of the orthodoxy of his time he wrote against Pufendorf and Scheffling (qq.v.), but is noteworthy chiefly for his part in the Pietistic controversy. In Feb., 1687, he furnished a meeting-place in his house for the col legia philobZlica, which brought on the controversy in Leipaic (see PirmsM). Nevertheless, in 1696 he published an Ausfiihrlicher Gegenantwort au/ Speners sogenannte grundliche Vertheidigung sedner and der Pietisten Unachuld.
ALBERTINI, el"ber-ti'nf, JOHANN BAPTIST VON: Moravian bishop; b. at Neuwied (on the Rhine; 8 m. n.n.w. of Coblenz) Feb. 17, 1769; d. at Bertheladorf, near Herrahut, Dec. 6, 1831. He was educated at Neuwied, at Niesky (1782-85), and at the theological seminary of Barby (1785-88). From 1788 to 1810 he taught in the school at Nieaky; from 1810 to 1821 he was preacher and bishop in Niesky, Gnadenberg, and Gnadenfrei (Silesia); in 1821 he became a member, and in 1824 president, of the Elders' Conference in the department for Church and school. He published: Predigten (1805); Geistliche Lieder (1821); and Rzden (1832). Some of his spiritual songs are of rare beauty. He was a fellow student and friend of Schleiermacher.
ALBERTUS 11IAGRUS (" Albert the Great "): Founder of the most flourishing period of -acholasticisn; b. at Lauingen (26 m. n.w. of Augsburg), Bavaria, 1193; d. at Cologne Nov. 15, 1280. He studied at Padua, entered the order of St. Dominic there in 1223, and served as lector in the various convent schools of the order in Germany, especially in Cologne. In 1245 he went to Paris to become master of theology. In 1248 he returned to Cologne as primaries lector and regens of the school in that city. In 1254 a general chapter of the Dominican order at Worms chose him general for Germany,
in which capacity he traversed the country on foot from end to end, visiting the monasteries and enforcing discipline. In 1260 Alexander IV. made him bishop of Regensburg; but this office was so little in harmony with his character and habits as a teacher and writer that, after the lapse of two years, he was allowed to resign. He retired to his monastery in Cologne, where he spent the rest of his life, making many brief visits, however, to other places; as when he went to Paris after he had reached the age of 80 to vindicate the orthodoxy of his late pupil, Thomas Aquinas.
As an author Albert evinced a many-sidednesa which procured for him the title of doctor universalia, while his knowledge of natural science and its practical applications made him a sorcerer in popular estimation. His works fill twenty-one folio volumes as published by P. Jammy (Lyons, 1651; reedited by A. Borgnet, 38 vola., Paris, 1890-1900). They embrace logic, physics, metaphysics and psychology, ethics, and theology. By the use of translations from the Arabic and Greco-Latin versions, he expounded the complete philosophical system of Aristotle, excepting the "Politics," modifying his interpretation in the interests of the Church. Thus the influence of Aristotle came to supersede Platonism and Neoplatonism in the later scholasticism. At a time when dialectic was in sore need of a new method, the introduction of the Aristotelian logic provided a subtle and searching instrument for investigation and discussion. For Albertus, logic was not properly a science, but an organon for reaching the unknown by means of the known. Following Avicenna whom he regards as the leading commentator of Aristotle, he affirms that universals exist in three modes: (1) Before the individuals, as ideas or types in the divine mind (Plato). (2) In the individuals, as that which is common to them (Aristotle). (3) After the individuals, as an abstraction of thought (conceptualists and nominalista). Thus he seeks to harmonize the rival teachings concerning universals. In expounding the physical theories of Aristotle, he showed that he partook of the rising scientific spirit of the age, especially in his criticism of alchemy and in De vegetabilibw et plantis, which abounds in brilliant observations.
The chief theological works of Albertus were a commentary (3 vola.) on the " Sentences " of Peter Lombard, and a Summum theologize in a more didactic strain. Already the " doctrine of the twofold truth " had been accepted by his contemporaries-what is truth in philosophy may not be truth in theology, and vice versa. Christian thinkers were, however, profoundly perplexed by the sharp opposition between ideas drawn from Greek scientific and philosophical sources and those derived from religious tradition. Albertus sought to soften this antinomy by establishing the distinction between natural and revealed religion, which became henceforth a postulate of medieval and later theology. Since the soul can know only that which is grounded in its own nature, it rises to the mystery of the Trinity, the Incarnation, and other specifically Christian doctrines through
supernatural illumination alone. Hence the wellknown dictum: "Revelation is above but not contrary to reason." On the one hand, the attempt to " rationalize " the contents of revelation must be abandoned; on the other hand, philosophy must be modified in the interests of faith. The merit which belongs to faith consists in its accepting truth which comes only through revelation. In his entire discussion concerning the being and attributes of God, concerning the world as created in time in opposition to the eternity of matter as maintained by Aristotle, concerning angels, miracles, the soul, sin and free-will, grace, and finally, original and actual sin, the Aristotelian logic is applied in the most rigid manner, and when this fails Albertus retires behind the distinction thrown up between philosophy and theology. With all his learning and subtlety of argument, he made it evident that with his presuppositions and by his method a final adjudication of the claims of reason and faith, that is, a unity of intelligence, is impossible. Apart from his vast erudition, his significance lay first, in his profound influence upon scholastic and the subsequent Protestant theology through his substitution of the Aristotelian logic and metaphysics for Platonic and Neoplatonic ideas, and secondly, in the fact, that to a degree never before attempted, he set in clear light and organized in the thought of the Church the ancient opposition between Jewish supernaturalism and Greek rationalism. By the false antithesis thus raised between reason and revelation, he prepared the way for the long conflict of theology and science, of reason and dogma, of naturalism and supernaturalism, of individual judgment and collective authority, which is still unsettled. C. A. BEcgwITS.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Sighart, Albertus Magna, sein Leben and seine Wiaaenecha/t, Ratisbon, 1857, Eng. transl., London, 1876; B. Gauslinus, Alberta Magna, Venice, 1&30; F. A. Pouchet, Histoire des sciences naturelles au moyen-dge, ou Albert to Grand et eon ipoque, Paris, 1853; M. Joel, Verhbltniu Albert des Grossen zu Moses Maimonides, Breslau, 1863; O. d'Assailly, Albert It Grand, Paris, 1870; W. Preger Geschote der deutechen m ysta irn mittetalter, Leipsie, 1874; Alberta Magna in Geschichts and Sage. Cologne, 1880; G. von Hertling, Alberta Magna, i b. 1880; R. de Lieehty Albert Is Grand et S. Thomas d'Aquin, Paris, 1880; J. Bash, Des Alberta Magna Verhllltniss zu der Erkenntniselehre der Griechen, Late ner, Araber and Juden, Vienna, 1881; A. Schneider, Die PsydologieAlberts des Groseen, Munster, 1903. For his philosophy: A. St5ek1, Geechichk d er echolstischen Philosophies 3 vols.. Maine, 1864-86; J. E. Erdmann, Grundries der Gesehichie der PhilosoPhie. i., 4th ed.,1895, Eng. transl., vol. i., London, 1893. ALBIGENSES. See NEw MAN1caEANs, II.
ALBIZZI, dl-bit'si or dl-bit'eI, ANTONIO: Italian priest; b. in Florence Nov. 25, 1547; d. at Kempten (50 m. s.s.w, of Augsburg), Bavaria, July 17, 1626. He became secretary to Cardinal Andrew, archduke of Austria (1576), but after the death of the latter (1591) embraced Protestantism, left Italy, and resided thenceforth in Augsburg and Kempten He wrote: Principrium Christianorum stemmata (Augsburg, 1608); Sermon,, in Matthaum (1609); De prineilnis religionis Christian- (1612); and Exereitationesten, 1616). theologica (Kemp-
ALBIZZI, BARTOLOMEO (Let. Bartholomatts Atbtctus Pisa--): Franciscan monk; b. at Riva-
no, Tuscany; d. at Pisa Dec. 10, 1401. He became a celebrated preacher, and taught theology in several monasteries, chiefly at Pisa. He wrote a famous book, Llber conformitatum vita Sancti Franciaci cum vita Jesu Christi, which was approved by the general chapter of his order in 1399 and was first printed at Venice toward the close of the fifteenth century. It is of great value for the history of the Franciscans, but is marred by exaggerations and lack of judgment and good taste (e.g., he states that Francis was foretold in the Old Testament by prototypes and prophecies, that he performed miracles and prophesied, and that he was crucified and is exalted above the angels). In subsequent editions many passages were modified or omitted. Erasmus Alber (q.v.) made it the basis of his Barfasser Mdnche Eulenspiegel and Alcoran (published at Wittenberg, with an introduction -by Luther, 1542). Albizzi published also sermons and a life of the Virgin Mary (Venice, 1596).
