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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Titus: Chapter 1)

1:1 {According to the faith of God's elect} (\kata pistin
eklektōn theou\)
. Here \kata\ expresses the aim of Paul's
apostleship, not the standard by which he was chosen as in Php
3:14; a classic idiom, repeated here with \epignōsin, eusebeian,
epitagēn\, "with a view to" in each case. For "God's elect" see
Ro 8:33; Col 3:12. {The knowledge} (\epignōsin\). "Full
knowledge," one of Paul's favourite words. For the phrase see
1Ti 2:4. {Which is according to godliness} (\tēs kat'
. "The (truth) with a view to godliness." The
combination of faith and full knowledge of the truth is to bring
godliness on the basis of the hope of life eternal.

1:2 {God who cannot lie} (\ho apseudēs theos\). "The non-lying
God." Old adjective (\a\ privative and \pseudēs\), here only in
N.T. See 2Ti 2:13. In Polycarp's last prayer. {Promised}
(\epēggeilato\). First aorist middle indicative of \epaggellō\.
Antithesis in \ephanerōsen de\ (manifested) in verse 3 (first
aorist active indicative of \phaneroō\)
. Same contrast in Ro
16:25; Col 1:26. {Before times eternal} (\pro chronōn aiōnōn\).
Not to God's purpose before time began (Eph 1:4; 2Ti 1:9), but
to definite promises (Ro 9:4) made in time (Lock). "Long ages
ago." See Ro 16:25.

1:3 {In his own seasons} (\kairois idiois\). Locative case. See
1Ti 2:6; 6:15. {In the message} (\en kērugmati\). See 1Co
1:21; 2:4 for this word, the human proclamation (preaching) of
God's word. {Wherewith I was intrusted} (\ho episteuthēn\).
Accusative relative \ho\ retained with the first aorist passive
indicative of \pisteuō\ as in 1Ti 1:11. See 1Ti 2:7. {Of God
our Saviour}
(\tou sōtēros hēmōn theou\). In verse 4 he applies
the words "\tou sōtēros hēmōn\" to Christ. In 2:13 he applies
both \theou\ and \sōtēros\ to Christ.

1:4 {My true child} (\gnēsiōi teknōi\). See 1Ti 1:2 for this
adjective with Timothy. Titus is not mentioned in Acts, possibly
because he is Luke's brother. But one can get a clear picture of
him by turning to 2Co 2:13; 7:6-15; 8:6-24; 12:16-18; Ga 2:1-3;
Tit 1:4f.; 3:12; 2Ti 4:10. He had succeeded in Corinth where
Timothy had failed. Paul had left him in Crete as superintendent
of the work there. Now he writes him from Nicopolis (Tit 3:12).
{After a common faith} (\kata koinēn pistin\). Here \kata\ does
mean standard, not aim, but it is a faith (\pistin\) common to a
Gentile (a Greek) like Titus as well as to a Jew like Paul and so
common to all races and classes (Jude 1:3). \Koinos\ does not
here have the notion of unclean as in Ac 10:14; 11:8.

1:5 {For this cause} (\toutou charin\). In N.T. only here and
Eph 3:1,14. Paul may be supplementing oral instruction as in
Timothy's case and may even be replying to a letter from Titus
(Zahn). {Left I thee in Crete} (\apeleipon se en Krētēi\). This
is the imperfect active of \apoleipō\, though MSS. give the
aorist active also (\apelipon\) and some read \kateleipon\ or
\katelipon\. Both are common verbs, though Paul uses \kataleipō\
only in 1Th 3:1 except two quotations (Ro 11:4; Eph 5:31) and
\apoleipō\ only here and 2Ti 4:13,20. Perhaps \apoleipō\
suggests a more temporary stay than \kataleipō\. Paul had
apparently stopped in Crete on his return from Spain about A.D.
65. {That thou shouldest set in order} (\hina epidiorthōsēi\).
Late and rare double compound (inscriptions, here only in N.T.),
first aorist middle subjunctive (final clause with \hina\) of
\epidiorthoō\, to set straight (\orthoō\) thoroughly (\dia\) in
addition (\epi\), a clean job of it. {The things that were
(\ta leiponta\). "The things that remain." See 3:13; Lu
18:22. Either things left undone or things that survive. In both
senses the new pastor faces problems after the tornado has
passed. Parry takes it "of present defects" in Cretan character.
{And appoint} (\kai katastēsēis\). Final clause still and first
aorist active subjunctive of \kathistēmi\, the word used in Ac
6:13 about the deacons. The word does not preclude the choice by
the churches (in every city, \kata polin\, distributive use of
. This is a chief point in the \epidorthōsis\ (White).
{Elders} (\presbuterous\). See 1Ti 3:2; 4:17. {As I gave thee
(\hōs egō soi dietaxamēn\). First aorist (constative)
middle imperative of \diatassō\, clear reference to previous
personal details given to Titus on previous occasions.

