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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 1)

1:1 {And Timothy} (\kai Timotheos\). Timothy is with Paul, having
been sent on to Macedonia from Ephesus (Ac 19:22). He is in no
sense co-author any more than Sosthenes was in 1Co 1:1. {In all
(\en holēi tēi Achaiāi\). The Romans divided Greece into
two provinces (Achaia and Macedonia). Macedonia included also
Illyricum, Epirus, and Thessaly. Achaia was all of Greece south
of this (both Attica and the Peloponnesus). The restored Corinth
was made the capital of Achaia where the pro-consul resided (Ac
. He does not mention other churches in Achaia outside of
the one in Corinth, but only "saints" (\hagiois\). Athens was in
Achaia, but it is not clear that there was as yet a church there,
though some converts had been won (Ac 17:34), and there was a
church in Cenchreae, the eastern port of Corinth (Ro 16:1).
Paul in 2Co 9:2 speaks of Achaia and Macedonia together. His
language here would seem to cover the whole (\holēi\, all) of
Achaia in his scope and not merely the environment around

1:2 Identical with 1Co 1:3 which see.

1:3 {Blessed} (\eulogētos\). From old verb \eulogeō\, to speak
well of, but late verbal in LXX and Philo. Used of men in Ge
24:31, but only of God in N.T. as in Lu 1:68 and chiefly in
Paul (2Co 11:31; Ro 1:25). Paul has no thanksgiving or prayer
as in 1Co 1:4-9, but he finds his basis for gratitude in God,
not in them. {The God and Father} (\ho theos kai patēr\). So
rightly, only one article with both substantives as in 2Pe 1:1.
Paul gives the deity of Jesus Christ as our Lord (\Kuriou\), but
he does not hesitate to use the language here as it occurs. See
1Pe 1:3; Eph 1:3 where the language is identical with that
here. {The father of mercies} (\ho patēr tōn oiktirmōn\) and God
of all comfort (\kai theos pasēs paraklēseōs\). Paul adds an item
to each word. He is the compassionate Father characterized by
mercies (\oiktirmōn\, old word from \oikteirō\, to pity, and here
in plural, emotions and acts of pity)
. He is the God of all
comfort (\paraklēseōs\, old word from \parakaleō\, to call to
one's side, common with Paul)
. Paul has already used it of God
who gave eternal comfort (2Th 2:16). The English word comfort
is from the Latin _confortis_ (brave together). The word used by
Jesus of the Holy Spirit as the Comforter or Paraklete is this
very word (Joh 14:16; 16:7). Paul makes rich use of the verb
\parakaleō\ and the substantive \paraklēsis\ in this passage
(3-7). He urges all sorrowing and troubled hearts to find
strength in God.

1:4 {In all our affliction} (\epi pasēi tēi thlipsei hēmōn\).
\Thlipsis\ is from \thlibō\, to press, old and common word, as
tribulation is from Latin _tribulum_ (roller). See on ¯Mt 13:21
and 1Th 1:6. The English affliction is Latin _afflictio_ from
_ad-fligere_, to strike on. {That we may be able to comfort}
(\eis to dunasthai hēmas parakalein\). Purpose clause with \eis\
and the articular infinitive with the accusative of general
reference, a common idiom. Paul here gives the purpose of
affliction in the preacher's life, in any Christian's life, to
qualify him for ministry to others. Otherwise it will be
professional and perfunctory. {Wherewith} (\hēs\). Genitive case
of the relative attracted to that of the antecedent
\paraklēseōs\. The case of the relative here could have been
either the accusative \hēn\ with the passive verb retained as in
Mr 10:38 or the instrumental \hēi\. Either is perfectly good
Greek (cf. Eph 1:6; 4:1). Personal experience of God's comfort
is necessary before we can pass it on to others.

1:5 {The sufferings of Christ} (\ta pathēmata tou Christou\).
Subjective genitive, Christ's own sufferings. {Abound unto us}
(\perisseuei eis hēmas\). Overflow unto us so that we suffer like
sufferings and become fellow sufferers with Christ (4:10f.; Ro
8:17; Php 3:10; Col 1:24)
. {Through Christ} (\dia tou
. The overflow (\perisseuei\) of comfort comes also
through Christ. Is Paul thinking of how some of the Jewish
Christians in Corinth have become reconciled with him through
Christ? Partnership with Christ in suffering brings partnership
in glory also (Ro 8:17; 1Pe 4:13).

