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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 4)

4:1 {I charge thee} (\diamarturomai\). Rather, "I testify." See
1Th 4:6. See 1Ti 5:21 for this verb and appeal to God and
Christ. {Who shall judge} (\tou mellontos krinein\). "The one
going or about to judge" (regular idiom with \mellō\). The quick
and the dead (\zōntas kai nekrous\). "Living and dead." See 1Th
4:16f. {And by his appearing} (\kai tēn epiphaneian\).
Accusative of conjuration (verbs of swearing), after
\diamarturomai\ as is \basileian\ (by his kingdom). See 1Th
5:27. For \epiphaneian\, see 1:10; Tit 2:13; 1Ti 6:14; 2Th

4:2 {Preach the word} (\kēruxon ton logon\). First aorist active
imperative of \kērussō\. For "the word" used absolutely, see 1Th
1:6; Ga 6:6. {Be instant in season, out of season} (\epistēthi
eukairōs akairōs\)
. Second aorist (ingressive) active imperative
of \ephistēmi\ (intransitive use), "take a stand," "stand upon it
or up to it," "carry on," "stick to it." The Vulgate has
"_insta_." The two adverbs are like a proverb or a play (pun) on
the word \kairos\. There are all sorts of seasons (\kairoi\),
some difficult (\chalepoi\, 3:1), some easy (\eukairēi\, 1Co
. {Reprove} (\elegxon\). First aorist active imperative of
\elegchō\. "Bring to proof." Eph 5:11. {Rebuke} (\epitimēson\).
First aorist active imperative of \epitimaō\, to give honour (or
to, to chide. Common in the Gospels (Lu 17:3). {Exhort}
(\parakaleson\). First aorist active imperative of \parakaleō\,
common Pauline word.

4:3 {A time when} (\kairos hote\). One of the \akairōs\ (out of
times. {Will not endure} (\ouk anexontai\). Future middle
(direct) of \anechō\. "Will not hold themselves back from" (Col.
. Having itching ears (\knēthomenoi tēn akoēn\). Present
middle (causative) participle of \knēthō\, late and rare form of
the Attic \knaō\, to scratch, to tickle, here only in N.T.
"Getting the ears (the hearing, \tēn akoēn\) tickled." The
Vulgate has \prurientes\. Cf. the Athenians (Ac 17:21). Clement
of Alexandria tells of speakers tickling (\knēthontes\) the ears
of those who want to be tickled. This is the temptation of the
merely "popular" preacher, to furnish the latest tickle.

4:4 {Will turn away their ears} (\tēn akoēn apostrepsousin\).
Future active of old verb \apostrephō\. See 1Co 12:17 for this
use of \akoē\. The people stopped their ears and rushed at
Stephen in Ac 7:57. {Will turn aside} (\ektrapēsontai\). Second
future passive of \ektrepō\. They prefer "myths" to "the truth"
as some today turn away to "humanism," "bolshevism," "new
thought" or any other fad that will give a new momentary thrill
to their itching ears and morbid minds.

4:5 {But be thou sober} (\su de nēphe\). Present active
imperative of \nēphō\, for which see 1Th 5:6,8. "Be sober in
thy head." {Suffer hardship} (\kakopathēson\). See 2:9. {Do the
work of an evangelist}
(\ergon poiēson euaggelistou\). See 1Co
1:17; Eph 4:11 for \euaggelistēs\, gospelizer. {Fulfil}
(\plērophorēson\). First aorist active imperative of
\plērophoreō\, for which see Col 4:12. In Col 4:17 Paul uses
\plēroō\ to Archippus about his ministry as he here employs
\plērophoreō\. Both verbs mean to fill full.

4:6 {I am already being offered} (\ēdē spendomai\). Present
(progressive) passive indicative of \spendō\, old verb, to pour
out a libation or drink offering. In N.T. only here and Php
2:17. "What was then a possibility is now a certainty" (Parry).
The sacrifice of Paul's life-blood has begun. {Of my departure}
(\tēs analuseōs mou\). Our very word "analysis." Old word from
\analuō\, to loosen up or back, to unloose. Only here in N.T.,
though \analusai\ for death is used by Paul in Php 1:23 which
see for the metaphor. {Is come} (\ephestēken\). Perfect active
indicative of \ephistēmi\ (intransitive use). See 1Th 5:3; Lu
21:34. The hour has struck. The time has come.