ALBO, JOSEPH: The last noteworthy Jewish religious philosopher of the Middle Ages; b. at Monreal (125 m. e.n.e. of Madrid), Spain, about 1380; d. about 1444. He was one of the principal Jewish representatives at the disputation held in 1413 and 1414 at Tortosa, under the auspices of Benedict XIII., between selected champions of the Jewish and Christian religions, with the view of convincing the Jews, from the testimony of their own literature, of the truth of Christianity. About 1425, at Soria in Old Castile, he wrote his principal work of religious philosophy, Sepher her `Ikkarim ("Book of the Roots," i.e., " Fundamental Principles "). He finds three ideas fundamental in any religion, viz., God, Revelation, and Retribution. [In the idea of God he finds four secondary principles, unity, incorporeality, eternity, and perfection; in the second of his fundamentals he finds three secondary principles, prophecy, Moses as the unique prophet, and the binding force of the Mosaic Law; and from his third fundamental he derives secondarily the belief in the resurrection of the body.] He discusses also the distinguishing marks of the historic religions, attempting to prove that Judaism is differentiated from Christianity by its greater credibility and consonance with reason: Belief in a Messiah he considers an essential part not of Judaism, but of Christianity. There is a German translation of his work by W. and L. Schlesinger (Frankfort, 1844). (G. DALMAN.)
BIBLIOORAPH7: M. Eisler, Yorlesungen iiber die yiid»che Philosophie des Mittelalters, iii. 186-234, Vienna 1876; $. Grits, Geechi" der Juden 3d ed., viii. 168-178, Berlin, 1890, Eng tranel., London 1891-98· A. TEnzer, Die Rellgioa-Philoaophie Joseph Albo's, Frankfort. 1896; JE, i. 324-327.ALBRECHT, al'brent. See ALBERT. ALBRECHT, OTTO WILHELM FERDINAND:
German Lutheran; b. sit Angermilnde (42 m. n.e. of Berlin) Dec. 2, 1855. He was educated at the
gyium in POtadam, at the University of Halle (1873-77), and at the Wittenberg seminary for preachers. He was aASistant pastor at Wittenberg in 1880-81, and pastor at Stodten in 188184, at Dachwig in 1884-92, and at Naumburg (Saale)
from 1892 to the present time. He was elected a corresponding member of the K6nigliche Akademie gemeinniUziger Wissensehaften in 1895. His theological position is that of a modern Lutheran. His writings include Geschichte der Magdeburger Bibelgesellschaft (1892); Die evangelische Gemeinde MiUmberg ttnd ihr erster Prediger (Halle, 1896); Predigten (Goths, 1899); Geschichte der Marien-Magdalenenkirche zu Naumburg a. .S. (1902); and Das Enchiridion Luthers vom Jahre 1536 herausgegeben and untersucht (1905). He has also been a collaborator on the Weimar edition of the works of Luther, to which he has contributed the fifteenth and twenty-eighth volumes, containing the reformer's writings of 1524 and his sermons on John in 1528-29 (Weimar, 1898-1903). He is likewise a collaborator on the Brunswick edition of Luther, and is the author of numerous briefer monographs and contributions.
ALBRIGHT, 61'brait, JACOB: Founder of "the Evangelical Association of North America; " b. near Pottstown, Penn., May 1, 1759; d. at Miihlbach, Lebanon County, Penn., May 18, 1808. His parents were Pennsylvania Germans of the Lutheran Church, in which denomination he was himself trained. His education was defective, and his early surroundings were unintellectual. After marriage he moved to Lancaster County and carried on a successful tile and brick business. Grief over the death of several children in one year (1790) and the counsels of Anton Hautz, a German Reformed minister, led to his conversion, and he became a Methodist lay preacher. At length his concern for his German Lutheran brethren led him to give up business and devote himself entirely to missionary efforts. As the Methodist Church did not desire to enter upon the German field he founded a new denomination. Its members are often called the " Albright Brethren." See EVANGELICAL Aeso CIATION.
ALCAlaTARA, al-cdn'ta-r8, ORDER OF: A spiritual order of knights, with Cistercian rule, founded for the defense of the frontier of Castile against the Moors under Alfonso VIII., the Noble (1158-1214). Its name at first was Order of San Julian del Pereiro (" of the pear-tree "), from a Castilian frontier citadel, the defense of which was entrusted to two brothers, Suarez and Gomez Barrientos, who with Bishop Ordonius (Ordosio) of Salamanca (11606) founded the order. When Alcantaas in Estremadura was taken by King Alfonso IX. of Leon in 1213, the seat of the order was transferred to that place. Alfonso committed the defense of this important fortress at first to the knightly order of Calatrava (q.v.), but five years later he transferred the service to the Order of San Julian, which now (1218) took the name of the Order,of Alcantara, being still subject, however, to the grand master of the Calatrava order. Taking advantage of a contested election, it separated from the Calatrava order, and elected its first iadepend. ent grand master fn the person of Diego Sanchez. During the subsequent struggles with the Moors, in which the Alcantam knights distinguished themselves by their bravery, they had on their flag theunited arms of Leon and Castile, with a cross of the order and the ancient emblem of the pear-tree. The number of their commanderies in their days of prosperity was about fifty. When Juan de ZuBiga, the thirty-eighth grand master (1479-95) resigned his office to become archbishop of Seville, the grand mastership passed to the king of Castile (Ferdinand the Catholic). With its independent existence the order lost more and more its spiritual character. In consequence of the disturbances in the Spanish monarchy, it was abolished in 1873, but was re established in 1874 as a purely military order of merit by Alfonso XII. O. ZbCSLERt.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rades de Andrada, Cronica de las tree Ordines y Caballerka de Santiago, Calatrava y Alcantara, Toledo, 1572; Di finieiones de la orden y caroalleria de Atcantara, Madrid, 1663; Helyot, Ordree inonastiquea, vi. 5365; P. B. Gams, Kirchsnpeachickte von Spanien, iii. 55-56. Ratisbon, 1876.ALCIMUS. See HIGH PRIEST.
ALCUIII, al'cwin (English name, Ealhwine; Lat. Flaccus Albinus): The most prominent adviser of Charlemagne in his efforts to promote learning; b. in Northumbria (perhaps in York) 735 (730?); d. at Tours May 19, 804. He was of good birth and a relative of Willibrod. He was educated in the famous cathedral school of Archbishop Egbert of York (q.v.), under a master, Ethelbert (Albert), who seems to have been a man of many-sided learning and who is often praised by Alcuin. With him, or commissioned by him, Alcuin made several visits to Rome, and on such journeys became acquainted with Frankish monasteries and with men like Lul of Mainz and Fulrad of St. Denis. He succeeded Ethelbert as head of the school when the latter was made archbishop (766), and, after Ethelbert's retirement and the elevation of Eanbald to the archiepiscopal throne (778), was also custos of the valuable cathedral library at York. He went to Rome to obtain the pallium for Eanbald, and at Parma (781) met Charlemagne to whom he was already known. Shortly after his return to England he accepted a call from the Frankish king, who was then gathering scholars at his court, and, with the exception of a visit to his native land on political business in 790-793, spent the rest of his life on the Continent. Charlemagne gave him the income of several abbeys, and till 790 he acted as head of a court school, where not only the sons of the Frankish nobles, but Charlemagne and his family as well, profited by his instruction.
A true scholar and teacher, Alcuin seldom meddled in worldly affairs, and his letters (more than 300 in number) give little historical information, though they are rich in personal details. He took an active part in the Adoptionist controversy, wrote two treatises against Felix of Urgel, and opposed his colleague, Elipandus. At the Synod of Frankfort in 794 he assisted in the condemnation of Felix, and later, at the Synod of Aachen in 799 (800?), induced him to recant (see ADornoNIsm). From 793 he was the constant and efficient helper of Charlemagne in founding schools, promoting the education of the clergy, and like undertakings. He was also in close association with contemporaries like Arno of Salzburg, Angilbert, abbot of
Centula, and Adalhard of Corbie. In 796 his patron gave him the abbey of St. Martin, near Tours, and several other monasteries. Under his guidance the school of Tours became a nursery of ecclesiastical and liberal education for the whole kingdom. His distinguished pupils there included Sigulf, who supplied the information for his biography, Rabanus Maurus, and perhaps the liturgist, Amalarius of Metz. When old and feeble and almost blind, he left the management to his scholars, but he continued to be the counselor of his royal friend till his death.