1:6 {Blameless} (\anegklētos\). In a condition of first class.
Used in 1Ti 3:10 of deacons which see. {That believe}
(\pista\). Added to what is in 1Ti 3:4. "Believing children."
{Not accused of riot} (\mē en katēgoriāi asōtias\). See 1Ti
5:19 for \katēgoria\ and Eph 5:18 for \asōtia\. "Not in
accusation of profligacy." {Unruly} (\anupotakta\). See 1Ti
1:9. Public disorder, out of doors. See also verse 10.

1:7 {The bishop} (\ton episkopon\). Same office as "elder" in
1:5. "Elder is the title, oversight is the function" (B.
. {As God's steward} (\hōs theou oikonomon\). See 1Co
4:1f. for Paul's idea of the bishop (elder) as God's steward
(cf. 1Co 9:17; Col 1:25; Eph 3:2; 1Ti 1:4). {Not self-willed}
(\mē authadē\). Old word (from \autos, hēdomai\), self-pleasing,
arrogant. In N.T. only here and 2Pe 2:10. {Not soon angry}
(\orgilon\). Old adjective from \orgē\ (anger). Here only in N.T.
Vulgate, _iracundum_. For "brawler" and "striker" see 1Ti 3:2.
{Not greedy of filthy lucre} (\aischrokerdē\). "Not greedy of
shameful gain." Used of deacons in 1Ti 3:8, \aphilarguron\ used
of elders in 1Ti 3:3.

1:8 {A lover of good} (\philagathon\). Late double compound
(\philos, agathos\). See Wisdom 7:22. Here only in N.T. Just
(\dikaion\), holy (\hosion\) not in 1Ti 3. {Temperate}
(\egkratē\). Old and common adjective (\en, kratos\, strength),
having power over, controlling, here only in N.T. Picture of

1:9 {Holding to} (\antechomenon\). Present middle participle of
\antechō\, old verb, to hold back, in middle to hold oneself face
to face with, to cling to, as in 1Th 5:14. {The faithful word}
(\tou pistou logou\). See 1Ti 1:15; 6:3; Ro 16:17. Some would
see a reference here to Christ as the Personal Logos. {That he
may be able}
(\hina dunatos ēi\). Final clause with present
active subjunctive. Paul several times uses \dunatos eimi\ in the
sense of \dunamai\, with infinitive as here (Ro 4:21; 11:23; 2Ti
. {The gainsayers} (\tous antilegontas\). Present active
participle of \antilegō\, old word, to answer back, as in Ro
10:21. "The talkers back."

1:10 {Vain talkers} (\mataiologoi\). Late and rare compound,
empty talkers, in Vett. Val. and here. See 1Ti 1:6 for
\mataiologia\. {Deceivers} (\phrenapatai\). Late and rare
compound, in papyri, eccl. writers, here alone in N.T.
"Mind-deceivers." See Ga 6:3 for \phrenapatāin\. {Specially
they of the circumcision}
(\malista hoi ek tēs peritomēs\). Same
phrase in Ac 11:2; Ga 2:12; Col 4:11. Jews are mentioned in
Crete in Ac 2:11. Apparently Jewish Christians of the Pharisaic
type tinged with Gnosticism.

