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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 3)

3:1 {Know this} (\touto ginōske\). See 1Co 11:3; Php 1:12. {In
the last days}
(\en eschatais hēmerais\). See Jas 5:3; 1Ti 4:1.
{Grievous} (\chalepoi\). Hard. See Eph 5:16. {Shall come}
(\enstēsontai\). Future middle of \enistēmi\ (intransitive use),
old verb, to stand on or be at hand, as in 2Th 2:2.

3:2 {Lovers of self} (\philautoi\). Old compound adjective
(\philos, autos\), here only in N.T. {Lovers of money}
(\philarguroi\). Old compound adjective, in N.T. only here and
Lu 16:14. See 1Ti 6:10. {Boastful} (\alazones\). Old word for
empty pretender, in N.T. only here and Ro 1:30. {Haughty}
(\huperēphanoi\). See also Ro 1:30 for this old word. {Railers}
(\blasphēmoi\). See 1Ti 1:13. {Disobedient to parents}
(\goneusin apeitheis\). See Ro 1:30. {Unthankful}
(\acharistoi\). Old word, in N.T. only here and Lu 6:35.
{Unholy} (\anosioi\). See 1Ti 1:9. {Without natural affection}
(\astorgoi\). See Ro 1:31.

3:3 {Implacable} (\aspondoi\). Truce-breakers. Old word, only
here in N.T. though in MSS. in Ro 1:31 (from \a\ privative and
\spondē\, a libation)

{Slanderers} (\diaboloi\). See 1Ti 3:11; Tit 2:3. {Without
(\akrateis\). Old word (\a\ privative and
, here only in N.T. {Fierce} (\anēmeroi\). Old word (\a\
privative and \hēmeros\, tame)
, only here in N.T. {No lovers of
(\aphilagathoi\). Found only here (\a\ privative and
\philagathos\, for which see Tit 1:8)
. See also Php 4:8. A
papyrus describes Antoninus as \philagathos\ and has

3:4 {Traitors} (\prodotai\). Old word (from \prodidōmi\), in N.T.
only here, Lu 6:16; Ac 7:52. {Headstrong} (\propeteis\). Old
word (from \pro\ and \piptō\), falling forward, in N.T. only here
and Ac 19:36. {Puffed up} (\tetuphōmenoi\). Perfect passive
participle of \tuphoō\. See 1Ti 3:6. {Lovers of pleasure}
(\philēdonoi\). Literary _Koinē_ word (\philos, hēdonē\), only
here in N.T. {Lovers of God} (\philotheoi\). Old word (\philos,
, only here in N.T.

3:5 {A form of godliness} (\morphōsin eusebeias\). For
\morphōsin\, see Ro 2:20. The outward shape without the
reality. {Having denied} (\ērnēmenoi\). Perfect middle participle
of \arneomai\ (see 2:12f.). {Power} (\dunamin\). See 1Co
4:20. See Ro 1:29-31 for similar description. {Turn away}
(\apotrepou\). Present middle (direct) imperative of \apotrepō\,
"turn thyself away from." Old verb, only here in N.T. See IV
Macc. 1:33.

3:6 {That creep} (\hoi endunontes\). Old and common verb (also
either to put on (1Th 5:8) or to enter (to slip in by
insinuation, as here)
. See same idea in Jude 1:4
(\pareiseduēsan\), 2Pe 2:1 (\pareisaxousin\), Ga 2:4
(\pareisēlthon\ and \pareisaktous\). These stealthy "creepers"
are pictured also in Tit 1:11. {Take captive}
(\aichmalōtizontes\). "Taking captive." Present active participle
of \aichmalōtizō\, for which see 2Co 10:5; Ro 7:23. {Silly
(\gunaikaria\). Literally, "little women" (diminutive of
, found in Diocles (comedian of 5 century B.C.) and in
Epictetus. The word here is neuter (grammatical gender) plural.
Used contemptuously here (only N.T. example). Ramsay suggests
"society ladies." It is amazing how gullible some women are with
religious charlatans who pose as exponents of "new thought."
{Laden with sins} (\sesōreumena hamartiais\). Perfect passive
participle of \sōreuō\, old word from Aristotle down (from
\sōros\, a heap)
to heap up. In N.T. only here and Ro 12:20.
Associative instrumental case \hamartiais\. {Divers}
(\poikilais\). Many coloured. See Tit 3:3. One has only to
recall Schweinfurth, the false Messiah of forty odd years ago
with his "heavenly harem" in Illinois and the recent infamous
"House of David" in Michigan to understand how these Gnostic
cults led women into licentiousness under the guise of religion
or of liberty. The priestesses of Aphrodite and of Isis were
illustrations ready to hand. \Agomena\ (present passive
means "continually led astray or from time to time."