Alcuin was mild in spirit, adverse to discord, orthodox in faith, equally interested in promoting the authority of Rome and the royal priesthood of Charlemagne. His great service was his part in the so-called Carolingian renaissance, his wise and efficient efforts to elevate and educate the clergy and the monks, to improve preaching, to regulate the Christian life of the people and advance the faith among the heathen, always by instruction rather then by force. His theology, while not original, rests on an intimate acquaintance with the Fathers, especially Jerome and Augustine. To ecclesiastical learning he added classical, but in such manner that it was always the servant of the former. He was able to give his master information concerning astronomy and natural science but, as he considered grammar and philosophy auxiliary to religion, so he regarded these branches of knowledge primarily as a means of knowing God.
His theological writings include a work on the Trinity which contains the germs of the later scholastic theology. His authorship of a Libeldus de processu Spiritus Sancti and of some other works which have been attributed to him is doubtful. He wrote commentaries on Genesis, the Psalms, the Song of Songs, John, and other books of the Bible, based upon the Church Fathers and following the current moral and allegorical exposition. At Charlemagne's request he revived the text of the Vulgate according to the best available sources. His skill as a teacher is evident in text-books on grammar and orthography, as well as in treatises on rhetoric and dialectics which resemble Cicero. His Latin poems, including epigrams, friendly letters, hymns, riddles, poems for special occasions, and the like, show more skill in versification than poetic gifts. The most important, the De pontifteibus et sanetis ecclesim Eboracensis, gives valuable information concerning the state of culture in his native land and his own education [and contains (ll. 1530--61) a catalogue of the cathedral library at York, which is the earliest existing catalogue of an English library]. With the exception of the hymns, all his poems are partly in heroic and partly in elegiac verse. He prepared lives of Willibrod, Vedastus, and Richarius, which are mainly recasts and amplifications of older works. Of a liturgical and devotional character are a Liber sacra7nentalis and the De psalmorum uau. Intended:pore particularly for the laity are the De virtutibus et vitiis and a psyehologico-philosophical treatise on ethics, De mnimm rations ad Eulaliam virginem (i.e., Gun-trade, the sister of Adalhard). H. HAHN. BraLI06gAPHT: Sources: Alcuin, Opera, ed. by Frobenius Forster, 2 vole., Ratisbon, 1777, oontaine anonymous life written before 829 A.D. on data furnished by Sigulf; re printed in MPL, e.-ci.; Monuments Alcuiniana, ed. by W. Wattenbach and E. Dommler, in BRG, vi., Berlin, 1873 (contains life of Alcuin, his life of Willibrod, and his Ds pontificibw); Alcuin, Epietola, in MGH, Epist., iv. 1-481 (Epist. Caroli aroi, ii.), 1895, and in BRG,1873, vi. 144-897; idem, Carmina, in MGH, Poets latini mvi Caroli, i. (1881) 160--350; idem, De pontificibue, in Historians of the Church of York and its Archbishops, ed. by J. Raine, i. 349-398 (cf. pp. lxi: lxv. of Rolls Series, No. 71, Lon don, 1879); Martinus Turonensis, Vita Alcuini Abbatis, in MGH, Script., xv. 1 (1887),182-197. General: Rivet, in Histaire litt-Araire do to France, iv. 295-347; F. Lo rents, Alcuins Leben, Halls, 1829, Eng. tranal., Lon don, 1837; J. C. F. B&hr, Geschichte der r6mischen Litera tur im karolinpisehen Zeitalter, pp. 78-84, 192-196, 302 354, Carleruhe, 1840; J. B. LaforAt, Aleuin, restaurateur des sciences en occident soua Charlemagne, Louvain, 1851; F. Monnier, Alcuin et son influence litteraire, relipituse et politiqm ches Us Franks, 2d ed., Paris, 1864; A. Dupuy, Alcuin et 1'kole de Saint-Martin de Tours, Tours, 1876; idem, Alcuin et la souveraineM pond ficale au huitilme sikle, ib.1872; F. Hamelin, Eaaai sur lavie et lee ouvrapea d'A leuin, Rennes, 1874; ADB, i. 343-348; T. Sickel, Alcuinstudien, i. 92, Vienna, 1875; J. B. Mullinger, The Schools of Charles the Great, ch. i: ii., New York, 1904; DCB, i. 73-76; A. Ebert, Allpemeine Geechichte der Litteratur des Mittelalters, ii. 12-36, Leipsie, 1880; K. Werner, Alcuin and aein Jahr hundert, 2d ed., Vienna, 1881; S. Abel and B. Simeon, Jahrbacher des frankischen Reichs unter Karl dem Grossen, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1883; A. Largesult, Inscriptions mitrique8 eompoe&s par Alcuin, Poitiers, 1885; DNB, i. 239 240; L. Traube, Karolingiache Dichtunpen, Berlin, 1888; Hauck, KD, ii. 119-145; W. S. Teuffel, Geschichk der remiaeAen Literatur, p. 1090, No. 8, p. 1305, No. 3, Leip sic, 1890; Wattenbach, DGQ, 1893, pp. 148, 152,159-163; A. West, Alcuin and the Rise of the Christian Schools, New York, 1893; C. J. B. Gaskoin, Aleuin, his Life and Work, Cambridge, 1904. ALDEBERT. See ADALBERT.
ALDENBBURG, BISHOPRIC OF. See LBBECg, B18HOpmC OF.
ALDHELM (EALDHELM), 81d'helm, SAINT: Abbot of Malmesbury and first bishop of Sherborne; b. probably at Brokenborough (2 m. n.w of Malmesbury), Wiltshire, between 639 and 645; d. at Doulting (7 m. s.e. of Wells), Somersetehire, May 25, 709. He was of royal family on both his father's and mother's side, studied with Maildulf (Maelduib), an Irish hermit, at Mahnesbury (Maildulfsburg), and remained there as monk for fourteen years. In 670 and again in 672 he attended the school of Canterbury and laid the foundations of his many-sided knowledge under the instruction of Archbishop Theodore and his associate Hadrian. In 675 he succeeded Maildulf as abbot at Malmesbury, and as such increased the possessions of the monastery, spread abroad the faith, and founded many stone churches, after the fashion of Canterbury, in place of the small wooden ones. In 705 the bishopric of the West Saxons was divided, Aldhelm being made bishop of the western part with his seat at Sherborne (in northwestern Dorsetshire, 18 m. n. of Dorchester). He retained his abbacy. He was buried at Mahnesbury, but his remains were often translated. He was canonized in 1080.
Aldhelm was one of the most learned men of his time, and he occupies a distinguished place among early British scholars. He represented both the Iro-Scottish and the Roman ecclesiastical culture, and had an acquaintance with classical authors
like Homer and Aristotle, as well as with neoChristian writers such as Prudentius and Sedulius. His works abound in Greek and Latin words, and his style is bombastic. Besides philology, poetry, music, astronomical calculations, and the like occupied him, and he is said to have written popular hymns. He made Malmesbury a rival of Canterbury as a seat of learning, and princes, abbesses, monks, and nuns from far and near were among his admirers. He is said to have visited Rome during the pontificate of Sergius (687-701) and to have returned with relics, books, and a grant of privileges for his monastery. He supported Wilfrid of York (q.v.) against his enemies, and was prominent in urging the Britons to conform to the Roman tonsure and Easter.