1:11 {Whose mouths must be stopped} (\hous dei epistomizein\).
Literally, "whom it is necessary to silence by stopping the
mouth." Present active infinitive \epistomizein\, old and common
verb (\epi\, \stoma\, mouth), here only in N.T. To stop the mouth
either with bridle or muzzle or gag. {Overthrow}
(\anatrepousin\). Old and common verb, to turn up, to overturn.
In N.T. only here and 2Ti 2:18. In papyri to upset a family by
perversion of one member. {Things which they ought not} (\ha mē
. Note subjective negative \mē\ with indefinite relative and
indicative mode. {For filthy lucre's sake} (\aischrou kerdous
. The Cretans are given a bad reputation for itinerating
prophets for profit by Polybius, Livy, Plutarch. Paul's warnings
in 1Ti 3:3,8; 6:5 reveal it as "a besetting temptation of the
professional teacher" (Parry). See verse 7 above. Disgraceful
gain, made in shameful ways.

1:12 {A prophet of their own} (\idios autōn prophētēs\). "Their
own prophet." Self-styled "prophet" (or poet), and so accepted by
the Cretans and by Cicero and Apuleius, that is Epimenides who
was born in Crete at Cnossos. It is a hexameter line and
Callimachus quoted the first part of it in a Hymn to Zeus. It is
said that Epimenides suggested to the Athenians the erection of
statues to "unknown gods" (Ac 17:23). {Liars} (\pseustai\). See
1Ti 1:10 for the word. The Cretans had a bad reputation on this
line, partly due to their claim to having the tomb of Zeus. {Evil
(\kaka thēria\). "Wicked wild beasts." Lock asks if the
Minotaur was partly responsible. {Idle gluttons} (\gasteres
. "Idle bellies." Blunt and forceful. See Php 3:19
"whose god is the belly" (\hē koilia\). Both words give the
picture of the sensual gormandizer.

1:13 {Testimony} (\marturia\). Of the poet Epimenides. Paul
endorses it from his recent knowledge. {Sharply} (\apotomōs\).
Old adverb from \apotomos\ (from \apotemnō\, to cut off), in N.T.
only here and 2Co 13:10, "curtly," "abruptly." It is necessary
to appear rude sometimes for safety, if the house is on fire and
life is in danger. {That they may be sound} (\hina hugiainōsin\).
Final clause with \hina\ and present active subjunctive of
\hugiainō\, for which verb see on ¯1Ti 1:10.

1:14 See 1Ti 1:4 for \prosechō\ and \muthois\, only here we
have _Jewish_ (\Ioudaikois\) added. Perhaps a reference to the
oral traditions condemned by Christ in Mr 7:2-8. See also Col
2:22, apparently Pharisaic type of Gnostics. {Who turn away from
the truth}
(\apostrephomenōn\). Present middle (direct)
participle of \apostrephō\, "men turning themselves away from the
truth" (accusative according to regular idiom). "The truth" (1Ti
is the gospel (Eph 4:21).

1:15 {To them that are defiled} (\tois memiammenois\). Perfect
passive articular participle of \miainō\, old verb, to dye with
another colour, to stain, in N.T. only here, Jude 1:8; Heb
12:15. See \memiantai\ (perf. pass. indic.) in this verse.
\Molunō\ (1Co 8:7) is to smear. {Unbelieving} (\apistois\). As
in 1Co 7:12f.; 1Ti 5:8. The principle or proverb just quoted
appears also in 1Co 6:12; 10:23; Ro 14:20. For the defilement
of mind (\nous\) and conscience (\suneidēsis\) in both Gentile
and Jew by sin, see Ro 1:18-2:29.

1:16 {They profess} (\homologousin\). Present active indicative
of \homologeō\, common verb (\homou, legō\) as in Ro 10:10f.
\Eidenai\ (know) is second perfect active infinitive of \oida\ in
indirect assertion. {By their works} (\tois ergois\).
Instrumental case. {They deny} (\arnountai\). Present middle of
\arneomai\, old verb, common in the Gospels and the Pastoral
Epistles (1Ti 5:8; Tit 2:12; 2Ti 2:12). {Abominable}
(\bdeluktoi\). Verbal adjective from \bdelussomai\. Only in LXX
and here. {Disobedient} (\apeitheis\). See Ro 1:30. {Reprobate}
(\adokimoi\). See on ¯1Co 9:27; Ro 1:28.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Titus: Chapter 1)