3:7 {Never able to come to the knowledge of the truth} (\mēdepote
eis epignōsin alētheias elthein dunamena\)
. Pathetic picture of
these hypnotized women without intellectual power to cut through
the fog of words and, though always learning scraps of things,
they never come into the full knowledge (\epignōsin\) of the
truth in Christ. And yet they even pride themselves on belonging
to the intelligentsia!

3:8 {Like as} (\hon tropon\). "In which manner." Adverbial
accusative and incorporation of the antecedent \tropon\ into the
relative clause. {Jannes and Jambres} (\Iannēs kai Iambrēs\).
Traditional names of the magicians who withstood Moses (_Targum
of Jonathan_ on Ex 7:11)
. {Withstood} (\antestēsan\). Second
aorist active (intransitive) of \anthistēmi\, to stand against,
"they stood against" (with dative \Mōusei\). Same word used of
Elymas in Ac 13:8 and repeated here \anthistantai\ (present
middle indicative)
. Paul here pictures the seducers of the
\gunaikaria\ above. {Corrupted in mind} (\katephtharmenoi ton
. Perfect passive participle of \kataphtheirō\, old
compound, in N.T. only here in critical text. See 2Co 11:3; 1Ti
6:5 for \diaphtheirō\. The accusative \noun\ is retained in the
passive. {Reprobate} (\adokimoi\). See 1Co 9:27; Tit 1:16. They
had renounced their trust (\pistin\) in Christ.

3:9 {They shall proceed no further} (\ou prokopsousin epi
. Future active of \prokoptō\. See 2:16. {Folly}
(\anoia\). Old word (from \anoos\, a privative and \nous\), want
of sense, here only in N.T. {Evident} (\ekdēlos\). Old word (\ek,
dēlos\, outstanding)
, here only in N.T. {Theirs} (\ekeinōn\). Of
Jannes and Jambres (Ex 7:12).

3:10 {Didst follow} (\parēkolouthēsas\). First aorist active
indicative of \parakoloutheō\, for which see 1Ti 4:6. Some MSS.
have perfect active \parēkolouthēkas\ (thou hast followed). Nine
associative-instrumental cases here after the verb ({teaching},
\didaskaliāi\, Ro 12:7; {conduct}, \agōgēi\, old word here only
in N.T.; {purpose}, \prothesei\, Ro 8:28; {faith}, \pistei\,
1Th 3:6; {longsuffering}, \makrothumiāi\, Col 1:11;
{persecutions}, \diōgmois\, 2Th 1:4; {sufferings},
\pathēmasin\, 2Co 1:6f.)
. The two last items belong to verse

3:11 {What things befell me} (\hoia moi egeneto\). Qualitative
relative (\hoia\) referring to actual experiences of Paul
(\egeneto\, second aorist middle indicative of \ginomai\) more
fully described in 2Co 11:30-33. The Acts of the Apostles tell
of his experiences in Antioch in Pisidia (Ac 13:14,45,50), in
Iconium (Ac 14:1-5), in Lystra (Ac 14:6-19). See also Ga
2:11. {What persecutions I endured} (\hoious diōgmous
. Qualitative relative again with \diōgmous\. The verb
is first aorist active indicative of \hupopherō\, old verb, to
bear under as in 1Co 10:13. {Delivered me} (\me erusato\).
First aorist middle of \ruomai\, old verb, with \ek\ here as in
1Th 1:10. Used again of the Lord Jesus in 4:18.

3:12 {That would live godly} (\hoi thelontes zēin eusebōs\).
"Those who desire (will, determine) to live godly." Paul does not
regard his experience as peculiar, but only part of the price of
loyal service to Christ. {Shall suffer persecution}
(\diōchthēsontai\). Future passive of \diōkō\, "shall be
persecuted" (shall be hunted as wild beasts).

3:13 {Impostors} (\goētes\). Old word from wailers (\goaō\, to
, professional mourners, deceivers, jugglers. Here only in
the N.T. Modern impostors know all the tricks of the trade.
{Shall wax worse and worse} (\prokopsousin epi to cheiron\).
"Shall cut forward to the worse stage." See 2:16 for
\prokoptō\. \Cheiron\ is comparative of \kakos\, "to the worse
than now." {Deceiving and being deceived} (\planōntes kai
. Present active and present passive participles of
\planaō\. The tragedy of it all is that these seducers are able
to deceive others as well as themselves.