Besides briefer letters, preserved (often only in fragments) by Lul of Mainz, Aldhelm's works include treatises in epistolary form and poems, viz.: (1) an Epistola ad Aeircium (King Aldfrid) concerning the number seven, riddles, versification, and the like; (2) an Epistola ad Geruntium (a Welsh prince, Geraint) concerning the Easter question; (3 and 4) a prose work and a poem in praise of virginity, addressed to the abbess and nuns of Barking, closing with a description of eight vices, which contains thrusts at Anglo-Saxon conditions. To his treatise on riddles he added 100 specimens dealing with nature and art, which are full of a feeling for nature, being herein a prototype of such of his countrymen as Tatwin and Boniface. In his letter to Geraint he holds as worthless good works without connection with the Roman Church. His poetry is flowery, involved, and alliterative. His chief merit was the extension of the faith in the south of England, the education of his native land, and his literary influence on the Continent.H. H-Lam. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Aldhelmi Opera, in PEA, No. 583, Oxford, 1844, reprinted in MPL, lxxxix,; Epietola, in P. Jaffd. BRO, iii. 24-28, Berlin, 1866, and in MGH, Epist., iii. (1892) 231-247; William of Mahnesbury, De gestis pontificum Anplorum, ed. N. E. S. A. Hamilton, in Rolls Series, No. 52, pp. 332-443, London, 1870, and in MPL, clxxix.; idem, De Geetia Regum Angtorum, 1887-89, in Rolle Series, No. 90; Faricius, Vita Aldhelmi, in J. A. Giles, Vita quo rundam Anglo-Saxonum, London, 1854, and in MPL, lxxxix. (Faricius was an Italian, physician to Henry 1, of England, a monk of Malmesbury, and abbot of Abing ford); Bede, Hint. eccl., v. 18; J. M. Kemble, Codex dip lotnaticus w vi Saxonici, London, 1839; T. Wright, Bio graphia Brifannica litteraria, i. 209-222, ii. 47, ib. 1851; Eulogium historiarum, 1858, in Rolls Series, No. 9; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 1861, ib. No. 23; Regiwum Afal mesburien8e, 1879, ib. No. 72; DNB, i. 78-79, 245-247; H. Hahn, Boni/ace and Lul, ihre angeudchaischen Korree pondenten, Leipsie, 1883; M. Manitius, Zu Aldhelm and Bada, Vienna, 1886 (on Aldhelm's literary work); L. Traube, Karolingische Dichtungen, Berlin, 1888; W. S. Teuffel, Geschichte der r6misAen Literatur,1304, ¢ 500, No. 2, Leipsic, 1890; L. Boenhoff, Aldhelm roan Malmeeburp, Dresden, 1894; W. Bright, Early English Church History, pp. 294-297, 444-448, 462-189, 471-474, Oxford, 1897; W. B. Wildman, Life of St. Ealdhelm, Sherborne, 1905. ALEANDRO, GIROLAMO, a"16-dn~dro if-r5'ld-ma
(Lest. Hieronymus Aleander): Italian humanist and cardinal; b. at Motta (30 m. n.e. of Venice) Feb. 13, 1480; d. in Rome Jan. 31, 1542. He studied in his native town and in Venice, settled in the latter city as a teacher in 1499, and became a contributor to the press of Aldus Manutius. In 1508L-8
he went to Paris and there attained great reputation as a classical scholar, being chosen in 1513 rector of the university. In the following year he went to Liege where the influence of Bishop Erard made him chancellor of the see of Chartres. As Erard's representative he went to Rome in 1516 and won the favor of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, whose private secretary he became. Later, Leo X. appointed him librarian to the Vatican. In 1520 he went as nuncio to the court of Emperor Charles V., charged with the task of combating the heretical teachings of Luther. He procured Luther's condemnation at the Diet of Worms in 1521, and is supposed to have been the author of the edict issued against the great reformer. He was made archbishop of Brindisi in 1524 and was sent as nuncio to the court of Francis I. of France, with whom he was taken prisoner at Pavia.
Till 1531 Aleandro lived without employment, in Venice for the greater part of the time, a refugee from Rome on account of his debts. In 1531 he was sent as papal representative to Charles V., whom he accompanied to the Netherlands and Italy, zealous in inciting the emperor to action against the Protestants. After residing as nuncio in Venice from 1533 to 1535 he was summoned to Rome by Pope Paul III., who, in preparation for a general council, wished to avail himself of Aleandro's historical learning. His services gained him a cardinal's hat in 1538, in which year he went as legate to Venice where the projected council was to be held. Thence he was sent to the court of the German king Ferdinand where he at first exerted himself in favor of a conciliatory policy toward the Protestants, and, when his efforts failed, demanded their ruthless destruction. Of his writings the reports covering his various diplomatic missions are of extreme value for the history of the Reformation. His letters also are of importance, among his correspondents being Aldus Manutius, Erasmus, Ulrich van Hutten, Bembo, Contarini, and Cardinal Pole. His diaries are remarkable for their frank revelation of a life of indulgence in Complete contrast with his priestly character.(T. BRIEGER.) BIBLIOGRAPHY: His papers, declarations, and letters are scattered in A. Mai, Spicilepium Romanum, ii. 231-240, Rome, 1839; H. Lemmer, Monumenta Vaticana, pp. 77 sqq., 223-241, Freiburg, 1861; J. J. I. van D511inger, Beitrage zur politischen, kirchlichen and Culturgeschichte, iii. 243-284, Vienna, 1882; P. Balan. Monuments Be formatibnis Lufherana, 1 aqq., 335 eqq.; P. de Nolhao, Studi a Documenti di Storia a Dirilto, ix. 208-217, Rome, 1888; B. Morsolin, 11 Concilio di Viosma, Venice, 1889; W. Friedensburg, Legation Aleanderst 16W--89, in Nuntiaharberichte sue Deutschland, voles iii. -iv., Goths, 1893; H. Omont, Journal autobiographique du . . . J. Al6arulre, pp. 36-98, 113 sqq., Paris, 1895. The foregoing are im portant for the history of the Reformation. For his life: W. Friedensburg, ut sup. iii. 28-41, 44. and Preface, pp. v: vii.; C. Peroeeo, Biografio del cardinals G. Aleandri, Venice, 1839. In general: K. Jansen, Aleander am Reichs tage su Worms, Kiel, 1883; G. M. Messuehelli, Gli Scri6 tori d'l talia, I. i. 408--424, Brescia, 1753; T. Brieger, Aleander and Luther 1681, part 1, Gotha, 1884.
ALEGAMBE, drrl&gdmbr, PHIUPPE D': Jesuit theologian and literary historian; b. in Brussels Jan. 22, 1592; d. in Rome Sept. 6, 1652. He entered the Jesuit order at Palermo in 1613, taught theology at Graz, and accompanied the son
of Prince von Eggenberg, the favorite of Ferdinand II., on his travels. Then he returned to Graz for a time, but in 1638 was called to Rome as secretary for German affairs to the general of his order. Here he remained until his death, acting in later years as spiritual director of the Roman house. Of his writings the most noteworthy is the BZliotheca scriptorum societatis Jesu (Antwerp, 1643), based upon an earlier catalogue of Jesuit writers by Peter Ribadeneira (1608, 1613), but much surpassing it in learning and thoroughness. Though betraying the Jesuit spirit, it shows, on the other hand, signs of an attempt at impartiality, proving, for example, that various books against the royal power, the episcopate, and the Sorbonne, the authorship of which the French Jesuits had tried to deny, were really written by them. A new and enlarged edition by an English Jesuit, Nathaniel Southwell, appeared at Rome in 1676. The work is now superseded by the Bxbliothhque des -Ocrivains de la Compagnie de J&us of Augustin and Aloys de Backer (7 vols., Li6ge, 1853-61; new ed. by C. Sommervogel, 9 vols., Brussels, 1890-1900).(A. HAucCg.)
ALEMANNI, S"16-mdn'nf: An important Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius as fighting a battle with Caracalla near Mainz in 213. According to Asinius Quadratus, they belonged to the confederacy of the Suevi. They came from the northeast, where the Bemnones held the territory between the Oder and the Elbe. They had varying success in their struggle against the Romans, but about 260-268 they occupied the Tithe Lands, north of the Danube, and advanced south as far as
Ravenna and east into what is now Early Austria. They fought with MaximianHistory. in 290, and obtained permanent pos-
session of the territory extending to the Alb and the Neckar about 300. By 405 or 406 they had conquered the southern plains of Upper Swabia and the neighboring lands of northern and eastern Switzerland, as far as the Vosges. In the fifth century the region from the Iller to the Vosges and from the lower Main to the St. Gothard bore the name of Alemannia. They were a fierce and stubborn race, hostile to Roman civilization, and possessing a religion closely connected with the powers of nature. In the Tithe Lands they must have met with at least weak Christian congregations, which fell with the Roman power.
The numerous captives who were led away from Christian Gaul had little influence after they were deprived ofChristian nurture. The Alemanni, however,
learned Christian views. Their prince, Conversion Gibuld, was an Arian, probably conto Chris- verted by Goths. The Augsburg bish-dan'ty· opric was maintained; but the Ale-
manni in general continued heathen till they were overcome at Strasburg in 496 by Clovis, king of the Franks. He took their northern territory and established royal residences there. A part of the people went into the country of the Ostrogoth Theodoric, probably the present German Switzerland, where the bishoprics of Windisch and Augst (Basel) existed and the Roman population was Christian. In 536 Vitiges ceded this territory to
the Frankish king Theodebert. Effective missionary work was carried on by the newly converted Franks from St. Martin's Church at Tours as a center; and churches dedicated to Saints Martin, Remigius, Brictius, Medard, Lupus, Antholianus, Clement, Felix, and Adauctua indicate the Frankish influence. In the courts the Frankish priest ruled beside the royal administrator. As early as 575 the Greek Agathias hoped for a speedy victory of Christianity among the Alemanni, because the " more intelligent " of them had been won by the Franks. Duke Uncilen (588-605) was probably, and his successor Cunzo was certainly, a Christian. The oldest law of the Alemanni, the so-called pactus of c. 590-600 recognizes the Church as the protector of slaves. The episcopal see of Windisch was transferred to Constance, nearer Ueberlingen, the ducal seat; and the Augsburg bishopric was separated from Aquileia, that of Strasburg coming again into prominence.
