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9 You remember our labor and toil, brothers and sisters; we worked night and day, so that we might not burden any of you while we proclaimed to you the gospel of God. 10You are witnesses, and God also, how pure, upright, and blameless our conduct was toward you believers. 11As you know, we dealt with each one of you like a father with his children, 12urging and encouraging you and pleading that you lead a life worthy of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory.

13 We also constantly give thanks to God for this, that when you received the word of God that you heard from us, you accepted it not as a human word but as what it really is, God’s word, which is also at work in you believers.

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9. labour and travail—The Greek for "labor" means hardship in bearing; that for "travail," hardship in doing; the former, toil with the utmost solicitude; the latter, the being wearied with fatigue [Grotius]. Zanchius refers the former to spiritual (see 1Th 3:5), the latter to manual labor. I would translate, "weariness (so the Greek is translated, 2Co 11:27) and travail" (hard labor, toil).

for—omitted in the oldest manuscripts.

labouringGreek, "working," namely, at tent-making (Ac 18:3).

night and day—The Jews reckoned the day from sunset to sunset, so that "night" is put before "day" (compare Ac 20:31). Their labors with their hands for a scanty livelihood had to be engaged in not only by day, but by night also, in the intervals between spiritual labors.

because we would not be chargeableGreek, "with a view to not burdening any of you" (2Co 11:9, 10).

preached unto youGreek, "unto and among you." Though but "three Sabbaths" are mentioned, Ac 17:2, these refer merely to the time of his preaching to the Jews in the synagogue. When rejected by them as a body, after having converted a few Jews, he turned to the Gentiles; of these (whom he preached to in a place distinct from the synagogue) "a great multitude believed" (Ac 17:4, where the oldest manuscripts read, "of the devout [proselytes] and Greeks a great multitude"); then after he had, by labors continued among the Gentiles for some time, gathered in many converts, the Jews, provoked by his success, assaulted Jason's house, and drove him away. His receiving "once and again" supplies from Philippi, implies a longer stay at Thessalonica than three weeks (Php 4:16).

10. Ye are witnesses—as to our outward conduct.

God—as to our inner motives.

holily—towards God.

justly—towards men.

unblamably—in relation to ourselves.

behaved ourselvesGreek, "were made to be," namely, by God.

among you that believe—rather, "before (that is, in the eyes of) you that believe"; whatever we may have seemed in the eyes of the unbelieving. As 1Th 2:9 refers to their outward occupation in the world; so 1Th 2:10, to their character among believers.

11. exhorted and comfortedExhortation leads one to do a thing willingly; consolation, to do it joyfully [Bengel], (1Th 5:14). Even in the former term, "exhorted," the Greek includes the additional idea of comforting and advocating one's cause: "encouragingly exhorted." Appropriate in this case, as the Thessalonians were in sorrow, both through persecutions, and also through deaths of friends (1Th 4:13).

charged—"conjured solemnly," literally, "testifying"; appealing solemnly to you before God.

every one of you—in private (Ac 20:20), as well as publicly. The minister, if he would be useful, must not deal merely in generalities, but must individualize and particularize.

as a father—with mild gravity. The Greek is, "his own children."

12. worthy of God—"worthy of the Lord" (Col 1:10); "worthily of the saints" (Ro 16:2, Greek): "… of the Gospel" (Php 1:27) "… of the vocation wherewith ye are called" (Eph 4:1). Inconsistency would cause God's name to be "blasphemed among the Gentiles" (Ro 2:24). The Greek article is emphatical, "Worthy of THE God who is calling you."

hath called—So one of the oldest manuscripts and Vulgate. Other oldest manuscripts, "Who calleth us."

his kingdom—to be set up at the Lord's coming.

glory—that ye may share His glory (Joh 17:22; Col 3:4).

13. For this cause—Seeing ye have had such teachers (1Th 2:10-12) [Bengel], "we also (as well as 'all that believe' in Macedonia and Achaia) thank God without ceasing ('always' … 'in our prayers,' 1Th 1:2), that when ye received the word of God which ye heard from us (literally, 'God's word of hearing from us,' Ro 10:16, 17), ye accepted it not as the word of men, but, even as it is truly, the word of God." Alford omits the "as" of English Version. But the "as" is required by the clause, "even as it is truly." "Ye accepted it, not (as) the word of men (which it might have been supposed to be), but (as) the word of God, even as it really is." The Greek for the first "received," implies simply the hearing of it; the Greek of the second is "accepted," or "welcomed" it. The proper object of faith, it hence appears, is the word of God, at first oral, then for security against error, written (Joh 20:30, 31; Ro 15:4; Ga 4:30). Also, that faith is the work of divine grace, is implied by Paul's thanksgiving.

effectually worketh also in you that believe—"Also," besides your accepting it with your hearts, it evidences itself in your lives. It shows its energy in its practical effects on you; for instance, working in you patient endurance in trial (1Th 2:14; compare Ga 3:5; 5:6).