1:6 {Whether} (\eite\) {--or} (\eite\). The alternatives in
Paul's experience (afflicted \thlibometha\, comforted
work out for their good when they are called on
to endure like sufferings "which we also suffer" (\hōn kai hēmeis
. The relative \hōn\ is attracted from neuter
accusative plural \ha\ to genitive case of the antecedent
\pathēmatōn\ (sufferings).

1:7 {Our hope for you} (\hē elpis hēmōn huper humōn\). The old
word \elpis\, from \elpizō\, to hope, has the idea of waiting
with expectation and patience. So here it is "steadfast"
(\bebaia\, stable, fast, from \bainō\, to plant the feet down).
{Partakers} (\koinōnoi\). Partners as in Lu 5:10.

1:8 {Concerning our affliction} (\huper tēs thlipseōs hēmōn\).
Manuscripts read also \peri\ for in the _Koinē_ \huper\ (over)
often has the idea of \peri\ (around). Paul has laid down his
philosophy of afflictions and now he cites a specific
illustration in his own recent experience. {In Asia} (\en
. Probably in Ephesus, but what it was we do not know
whether sickness or peril. We do know that the disciples and the
Asiarchs would not allow Paul to face the mob in the amphitheatre
gathered by Demetrius (Ac 20:30f.). In Ro 16:4 Paul says that
Prisca and Aquila laid down their necks for him, risked their
very lives for him. It may have been a later plot to kill Paul
that hastened his departure from Ephesus (Ac 20:1). He had a
trial so great that "we were weighed down exceedingly beyond our
power" (\kath' huperbolēn huper dunamin ebarēthēmen\). Old verb
from \baros\, weight, \barus\, weighty. First aorist passive
indicative. See on ¯1Co 12:31 for \kath' huperbolēn\ (cf. our
. It was beyond Paul's power to endure if left to
himself. {Insomuch that we despaired even of life} (\hōste
exaporēthēnai hēmas kai tou zēin\)
. Usual clause of result with
\hōste\ and the infinitive. First aorist passive infinitive
\exaporēthēnai\, late compound for utter despair (perfective use
of \ex\ and at a complete loss, \a\ privative and \poros\, way)
There seemed no way out. {Of life} (\tou zēin\). Ablative case of
the articular infinitive, of living.

1:9 {Yea} (\alla\). Confirmatory use as in 7:11, rather than
adversative. {The answer of death} (\to apokrima tou thanatou\)
This late word from \apokrinomai\, to reply, occurs nowhere else
in N.T., but is in Josephus, Polybius, inscriptions and papyri
(Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 257; Moulton and Milligan's
, and always in the sense of decision or judgment
rendered. But Vulgate renders it by _responsum_ and that idea
suits best here, unless Paul conceives God as rendering the
decision of death. {We ourselves have had within ourselves}
(\autoi en heautois eschēkamen\). Regular perfect of \echō\, to
have. And still have the vivid recollection of that experience.
For this lively dramatic use of the present perfect indicative
for a past experience see also \eschēka\ in 2:13 (Moulton,
_Prolegomena_, p. 143f.; Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 896f.)
. {That
we should not trust in ourselves}
(\hina mē pepoithotes ōmen eph'
. A further purpose of God in affliction beyond that in
verse 4. "This dreadful trial was sent to him in order to give
him a precious spiritual lesson (12:7-10)" (Robertson and
. Note periphrastic perfect active subjunctive of
\peithō\, to persuade. {In} (\epi\), upon, both ourselves and

1:10 {Out of so great a death} (\ek tēlikoutou thanatou\). He had
considered himself as good as dead. {Delivered} (\erusato\)
{--will deliver} (\rusetai\). Old verb \ruō\, middle, \ruomai\,
draw oneself, as out of a pit, rescue. So Paul faces death
without fear. {On whom we have set our hope} (\eis hon
. Perfect active indicative of \elpizō\. We still have
that hope, emphasized by \eti rusetai\ (he will still deliver).