But heathenism was still powerful. Many of the new converts still sacrificed to the gods. The Frankish Church was not influential enough to permeatethe popular life of the Alemanni. But Irish efficient help came from the Celtic Mission- missionaries of Ireland. In 610 Co- aries. lumban (q.v.), on the suggestion of
King Theodebert, ascended the Rhine with monks from Luxeuil and settled at Bregenz, but had to leave after two years. His pupil Gallus, however, the founder of the monastery of St. Gall (q.v.), remained, and in connection with the native priests labored for the cause of Christ. From Poitiers came the Celt Fridolin (q.v.), founder of the monastery of Sackingen. Trudpert built a cell in the Breisgau. As the Merovingians sank lower and lower the dire of the Alemanni for independence grew, and they found need of the support of the Church in their struggle for liberty. Unwilling to see themselves surpassed in devotion by the despised Franks, they made rich donations to St. Gall. The Lex Alemannorum, drawn up probably at a great assembly under Duke Lantfried in 719, gave the Church and its bishops a position of dignity and power, though the life of the people was still far from being thoroughly influenced by its moral teaching. The effort for independence was crushed by the strong arm of the mayor of the palace. To balance St. Gall, which had favored it, Charles Martel, with the help of Pirmin (q.v.), founded the monastery of Reichenau in 724. Pirmin was expelled in 727, and his pupil and successor Heddo a few years later. The entire people were then baptized, but they had no clear knowledge of the Christian faith and were still influenced by heathen customs. The organizing work of Boniface was at first opposed in Alemannia, but by 798 the people had begun to make pilgrimages to Rome. Several small monasteries were established, and, besides St. Gall and Reichenau, the royal monwteries of Weissenburg, Lorsch, and Fulcra received rich gifts. The distinguished Alemanni who filled bishoprics under the Carolingians, and Hildegard,
the queen of Charlemagne, with her brother, Gerold, evidence the ultimate triumph of Christianity.G. BossERT.
BiswoasAmT: C. F. 8ttlin, Wflraember0whe Geschicbte, vol. i., Stuttgart, 1841; Rettberg, KD; Friedrich, KD; H. van Schubert, Die Untanoerfunp der Alamannen, Strasburg, 1884; G. Bomert, Die Anftlnge des Christentums in WVrttenbsrp, Stuttgart, 1888; A. Birlinger, Rachtarheiniaehes Alamannien; Greneen, SpraeAe, Eigenart, Stuttgart, 1890; E. Egli, KirvhenysschicW der Schweia big auf Karl den Groasan, Zetieh, 1893; WtiranrbwviacU Kirchenpeachichk of the Calwer Verlageverein, 1893; Hauck, KD, i. 2; F. L. Bauman-, Forachunpen sur Schwabischen Gesschichte, 600-685, Kempten, 1899.
ALESIUS, a-lf~ahi-us, ALEXANDER (Latinised form of Aless; known also as Alane): Protestant reformer; b. in Edinburgh Apr. 23, 1500; d. in Leipsic Mar. 17, 1585. He studied at St. Andrews and became canon there. In 1527 he tried to induce Patrick Hamilton (q.v.) to recant, attended him at the stake the next year, and was himself converted to the reformed doctrines. To escape from the harsh treatment of the provost of St. Andrews he fled to Germany (1532). Commended to Henry VIII. and Cramner by Melanchthon, he went to England in 1535. For a short time he lectured on divinity at Cambridge, studied and practised medicine in London, and was much esteemed by the reforming party there till 1540, when he went back to Germany and became professor at Frankfort-on-the-0der, removing three years later to Leipsic. He was closely associated with the German reformers, especially Melanchthon, and was honored and trusted by them, although a desire to conciliate and a belief that concord was possible where differences were irreconcilable made him sometimes appear vacillating and paradoxical. He wrote several exegetical works on different books of the Bible, and a large number of dogmatic and polemical treatises, such as De acri:Pturis legendia in lingua materna (Leipsic, 1533); De autoritate roerbi Dei (Strasburg, 1542), against Bishop Stokesley of London concerning the number of the sacraments; De juetificatione contra 08iandrum (Wittenberg, 1552); Contra Michaelem Servetum ejusque blasphemiaa disputationea tree (Leipsie, 1554).
BIBLIOGBAPHT: J. Thomaaius, Oratio de Alexandro Almio, in his Oration". Leipsic, 1883; T. Bean, looms, Geneva, 1580; C. Wordsworth, Eocksiaetical Biography, vol. ii., London, 1853; T. McCrie, Life of John Knox, Note 1, London, 1874; DNB, i. 254-259.ALEXANDER: The name of eight popes. Alexander I.: Bishop of Rome in the early years of the second century, successor of Evaristus and predecessor of Xystus I. The statement of the Leer pontiicalis (ed. Duchesne, i. xci.-xcii., 54) and the Actor Alezandri (ASB, May, i. 371-375) that he died a martyr, with two companions, Eventius and Theodulus, and was buried on the Via Nomentana, is improbable. The excavations made on the spot designated by the Lt'ber panti fi calis have indeed led to the discovery of a fragment of an inscription concerning a martyr Alexander, but he is not called a bishop. The year of Alex ander's consecration is variously given: Eusebius names 103 in his Chronicgn, and 108 in his Historia ecclwiaatica; the Catalogue LiUrianae, 109. The year of his death is given as 114, 116, and 118. Three letters falsely ascribed to him are in the Pseudo-Isidore (ed. Hinschins, Leipsic, 1863, pp. 94-105). (A. HAUCx.)
B113LIOGRAPHT: LIber po"iealiA, ed. Ducheene, 1. xci. eqq·, 54, Paris, 1888; Bower, Popes, i. 10; R. A. Lipsius, Die CAronokwi< der r6miachen Bisch4fe, pp. 187 eqq., Kiel, 1889; B. Jungmann, Dissertationes selector in Hist ad.. i. 134 eqq., Regensburg, 1880; J. Langan, Gesehichte der r6miechen Kirche, Bonn, 1881; Jafl6, Regeafa, i. 5.
Alexander II. (Anselm Badagius, sometimes called Anselm of Lucca): Pope Sept. 30, 1061-Apr. 21, 1073. He was born of a noble family at Baggio, near Milan. When the Patarene movement for reform began in 1058 (see PATARENF.9), he seems to have joined it. The archbishop Guido removed him by sending him on an embassy to the imperial court. Here he won the confidence of Henry III., which gained for him the bishopric of Lucca (1057). He was sent to Milan in 1057 and 1059 as legate in connection with the questions raised by the Pataria. On the death of Nicholas 11. (1081), he was elected pope through Hildebrand's influence. This was in direct contravention of the imperial rights, confirmed by Nicholas II. himself in 1059. The empress Agnes, as regent, convoked an assembly of both spiritual and temporal notables at Basel, and Cadalus of Parma was chosen pope by the German and Lombard bishops. He assumed the title of Honorius II., and had already defeated the adherents of his rival in a bloody battle under the walls of Rome, when Godfrey of Lorraine appeared and summoned both claimants to lay the eledtion before the young king Henry IV. At a synod of German and Italian bishops held at Augsburg in Oct., 1062, Hanno of Cologne, now regent, arranged that his nephew Burchard of Halberstadt should be sent to Rome to examine the case and make a preliminary decision. Burchard decided in favor of Alexander, who returned to Rome in the beginning of 1063, and held a synod at Easter, in which he excommunicated Honorius. The final decision of the contest was to be made at a synod of German and Italian bishops called for Pentecost, 1064, at Mantua. This was in favor of Alexander. See HONORIUS II., antipope.
Honorius did not abandon his pretensions until his death in 1072, though his power was confined to his diocese of Parma. Even during the contest, Alexander had exercised considerable authority over the Western Church, and after the decision at Mantua he extended his claims in Germany, and put Archbishop Hanno of Cologne to penance for having visited Cadalu8 on a secular errand. Henry IV. himself was made to feel the papal power. When he desired to effect a divorce from his wife Bertha, Peter Damian threatened him with the severest ecclesiastical penalties at a diet held in Frankfort Oct., 1069. Alexander also came into conflict with Henry over several ecciesia8tiacal appointments, of which the most important wee the archbishopric of Milan, and when the king persisted in having his candidate Godfrey consecrated, though the pope had adjudged the latter guilty of simony, the royal counselors were excommunicated as having endeavored to separate their master from the unity of the Church. This was but the beginning of the long struggle which was left to the next pope, Gregory VII.