3:14 {But abide thou} (\su de mene\). Emphatic contrast (\su
, "But thou." Present active imperative of \menō\, common
verb, to remain. {In the things which} (\en hois\). The
antecedent to \hois\ is not expressed ("in which things") and the
relative is attracted from \ha\ accusative with \emathes\ (didst
learn, second aorist active indicative of \manthanō\)
to the case
of the unexpressed antecedent (locative with \en\). {Hast been
assured of}
(\epistōthēs\). First aorist passive indicative of
\pistoō\, old verb (from \pistos\, faithful), to make reliable,
only here in N.T. {Knowing from whom} (\eidōs para tinōn\).
Second perfect active participle of \oida\. Note \tinōn\
(ablative case after \para\ in an indirect question). The list
included the O.T. prophets, Paul, Eunice, Lois. There ought to be
moral authority in such personages.

3:15 {From a babe} (\apo brephous\). Only here in the Pastorals.
This teaching from the fifth year, covering the whole of
Timothy's recollections. See Mr 9:21 \ek paidiothen\, from a
child. {Thou has known} (\oidas\). Present active indicative,
progressive perfect reaching from a babe till now. Would that
Christian parents took like pains today. {The sacred writings}
(\hiera grammata\). "Sacred writings" or "Holy Scriptures." Here
alone in N.T., though in Josephus (Proem to _Ant_. 3; _Apion_ 1,
and in Philo. The adjective \hieros\ occurs in 1Co 9:13
of the temple worship, and \gramma\ in contrast to \pneuma\ in
2Co 3:6f.; Ro 2:29 and in Joh 5:47 of Moses' writings, in Ac
28:21 of an epistle, in Ga 6:11 of letters (characters). In
Ephesus there were \Ephesia grammata\ that were \bebēla\ (Ac
, not \hiera\. {To make thee wise} (\se sophisai\). First
aorist active infinitive of \sophizō\, old verb (from \sophos\),
in N.T. only here, and 2Pe 1:16. {Which is in} (\tēs en\).
Common idiom with the article, "the in." The use of the
Scriptures was not magic, but of value when used "through faith
that is in Christ Jesus."

3:16 {Every scripture inspired of God is also profitable} (\pāsa
graphē theopneustos kai ōphelimos\)
. There are two matters of
doubt in this clause. One is the absence of the article \hē\
before \graphē\, whether that makes it mean "every scripture" or
"all scripture" as of necessity if present. Unfortunately, there
are examples both ways with both \pās\ and \graphē\. Twice we
find \graphē\ in the singular without the article and yet
definite (1Pe 2:6; 2Pe 1:20). We have \pās Israēl\ (Ro 11:26)
for all Israel (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 772). So far as the
grammatical usage goes, one can render here either "all
scripture" or "every scripture." There is no copula (\estin\) in
the Greek and so one has to insert it either before the \kai\ or
after it. If before, as is more natural, then the meaning is:
"All scripture (or every scripture) is inspired of God and
profitable." In this form there is a definite assertion of
inspiration. That can be true also of the second way, making
"inspired of God" descriptive of "every scripture," and putting
\estin\ (is) after \kai\: "All scripture (or every scripture),
inspired of God, is also profitable." {Inspired of God}
(\theopneustos\). "God-breathed." Late word (Plutarch) here only
in N.T. Perhaps in contrast to the commandments of men in Tit
1:14. {Profitable} (\ōphelimos\). See 1Ti 4:8. See Ro 15:4.
Four examples of \pros\ (facing, with a view to, for):
\didaskalian\, teaching; \elegmon\, reproof, in LXX and here only
in N.T.; \epanorthōsin\, correction, old word, from \epanorthoō\,
to set up straight in addition, here only in N.T., with which
compare \epidiorthoō\ in Tit 1:5; \paideian\, instruction, with
which compare Eph 6:4.

3:17 {The man of God} (\ho tou theou anthrōpos\). See 1Ti 6:11.
{May be complete} (\hina ēi artios\). Final clause with \hina\
and present subjunctive of \eimi\. \Artios\ is old word (from
root \arō\, to fit)
, specially adapted, here only in N.T.
{Furnished completely} (\exērtismenos\). Perfect passive
participle of \exartizō\, rare verb, to furnish (fit) fully
(perfective use of \ex\), in N.T. only here and Ac 21:5. In
Josephus. For \katartizō\, see Lu 6:40; 2Co 13:11.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Timothy: Chapter 3)