4:7 {I have fought the good fight} (\ton kalon agōna ēgōnismai\).
Perfect middle indicative of \agōnizomai\, a favourite figure
with Paul (1Co 9:25; Col 1:29), with the cognate accusative
\agōna\ (Php 1:27,30, etc.). The "fight" is the athletic
contest of his struggle for Christ. {I have finished the course}
(\ton dromon teteleka\). Perfect active indicative of \teleō\. He
had used this metaphor also of himself to the elders at Ephesus
(Ac 20:24). Then the "course" was ahead of him. Now it is
behind him. {I have kept the faith} (\tēn pistin tetērēka\).
Perfect active indicative again of \tēreō\. Paul has not
deserted. He has kept faith with Christ. For this phrase, see Re
14:12. Deissmann (_Light, etc._, p. 309) gives inscriptions in
Ephesus of a man who says: "I have kept faith" (\tēn pistin
and another of a man of whom it is said: "He fought
three fights, and twice was crowned."

4:8 {Henceforth} (\loipon\). Accusative case, "for the rest."
{There is laid up for me} (\apokeitai moi\). Present passive of
\apokeimai\, old verb, to be laid away. See Col 1:5 for the
hope laid away. Paul's "crown of righteousness" (\ho tēs
dikaiosunēs stephanos\, genitive of apposition, the crown that
consists in righteousness and is also the reward for
righteousness, the victor's crown as in 1Co 9:25 which see)
laid away" for him. {At that day} (\en ekeinēi tēi hēmerāi\).
That great and blessed day (1:12,18). {The righteous judge}
(\ho dikaios kritēs\). "The just judge," the umpire who makes no
mistakes who judges us all (2Co 5:10). {Shall give me}
(\apodōsei moi\). Future active of \apodidōmi\. "Will give back"
as in Ro 2:6 and in full. {But also to all them that have loved
his appearing}
(\alla pāsin tois ēgapēkosin tēn epiphaneian
. Dative case of the perfect active participle of
\agapaō\, to love, who have loved and still love his second
coming. \Epiphaneia\ here can as in 1:10 be interpreted of
Christ's Incarnation.

4:9 {Shortly} (\tacheōs\). In verse 21 he more definitely says
"before winter." Apparently the trial might drag on through its
various stages.

4:10 {Forsook me} (\me egkateleipen\). Imperfect (MSS. also have
aorist, \egkatelipen\)
active of the old double compound verb
\egkataleipō\, for which see Ro 9:29. Clearly in contrast to
verse 9 and in the sense of 1Ti 6:17, wilful desertion. Only
mentioned elsewhere in Col 4:14. {Crescens} (\Krēskēs\). No
other mention of him. {Titus to Dalmatia} (\Titos eis
. Titus had been asked to rejoin Paul in Nicopolis
where he was to winter, probably the winter previous to this one
(Tit 3:12). He came and has been with Paul.

4:11 {Only Luke is with me} (\Loukas estin monos met' emou\).
Luke is with Paul now in Rome as during the first Roman
imprisonment (Phm 1:24; Col 4:14). {Take Mark} (\Markon
. Second aorist active participle of \analambanō\, old
verb, to pick up, as in Eph 6:13,16. "Pick up Mark." {He is
useful to me}
(\estin moi euchrēstos\). See 2:21 for
\euchrēstos\. Paul had long ago changed his opinion of Mark (Col
because Mark had changed his conduct and had made good in
his ministry. Now Paul longs to have the man that he once
scornfully rejected (Ac 15:37ff.).

4:12 {Tychicus I sent to Ephesus} (\Tuchikon apesteila eis
. Perhaps Paul had sent him on before he came to Rome.
He may have been still on the way to Ephesus.

4:13 {The cloke} (\tēn phelonēn\). More common form \pheilonē\.
By metathesis for \phainolē\, Latin _paenula_, though which
language transliterated the word into the other is not known. The
meaning is also uncertain, though probably "cloke" as there are
so many papyri examples in that sense (Moulton and Milligan,
. Milligan (N.T. _Documents_, p. 20) had previously
urged "book wrap" as probable but he changed his mind and rightly
so. {With Carpus} (\para Karpōi\). "Beside Carpus," at his house.
Not mentioned elsewhere. Probably a visit to Troas after Paul's
return from Crete. {The books} (\ta biblia\). Probably papyrus
rolls. One can only guess what rolls the old preacher longs to
have with him, probably copies of Old Testament books, possibly
copies of his own letters, and other books used and loved. The
old preacher can be happy with his books. {Especially the
(\malista tas membranas\). Latin _membrana_. The
dressed skins were first made at Pergamum and so termed
"parchments." These in particular would likely be copies of Old
Testament books, parchment being more expensive than papyrus,
possibly even copies of Christ's sayings (Lu 1:1-4). We recall
that in Ac 26:24 Festus referred to Paul's learning (\ta
. He would not waste his time in prison.