Alexander dealt in a similarly determined manner with other nations. He supported the Nor-
mans, both in the north and south of Europe, in their career of conquest, and aided William the Conqueror to consolidate his newly gained power in England by directing his legate to appoint Normans to the episcopal sees of that country;. the archbishopric of Canterbury was given to Lanfranc, abbot of Bec, under whom Alexander himself had received his early training. His wide claims of universal jurisdiction were in sharp contrast with his weakness within Rome itself, where the turbulent factions maintained an unceasing struggle against him as long as he lived. His letters and diplomas are in MPL, cxlvi. 1279-1430.(A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOOBAPAY: Liber pontiWia, ed. Duchesne, ii. 281, Paris, 1892; JaffS. Repeats, i. 586-592, ii. 750; Geata Alexandri 11., in Bouquet, Recuea, xiv. 528-531; W. Giesebreeht, Die Kirehenspaltunp nach deco Tode Nikolaus 11., appended to his Annaies Altahenses, Berlin, 1841; Bower, Popes, ii. 370-377; M. Watterich, Romanorum ponti$cum . . . vitce, i. 235-236, Leipsic, 1862; C. Will, Benzoe Panepyricus auf Heinrich IV. mit . . . Rvckvicht au) den Kirchenatreit Alexandera 11. and Honorius II., Marburg, 1863; R. Baxmann, Die Polstik der Pdpste von Gregor I. bis auf Gregor VII., 2 vols., Elberfeld, 1868-69; Hefele, Concilienpeschichte, iv. 851893; B. Jungmann, Diesertationea selects in His& scd., iv. 242 sqq., Ratisbon, 1880; J. Langan, Geschiahte der rbmiachen Kirche, pp. 532 eqq., Bonn, 1892; Milman, Latin Christianity, iii. 321853; W. Martens, Die Besdzung des Papatlichen Stuhlea unter den Kaisarn Heinrich 111. and Heinrich IV., Freiburg, 1886; C. Fetzer. Voruntersuchungm zu einer Geschichte Alexandera 11., Strasburg, 1887; Hauck, BD. iii. (1906) 704-753.
Alexander III. (Roland Bandinelli): Pope 1159 81. He was born at Sienna and lectured in canon law at Bologna, leaving a memorial of this part of his career in the Summa Magistri Rolandi, a commentary on the Decretum of Gratian. Eugenius III. brought him to Rome about 1150, and made him a cardinal. In 1153 he became papal chancellor, and during the reign of Adrian IV. was the moving spirit of the antiimperial party among the cardinals, who advocated a close alliance with William of Sicily. His determined opposition to Frederick Barbarossa led to a deep personal enmity on the emperor's part, which was not appeased when Roland appeared at the Diet of Besangon in 1157 as papal legate, and boldly proclaimed that the emperor held his lordship from the pope. Adrian IV. died Sept. 1, 1159. Six days later all the cardinals but three (some say nine) voted for Roland as his successor, and he was consecrated Sept. 20. The minority chose the imperialist cardinal Octavian, who assumed the title of Victor IV. Frederick, naturally disposed toward his own partizan, called a council at Pavia which, as was to be expected, declared Octavian the lawful pope (Feb. 11, 1160), and two days later proclaimed Alexander an enemy of the empire and a schismatic. Alexander answered from Anagni on Mar. 24 by excommunicating the emperor and absolving his subjects from their allegiance; the antipope had been excommunicated a week after Alexander's consecration.
Alexander had not the power to carry his hostility further. It is true that in Oct., 1160, at a council at Toulouse, the kings of England and France and the bishops of both countries declared for him; and Spain, Ireland, and Norway followed0x
their lead. But he was unable to maintain a foothold in Italy. By the end of 1161 he was forced to leave Rome, and in the following March fled across the Alps to take refuge in France. The conflict might have come to an end with the death of Victor IV. at Lucca in Apr., 1164, had not Reginald, archbishop of Cologne, the imperial representative in Italy, without either the emperor's sanction or a regard for canonical forms, set up another antipope, Guido, bishop of Crema, under the title of Paschal III. In the diet held at Wiirzburg at Pentecost, 1165, Reginald (possessed by the conception of a German .national Church independent of every one but the emperor) talked Frederick and the magnates into the irrevocable step of taking an oath never to recognize Alexander III. or any pope chosen from his party, and to support Paschal III. with all their power. But on the whole Alexander's cause was gaining. In the autumn of 1165 he left France, and by Nov. 23 he was able to reenter Rome. A year later, Frederick crossed the Alps to unseat him, and by the following summer was able to take possession of St. Peter's and install Paschal there. Alexander fled once more, but Frederick's triumph was short-lived. The plague robbed him of several thousand soldiers and drove him from Rome; in December the principal Lombard cities formed a league against the oppressive dominion of the empire, and found a protector in Alexander, in whose honor they named the new city of Alessandria; finally the antipope died (Sept. 20, 1168). The Roman partizans of Frederick, without waiting for instructions, set up a new pope in the person of John, cardinal-bishop of Albano, under the name of Calixtus III. But Frederick was weary of the strife, and hardly five months had passed before he was negotiating with Alexander. Nothing resulted, however, and the emperor took up arms once more against the pope and the Lombard League; but the battle of Legnano (May 29, 1176) was so decisively against him that he was obliged to yield on any terms. He began fresh negotiations with Alexander at Anagni in October; and at Venice the disputed matters were discussed also with the cities, as well as with William II. of Sicily and the Eastern emperor, both of whom had joined Frederick's opponents. Peaee was made Aug. 1, 1177, the emperor acknowledging Alexander's title and abandoning Calixtus, who was to receive an abbey in compensation. Both sides agreed to restore whatever possessions they hdd taken from each other.
A still greater triumph was won by Alexander over Henry II. of England. From 1163 onward the English king was involved in a more and more acute contest with Rome, growing out of his difficulties with Thomas Becket. He demanded the deposition of the archbishop, and, on the pope's refusal, opened negotiations with Frederick, and was represented at the Diet of Wiirzburg, with a view to supporting Reginald of Cologne's far-reaching plans. But threats of excommunication and interdict brought him back to an apparently peace. ful attitude. The murder of Becket (Dec. 29, 1170) brought things to a crisis. The king was forced to do humiliating penance at Becket's tomb and
to submit wholly to the papal demands. The culminating point of Alexander's success was marked by the Third Lateran Council (Mar., 1179). Besides approving the crusade against the Cathari of southern France, which had been inaugurated by Raymond of Toulouse with the support of Louis VII., the pope's friend and protector, the 300 bishops of this brilliant assembly passed an important canon regulating papal elections, which confined the electoral power to the cardinals, excluding the lower clergy and the laity and making no mention of imperial confirmation, and required a twothirds vote to elect.
In spite of his apparently complete triumph over his enemies, Alexander never really conquered the Roman people. Soon after the close of the council they drove him once more into exile; and a month after Calixtus III. had formally renounced his pretensions, a new antipope was set up, who took the name of Innocent III. Alexander succeeded in vanquishing this rival, but never returned to Rome, and died at Civita Castellana Aug. 30, 1181, his corpse being followed to its sepulcher in the Lateran by cries of implacable hostility from the populace. His letters are in MPL, cc.; his Summa was edited by F. Thaner (Innsbruck, 1874), and his Sententim by A. M. Gietl (Freiburg, 1891).(A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, ii. 397-446, Paris, 1892; Gesfa Alexandri Ill., in Bouquet. Recmeit, xv. 744-977; Jaff6, Regesta, ii. 145 eqq., 761; M. Watterich, Romanorum pontificum . . . vitce, ii. 377-451, Leipaie, 1862; B. L. Ring, Prialrich 1. im Kempf gegen Alexander Ill., Stuttgart, 1838; Bower, Popes, ii. 502; H. Reuter, Geschichte Aleaandera 111. and der Kirche seiner Zeit, 3 vole., 2d ed., Leipsic, 1860-64; P. SchefferBoichorat, Kaiser Priedrichs 1. Ietzter Streit mit der Kurie, Berlin, 1866; J. Langen, Geschichte der r6muchen Kirche, pp. 439 sqq., Bonn, 1893; Milman, Latin Chriatianay, iv. 288--438; G. Wolfram, Priedrich 1. and das Wormser Concordat, Marburg, 1883; Hefele, Conciliengeachichte, v. 571-722; J. R. Green, History of the English People, vol. i., London, 1888-92; A. M. Gietl, Die Senttnzen Rolande, nachmals Papstes Alexander Ill., Freiburg, 1891; Hauck, XD, iv. 227-302.