1:11 {Ye also helping together on our behalf} (\sunupourgountōn
kai humōn huper hēmōn\)
. Genitive absolute with present active
participle of late compound verb (\sun\ and \hupourgeō\ for
\hupo\ and \ergon\)
. Paul relied on God and felt the need of the
prayer of God's people. {By means of many} (\ek pollōn
. \Prosōpon\ means face (\pros, ops\). The word is
common in all Greek. The papyri use it for face, appearance,
person. It occurs twelve times in II Corinthians. It certainly
means face in eight of them (3:7,13,18; 8:24; 10:1,7; 11:20).
In 5:12 it means outward appearance. It may mean face or person
here, 2:10; 4:6. It is more pictorial to take it here as face
"that out of many upturned faces" thanks may be given
(\hina--eucharistēthēi\ first aorist passive subjunctive) for the
gift to us by means of many (\dia pollon\). It is indeed a
difficult sentence to understand.

1:12 {Glorying} (\kauchēsis\). Act of glorying, while in verse
14 \kauchēma\ is the thing boasted of. {The testimony of our
(\to marturion tēs suneidēseōs hēmōn\). In apposition
with \kauchēsis\. {Sincerity of God} (\eilikrineiāi tou theou\).
Like \dikaiosunē theou\ (Ro 1:17; 3:21), the God-kind of
righteousness. So the God-kind (genitive case) of sincerity. Late
word from \eilikrinēs\. See on ¯1Co 5:8. {Not in fleshly wisdom}
(\ouk en sophiāi sarkikēi\). See on ¯1Co 1:17; 2:4,13f. Paul
uses \sarkikos\ five times and it occurs only twice elsewhere in
N.T. See on ¯1Co 3:3. {We behaved ourselves} (\anestraphēmen\).
Second aorist passive indicative of \anastrephō\, old verb, to
turn back, to turn back and forth, to walk. Here the passive is
used as in late Greek as if middle. {More abundantly to you-ward}
(\perissoterōs pros humas\). They had more abundant opportunity
to observe how scrupulous Paul was (Ac 18:11).

1:13 {Than what ye read} (\all' ē ha anaginōskete\). Note
comparative conjunction \ē\ (than) after \all'\ and that after
\alla\ (other things, same word in reality), "other than." Read
in Greek (\anaginōskō\) is knowing again, recognizing. See on ¯Ac
8:30. {Or even acknowledge} (\ē kai epiginōskete\). Paul is fond
of such a play on words (\anaginōskete, epiginōskete\) or
paronomasia. Does he mean "read between the lines," as we say, by
the use of \epi\ (additional knowledge)? {Unto the end} (\heōs
. The report of Titus showed that the majority now at
last understood Paul. He hopes that it will last (1Co 1:8).

1:14 {As also ye did acknowledge us in part} (\kathōs kai
epegnōte hēmas apo merous\)
. Gracious acknowledgment (second
aorist active indicative of \epignōskō\)
to the original Pauline
party (1Co 1:12; 3:4) that he had seemed to care so little for
them. And now in his hour of victory he shows that, if he is
their ground of glorying, they are his also (cf. 1Th 2:19f.; Php

1:15 {Confidence} (\pepoithēsei\). This late word (LXX Philo,
is condemned by the Atticists, but Paul uses it a half
dozen times (3:4 also). {I was minded to come} (\eboulomēn
. Imperfect, I was wishing to come, picturing his former
state of mind. {Before unto you} (\proteron pros humas\). This
was his former plan (\proteron\) while in Ephesus to go to Achaia
directly from Ephesus. This he confesses in verse 16 "and by
you to pass into Macedonia." {That ye might have a second
(\hina deuteran charin schēte\). Or second "joy" if we
accept \charan\ with Westcott and Hort. This would be a real
second blessing (or joy) if they should have two visits from

1:16 {And again} (\kai palin\). This would have been the second
benefit or joy. But he changed his plans and did not make that
trip directly to Corinth, but came on to Macedonia first (Ac
19:21; 20:1f.; 1Co 16:2; 2Co 2:12)
. {To be set forward by you}
(\huph' humōn propemphthēnai\). First aorist passive infinitive
of \propempō\. Paul uses this same verb in Ro 15:24 for the
same service by the Roman Christians on his proposed trip to
Spain. The Corinthians, especially the anti-Pauline party, took
advantage of Paul's change of plans to criticize him sharply for
vacillation and flippancy. How easy it is to find fault with the
preacher! So Paul has to explain his conduct.