4:14 {Alexander the coppersmith} (\Alexandros ho chalkeus\). Old
word, only here in N.T., for metal-worker (copper, iron, gold,
. Possibly the one in 1:20, but not the one in Ac
19:33f. unless he afterwards became a Christian. {Did me much
(\moi kaka enedeixato\). Evidently he had some personal
dislike towards Paul and possibly also he was a Gnostic. {Will
(\apodōsei\). Future active of the same verb used in
verse 8, but with a very different atmosphere.

4:15 {Be thou ware also} (\kai su phulassou\). Present middle
(direct) imperative of \phulassō\, "from whom keep thyself away."
{Withstood} (\antestē\). Second aorist active indicative of
\anthistēmi\, "stood against my words." See 3:8; Ga 2:11.

4:16 {At my first defence} (\en tēi prōtēi apologiāi\). Original
sense of "apology" as in Php 1:7,16. Either the first stage in
this trial or the previous trial and acquittal at the end of the
first Roman imprisonment. Probably the first view is correct,
though really there is no way to decide. {No one took my part}
(\oudeis moi paregeneto\). "No one came by my side" (second
aorist middle indicative of \paraginomai\)
. See 1Co 16:3. {But
all forsook me}
(\alla pantes me egkateleipon\). Same verb and
tense used of Demas above (verse 10), "But all were forsaking
me" (one by one) or, if aorist \egkatelipon\, "all at once left
me." {May it not be laid to their account} (\mē autois
. First aorist passive optative in future wish with
negative \mē\. Common Pauline verb \logizomai\ (1Co 13:5; Ro

4:17 {But the Lord stood by me} (\ho de kurios moi parestē\).
Second aorist active of \paristēmi\ (intransitive use), "took his
stand by my side." See Ro 16:2. Clearly Jesus appeared to Paul
now at this crisis and climax as he had done so many times
before. {Strengthened me} (\enedunamōsen me\). "Poured power into
me." See Php 4:13. {That through me the message might be fully
(\hina di' emou to kērugma plērophorēthēi\). Final
clause with \hina\ and first aorist passive subjunctive of
\plērophoreō\ (see verse 5). Either to the rulers in Rome now
or, if the first imprisonment, by his release and going to Spain.
{And that all the Gentiles might hear} (\kai akousōsin panta ta
. Continuation of the purpose with the aorist active
subjunctive of \akouō\. {I was delivered out of the mouth of the
(\erusthēn ek stomatos leontos\). First aorist passive
indicative of \ruomai\ (1Th 1:10). A proverb, but not certain
what the application is whether to Nero or to Satan (1Th 2:18)
or to the lion in the arena where Paul could not be sent because
a Roman citizen.

4:18 {Will deliver me} (\rusetai me\). Future middle. Recall the
Lord's Prayer. Paul is not afraid of death. He will find his
triumph in death (Php 1:21f.). {Unto his heavenly kingdom}
(\eis tēn basileian autou tēn epouranion\). The future life of
glory as in 1Co 15:24,50. He will save (\sōsei\, effective
me there finally and free from all evil. {To whom be the
(\hōi hē doxa\). No verb in the Greek. Paul's final
doxology, his Swan Song, to Christ as in Ro 9:5; 16:27.

4:19 {Prisca and Aquila} (\Priscan kai Akulan\). Paul's friends
now back in Ephesus, no longer in Rome (Rom 16:3). See 1:16
for the house of Onesiphorus.

4:20 {Erastus} (\Erastos\). See Ac 19:22; Ro 16:23. {Trophimus}
(\Trophimon\). A native of Ephesus and with Paul in Jerusalem
(Ac 20:4; 21:29). {At Miletus sick} (\en Milētōi asthenounta\).
Present active participle of \astheneō\, to be weak. Probably on
Paul's return from Crete.

4:21 {Before winter} (\pro cheimōnos\). Pathetic item if Paul was
now in the Mamertine Dungeon in Rome with winter coming on and
without his cloak for which he asked. How long he had been in
prison this time we do not know. He may even have spent the
previous winter or part of it here. Eubulus, Pudens, Linus,
Claudia are all unknown otherwise. Irenaeus does speak of Linus.
{The Lord be with thy Spirit} (\ho kurios meta tou pneumatos
. Let us hope that Timothy and Mark reached Paul before
winter, before the end came, with the cloak and with the books.
Our hero, we may be sure, met the end nobly. He is already more
than conqueror in Christ who is by his side and who will welcome
him to heaven and give him his crown. Luke, Timothy, Mark will do
all that mortal hands can do to cheer the heart of Paul with
human comfort. He already had the comfort of Christ in full

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 4)