Alexander IV. (Rinaldo de Conti): Pope 125461. He was made a cardinal-deacon in 1227 by his uncle, Gregory IX., and in 1231 cardinal-bishop of Ostia. As a cardinal, he does not seem to have been stronglyanti-imperiaiistic, and Frederick II. is found in 1233 and 1242 writing in atone of friendship to him. On the death of Innocent IV. (Dec.13,1254), Alexander was elected to succeed him, and at once began to follow the policy of his predecessors. Conrad IV., on his death-bed, had commended to the guardianship of the Church his two-year-old son Conradin, heir to the duchy of Swabia and the kingdoms of Jerusalem and Sicily. Alexander accepted the charge with the most benevolent promises, but less than two weeks later he demanded that the Swabian nobles should desert Conradin for Alfonso of Castile. On Mar. 25, 1255, he excommunicated Manfred, Conradin's uncle, who had undertaken to defend the kingdom of Sicily in the child's name, and on Apr. 9 he concluded an alliance with Henry III. of England, on whose son Edmund he bestowed Sicily and Apulia, to be held as papal fiefs. When some of the German princes talked in 1254 of setting up Ottocar of Bohemia
as a claimant of the throne in opposition to William of Holland, the papal prot6g6, he forbade them to take any steps for the election of a king in William's lifetime; and when William died, he forbade the archbishops of Cologne, Treves, and Mainz to place Conradin on the throne of his father. In the contest for the crown which now arose between Alfonso X. of Castile and Richard of Cornwall, brother of Henry III. of England, the pope, whose support was asked by both, took the side of the latter, promising him (Ayr. 30, 1259) not merely the support of his legates in Germany, but holding out hopes of the imperial crown. In this he was influenced by the English king's money, which was necessary to him in his contest against Manfred. In Aug., 1258, on a rumor of the death of Conradin, Manfred himself assumed the crown of Sicily, and was recognized in northern and central Italy as the head of the Ghibelline party. After the decisive victory of Montaperto had put Florence, the Guelph bulwark, in Manfred's power, Alexander excommunicated every one who should help him in any way, and laid all his dominions under an interdict (Nov. 18, 1260). This was all he could do, since an appeal to the kings of England and Norway to undertake a crusade against Manfred, and a demand for a tenth of the income of the French clergy for the same purpose had both proved unsuccessful.
Alexander had better luck against the notorious Ezzelino da Romano, son-in-law of Frederick II. and leader of the Ghibellines in northern Italy. An army raised by the pope for a crusade against this monster had accomplished little, but finally in 1259 he succumbed to a combination of princes and cities. In Rome, however, the party of Manfred was gaining strength, and in 1261 he was elected to the highest office in the gift of the people, that of senator. How terribly Italy suffered from the demoralization which followed this relentless warfare is evident from the spread of the Flagellants (See FLAGELLATION, FLAGaLLANTs), whose fanatical processions took place even in Rome (1260). A council was called to meet at Viterbo for the purpose of setting on foot a crusade against the Tatars, but before it convened Alexander died in that city (May 25, 1261). (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPH:: Bouret de Is Roneiare, Lea Repiatres d'Ateaandre IV., parts 1-4, Paris, 1895 eqq.; MGH, Epist . saeuti xiii., iii. (1894) 314-473, 729-730, and Log, iv., 1896 W. H. Bliss, Calendar of Entriaa in the Papal Registers relating to GreatBritain and Ireland, Papal Letters, i. 309-376,London. 1893; A. Potthaet, Rapesfa,if.1286eqq., Berlin, 1875; C. J. de Chemer, Hiatoire de la lutte den papteet des empereurs de la maiaon do Souabe, Paris, 1858; O. Posse, Analecta vaticana, 1 eqq., 120 aqq.. Innsbruck, 1878; G. Digard, La SErie des .repiatres pontifiCaua du breisitme aiecle, Parls, 1886; E. Engelmann, Der Anaprueh der Pdpste auf Conhrnwtion and Approbation, 1o77-1379. pp. 5$ sqq., Breslau, 1886; Bower, Popes, ii. 567-571.
Alexander V. (Peter Philargi): Pope 1409-10. He was an orphan boy from Crete, brought up by the Minorites, which order he afterward entered. After traveling in Italy, England, and France, he acquired a name as a teacher of rhetoric in the University of Paris. Later he held a dignified position at the court of Ginn Galeazzo Visconti in Milan, of which see he became archbishop in
at Sienna, and rebuking him for having no thought but pleasure. At least seven-possibly ninechildren were born to him as cardinal, four of whom, Giovanni, Cesare, Gioffre, and Lucrezia, the offspring of his favorite mistress Vanozza Catanei, were the objects of his special love. On the death of Innocent VIII. he reached the height of his ambition by his election to the papacy (Aug. 11, 1492), won, it was generally believed, by simony and other corrupt practises.
Alexander was unquestionably a man of great gifts, able, eloquent, versatile, strong in mind as in body; but all these gifts were defiled by the immorality of his life, which was in no respect different as pope from what it had been as cardinal. So much may be safely said, even if certain specific accusations made by his contemporaries, such as that of incest with his daughter Lucrezia, are shown to be calumnies. The remonatrances of secular powers like Spain and Portugal against the immorality of the papal court were as vain as the denunciations of Savonarola. The former were put off with promises; the latter's mouth was stopped by excommunication (May 12, 1497), when he was endeavoring to arouse all Italy against thepapacy.
Alexander's main aim, outside of the gratification of his passions, was the elevation of his children to power and wealth. While still a cardinal, he had obtained the Spanish duchy of Gandia for his eldest son, Pedro Luis, who was succeeded, on his early death, by Giovanni. Alexander invested the latter with the duchy of Benevento, together with Terracina and Preticorvo; but a few days later (June 14, 1497) he was mysteriously murdered. For a moment the pope was shocked into penitence, and talked of a reform of his court and even of abdication, but no lasting change resulted. The making of a brilliant match for Lucrezia was long an important factor in his policy. The first connection attempted was with the Sforza family. Lodovico il Moro, governor of Milan for his nephew Giangaleazzo, desired the sovereignty for himself, but was hindered by the grandfather of Giangaleazzo's wife, Ferdinand of Naples. To get the better of him, Lodovico planned a league into which the Pope should be drawn by a marriage between Lucrezia and Giovanni Sforza of Pesaro. The league was founded April 25, 1493, and included, besides Lodovico and Alexander, Venice, Sienna, Ferrara, and Mantua. Ferdinand, however, succeeded in detaching the pope from this alliance, probably through the influence of Spain, and married the natural daughter of his son Alfonso to Gioffre, Alexander's fourth son. The alliance with Naples, however, brought the pope into difficulties. Lodovico, deserted, summoned Charles VIII. of France to take the crown of Naples for himself and try a simoniacal pope at the bar of a general council. Charles descended into Italy in autumn, 1494, and on the last day of the year, Alexander being unable to oppose him, made a magnificent public entry into Rome. The pope agreed to allow his army free passage toward Naples, and to reinstate the cardinals of the opposition faction. In rsturn Charles paid him all the outward signs of homage,
1402. Innocent VII. made h:m a cardinal. In 1408 he was one of those who deserted Gregory XII. with a view to compelling an end of the schism, and in the same year he had invited the pope to the Council of Pisa as a representative of the cardinals. After both Gregory XII. and Benedict XIII. had been deposed, he was unanimously elected pope by the influence of cardinal Balthasar Cossa (July 26, 1409). Like all the other cardinals present, he had signed an agreement that, if he should be elected pope, he would continue the council until the Church had received a thorough reformation in head and members; but, once crowned as pope, he dismissed the members to their dioceses, there to take counsel on the points which needed reform.The schism was not ended by his election; Bene dict XIII. was still recognized by Spain, Portugal, and Scotland; Gregory XII., by Naples, Hungary, the king of the Romans, and some other German princes. The greater part of Germany; with Eng land and France, declared for the choice of the council, as well as the reforming leaders Gerson and Pierre d'Ailly. Alexander was more concerned with the recovery of the States of the Church than with reform. Rome and Umbria were in the possession of Ladislaus of Naples, the protector of Gregory XII. Alexander excommunicated him, declared his crown forfeit, and transferred it to Louis II. of Anjou, who, with Cardinal Coma, commanded the force sent against Rome. Though this expedition was unsuccessful, Alexander's adherents succeeded in the last few days of 1409 in getting the upper hand in the city. Alexander, however, did not return, but remained in Bologna, a pliant instru ment in the hands of his Franciscan brethren and Balthasar Coma. The friars induced him to issue a bull (Oct. 12, 1409), which confirmed all the extensive privileges of the mendicant orders in the confessional and practically crippled the jurisdic tion of the parish priests. When he indicated his intention of extending this ruling to France, the University of Paris, with Gerson at its head, threatened to retaliate by excluding the friars from the platform and pulpit. Alexander died before this ultimatum reached Rome (May 3, 1410). By modern Roman Catholic historians, as the creation of the illegitimate council of Pisa, he is not con sidered strictly a lawful pope, though included in their lists. (A. HAUCK.)