1:17 {Did I shew fickleness?} (\mēti ara tēi elaphriāi?\). An
indignant negative answer is called for by \mēti\. The
instrumental case of \elaphriāi\ is regular after \echrēsamēn\
from \chraomai\, to use. \Elaphria\ is a late word for levity
from the old adjective, \elaphros\, light, agile (2Co 10:17; Mt
. Here only in N.T. {Purpose} (\bouleuomai\). Paul raises
the question of fickleness about any of his plans. {Yea yea}
(\Nai nai\) {--nay nay} (\ou ou\). See a similar repetition in
Mt 5:37. It is plain in Jas 5:12 where "the yea" is "yea" and
"the nay" is "nay." That seems to be Paul's meaning here, "that
the Yea may be yea and the Nay may be nay."

1:18 {Is not yea and nay} (\ouk estin nai kai ou\). He is not a
Yes and No man, saying Yes and meaning or acting No. Paul calls
God to witness on this point.

1:19 {Was not Yea and Nay} (\ouk egeneto nai kai ou\). "Did not
become Yes and No." {But in him is yea} (\alla Nai en autōi
. Rather, "But in him Yes has become yes," has proved
true. So Paul appeals to the life of Christ to sustain his own

1:20 {In him is the yea} (\en autōi to Nai\). Supply \gegonen\
from the preceding sentence, "In him was the Yea come true." This
applies to all God's promises. {The Amen} (\to Amēn\). In public
worship (1Co 14:16).

1:21 {Establishes} (\bebaiōn\). Present active participle from
\bebaios\, firm. An apt metaphor in Corinth where confirmation of
a bargain often took place (\bebaiōsis\) as Deissmann shows
(_Bible Studies_, p. 109) and as verse 22 makes plain.
{Anointed} (\chrisas\). From \chriō\, to anoint, old verb, to
consecrate, with the Holy Spirit here as in 1Jo 2:20.

1:22 {Sealed us} (\sphragisamenos hēmas\). From \sphragizō\ old
verb, common in LXX and papyri for setting a seal to prevent
opening (Da 6:17), in place of signature (1Ki 21:18). Papyri
examples show a wide legal use to give validity to documents, to
guarantee genuineness of articles as sealing sacks and chests,
etc. (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 238; Moulton and Milligan's
. {The earnest of the Spirit} (\ton arrabōna tou
. A word of Semitic origin (possibly Phoenician) and
spelled both \arabōn\ and \arrabōn\. It is common in the papyri
as earnest money in a purchase for a cow or for a wife (a dowry).
In N.T. only here; 5:5; Eph 1:14. It is part payment on the
total obligation and we use the very expression today, "earnest
money." It is God, says Paul, who has done all this for us and
God is Paul's pledge that he is sincere. He will come to Corinth
in due time. This earnest of the Spirit in our hearts is the
witness of the Spirit that we are God's.

1:23 {But I call God for a witness upon my soul} (\Egō de martura
ton theon epikaloumai epi tēn emēn psuchēn\)
. Solemn attestation,
"calling heaven to witness is frequent in literature from Homer
onwards" (Plummer). Thus God is described above (cf. 1Th 2:5,10;
Ro 1:9; Ga 1:20; Php 1:8)
. {To spare you} (\pheidomenos humōn\).
Present middle participle (causal rather than final) of
\pheidomai\, old verb, to hold back, to spare. Ablative case

1:24 {We have lordship over} (\kurieuomen\). Old verb from
\kurios\, to be lord of or over. See Lu 22:25. {Helpers of your
(\sunergoi tēs charas humōn\). Co-workers (1Co 3:8) in
your joy. A delicate correction to present misapprehension

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 1)