B:awooawre:: Vita, in L. A. Muratori, Rer. ROL script., iii. 2, p. 842, Milan; Bower, Pop", iii. 167-171; Hefele, Coneilienp"ehiehte, vi. 1033; Creighton, Papacy, i. 257265 (the beet); Pastor, Popes, i. 190-191 (from the Roman Catholic side).
Alexander VL (Rodrigo Lanzol): Pope 14921503. He was born at Xativa, near Valencia, in 1430 or 1431 and was adopted by his uncle, Calixtus III., into the Borgia family and endowed with rich ecclesiastical benefices. In 1455 be became apostolic notary; in 1456, a cardinal-deacon; and in 1457, vice-chancellor of the Roman curia. He held also the bishoprics of Valencia, Porto, and Cartagena. These positionb brought in vast wealth, which he spent in ostentatious luxury and riotous living. A glimpse of his life at this period is afforded by a letter of Pius II. (June 11, 1460), reproaching him for his participation in an indescribable orgy
and continued his journey toward Naples, where he was able to be crowned on May 12, Alfonso II. having fled. Alexander, however, joined the league founded at Venice (March 31) to drive him out of Italy and to support the house of Aragon in reconquering Naples. In return Alexander asked the hand of Carlotta, Princess of Naples, for his son Cesare, whom he had made archbishop of Valencia immediately after his own elevation and cardinal a year later. It was necessary to divorce Lucrezia from her husband Giovanni Sforza and marry her to a natural son of Alfonso II., the Duke of Biaceglia, which was accomplished in 1498. Cesare's marriage fell through, however; and, after resigning as cardinal, he married Charlotte d'Albret, sister of the King of Navarre, being made Duke of Valentinois by Louis XII., who received in return permission to divorce his wife.
Cesare went on with designs for an extensive temporal lordship by fair means and foul. The ruling families of the Romagna having been expelled or assassinated, Alexander gave him the title of Duke of Romagna in 1501. The hatred of father and son for the house of Aragon went further. Lucrezia's second husband was murdered by Cesare's orders in 1500; and a year later Alexander joined the league of Louis XII. and Ferdinand of Spain for the division of the kingdom of Naples between them. The years 1502 and 1503 mark the height of this dominion founded on blood. Alexander was already thinking of asking the emperor for Pisa, Sienna, and Lucca for his son and making him king of Romagna and the Marches, when death cut short his plans, through an attack of malarial fever (Aug. 18, 1503).
Of what his contemporaries thought Alexander capable may be seen from the story, long believed, that he was the victim of poison prepared by his orders for one of the cardinals whose estates he coveted. In recent years Alexander has been regarded by some as an unselfish pioneer of the unification of Italy, and attempts have even been made to represent him as a true follower of Christ; but his unworthiness is generally admitted, even by Roman Catholic writers. (A. HAUCK.)BIBLIO06AP87: Creighton. Papacy, iv. 183--and, v. 1-57 (very full, valuable appendices of documents); Pastor, Popes, v. 375-623, vi. 1-180 (the Romanist side, with ap pendices of documents); A. Gordon, The Lives of Pope Alexander Vl. and . . . Cmar Borpin, 2 vole., London, 1729 (has appendix of documents); Bower, Popes, iii. 259-277; J. Fave, Otudee critiques sur 1'hiatoiss d Ale xandra VI., St. Brienc, 1859; M. J. H. Ollivier. Le Pape Alexandra VI., Paris, 1870; F. Gregorovius, Luueria Borpia, 2 vole., Stuttgart, 1875. Eng. tranel., London, 1904; Kaiser, Der oielvmlsufndete Alexander VI., Ratie bon, 1877; V. Nemeo, Papal Alexander VI., Klagenfurt, 1879; J. Burchard, Diarium sive rerun urbanarum cem msatarii, 3 vole., Paris, 1883-85 (consult Index); Hefele, Conoilienpeschichte, viii. 300; O. G. Robertson, Caesar Borgia, London, 1891; Ranks, Popee, i. 3b-38; F. Corvo, Chronicles of the House of Borpia, New York, 1901. On
Lucreais Borxia consult F. Gregorovius, Lucretia Borvia, ib. 1903.
Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi): Pope 1&55-67. He was nuncio in Cologne from 1639 to 1651, and took part in the negotiations which led up to the peace of Westphalia, but declared that he would enter into no communications with heretics, and
protested against the validity of the treaties of Munster and Osnabrtick. Innocent X. took a similar view, and on his return from Germany he made Chigi cardinal and finally secretary of state. It was due to the influence of Chigi that Innocent condemned the famous five propositions alleged to have been extracted from the Augustin= of Jansen. Innocent died Jan. 7, 1655, and a strong party in the conclave favored Chigi as one who would be likely to be free from the reproach of nepotism; but, though Spain supported him, the opposition of France (Mazarin had been for years his personal enemy) delayed the election until Apr. 7.
Alexander VII. had the satisfaction of seeing the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, Christina of Sweden, enter the Church, though her prolonged residence in Rome became a burden to him later. He was a consistent supporter of the Jesuits, whom he succeeded in restoring to Venice, from which city they had been excluded since the conflict with Paul V. He took their side wholly in the struggle with the Jansenists (see JANsEN, CoxNEllus, JANsEmsm). He became embroiled with Louis XIV. first through the refusal of the French ambassador in Rome, the Duke of Crdqui, to pay certain conventional civilities to the relatives of the pope, and then through an attack on the ambassador's servants and palace made by the Corsican guards of the pope. Louis was already displeased with Alexander for his consistent support of Cardinal de Retz against Mazarin, and for his retention, in spite of Louis's intercession in their behalf, of certain possessions to which the Farnese and Este families laid claim. In such a mood he took up the Corsican affair hotly, and wrote to Alexander of a breach of the law of nations, a crime whose parallel could hardly be found among barbarians. The papal nuncio was obliged to leave Paris, and French troops occupied Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin and threatened to invade the Italian states of the Church. Alexander, unable to find any allies, saw himself compelled to accede to the most humiliating demands of France in the treaty of Pisa (1664). He was obliged not only, by a special mission of two cardinals to Paris, to beg the king's pardon, but also that of the Duke de Cr6qui, and to erect a pyramid in a public place in Rome, with an inscription declaring the Corsicans incapable of serving the Holy See.
Since Alexander, like his predecessor, was closely allied with Spain, he was obliged to carry Innocent's policy still further when a struggle with Portugal arose. Innocent had refused to recognize Portugal as an independent monarchy when in 1640 it broke away from Spain under the house of Braganza; and had declined to confirm the bishops nominated by King John IV. Alexander took the same course in regard to the bishops; the king accordingly allowed the bishoprics to remain vacant, and divided their estates and revenues among his courtiers, even thinking at one time of the extreme measure of an absolute breach with Rome and the establishment of a national Church, whose bishops should need confirmation from no one but the metropolitan. The conflict was finally settled by Clement IX. in 1669.
Much as he had had to do with affairs of state before his elevation to the papacy, Alexander found them wearisome, and left their administration as much as possible to the congregation of cardinals entrusted with their consideration. He was a cultured friend of literature and philosophy, and took much pleasure in his intercourse with learned men, among whom Pallavicini, the historian of the Council of Trent, was conspicuous. He tried his own hand at literature; a collection of his verses, under the title Philometi labores juveniles appeared in Paris in 1656. He died May 22, 1667.(A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ranks. Popes, ii. 33 eqq.; J. Bargrave,
Pope Alexander VIII. and the College of Cardinals, in Publications of the Camden Society, tcii., London, 1867; R. Chautelause, Le Cardinal de Retz et see miwione diplomat(ques &Rome, Paris, 1879; A. Gzier, Lee Dernitrrea Annbes du Cardinal de Reft, Paris, 1879; A. Reumont, Fabio Chiqi in Deutwhland, Aachen, 1885; Gerin, L'Ambassade de Crequy a Rome et le traite de Pise, 1661-1664, in Revue des questions historiques, xxviii. (1893) 570; Bower, Popes, iii. 331-332.
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