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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 2)

2:1 {That I would not come again to you with sorrow} (\to mē
palin en lupēi pros humas elthein\)
. Articular second aorist
active infinitive with negative \mē\ in apposition with \touto\
(this) preceding. What does Paul mean by "again" (\palin\)? Had
he paid another visit besides that described in Ac 18 which was
in sorrow (\en lupēi\)? Or does he mean that having had one
joyful visit (that in Ac 18) he does not wish the second one to
be in sorrow? Either interpretation is possible as the Greek
stands and scholars disagree. So in 12:14 "The third time I am
ready to come" may refer to the proposed second visit (1:15f.)
and the present plan (a third). And so as to 13:1. There is
absolutely no way to tell clearly whether Paul had already made a
second visit. If he had done so, it is a bit odd that he did not
plainly say so in 1:15f. when he is apologizing for not having
made the proposed visit ("a second benefit").

2:2 {Who then?} (\kai tis?\). For this use of \kai\ see on ¯Mr
10:26; Joh 9:36. The \kai\ accepts the condition (first class
and shows the paradox that follows. \Lupeō\ is old
word from \lupē\ (sorrow) in causative sense, to make sorry.
{Maketh glad} (\euphrainōn\). Present active participle of old
word from \eu\, well, and \phrēn\, mind, to make joyful,
causative idea like \lupeō\.

2:3 {I wrote this very thing} (\egrapsa touto auto\). Is this
(and \egrapsa\ in verses 4,9,12) the epistolary aorist
referring to the present letter? In itself that is possible as
the epistolary aorist does occur in the N.T. as in 8:18; 9:3
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 854f.). If not epistolary aorist as
seems improbable from the context and from 7:8-12, to what
Epistle does he refer? To 1Co 5 or to a lost letter? It is
possible, of course, that, when Paul decided not to come to
Corinth, he sent a letter. The language that follows in verses
3,4; 7:8-12 can hardly apply to I Corinthians. {Should have
(\lupēn schō\). Second aorist (ingressive) active
subjunctive of \echō\, should get sorrow, after \hina mē\
negative final particles. {From them of whom} (\aph' hōn\).
Antecedent omitted, \apo toutōn aph' hōn\ (from those from whom).
{I ought} (\edei me\). Imperfect for unrealized present
obligation as often and like English. {Having confidence}
(\pepoithōs\). Second perfect active participle of \peithō\

2:4 {Anguish} (\sunochēs\). Ablative case after \ek\ (out of).
Old word from \sunechō\, to hold together. So contraction of
heart (Cicero, _contractio animi_), a spiritual _angina
pectoris_. In N.T. only here and Lu 21:25. {With many tears}
(\dia pollōn dakruōn\). He dictated that letter "through tears"
(accompanied by tears). Paul was a man of heart. He writes to the
Philippians with weeping (\klaiōn\) over the enemies of the Cross
of Christ (Php 3:18). He twice mentions his tears in his speech
at Miletus (Ac 20:19-31). {But that ye might know the love}
(\alla tēn agapēn hina gnōte\). Proleptic position of \agapēn\
and ingressive second aorist active subjunctive \gnōte\, come to

2:5 {If any} (\ei tis\). Scholars disagree whether Paul refers to
1Co 5:1, where he also employs \tis, toioutos\, and \Satanās\
as here, or to the ringleader of the opposition to him. Either
view is possible. In both cases Paul shows delicacy of feeling by
not mentioning the name. {But in part} (\alla apo merous\). "But
to some extent to you all." The whole Corinthian Church has been
injured in part by this man's wrongdoing. There is a parenthesis
({that I press not too heavily}, \hina mē epibarō\) that
interrupts the flow of ideas. \Epibareō\, to put a burden on
(\epi, baros\), is a late word, only in Paul in N.T. (here and
1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8)
. He does not wish to give pain by too severe

2:6 {Punishment} (\epitimia\). Late word for old Greek to
\epitimion\ (so papyri), from \epitimaō\, to show honour to, to
award, to adjudge penalty. Only here in N.T. {By the many} (\hupo
tōn pleionōn\)
. By the more, the majority. If Paul refers to the
case in 1Co 5, they had taken his advice and expelled the

2:7 {So that on the contrary} (\hōste tounantion\). The natural
result expressed by \hōste\ and the infinitive. \Tounantion\ is
by crasis for \to enantion\ and accusative of general reference.
{Rather} (\mallon\). Absent in some MSS. {Lest by any means} (\mē
. Negative purpose. {Swallowed up} (\katapothēi\). First
aorist passive subjunctive of \katapinō\, to drink down (1Co
. {With his overmuch sorrow} (\tēi perissoterāi lupēi\).
Instrumental case, "by the more abundant sorrow" (comparative of
adjective \perissos\)

2:8 {To confirm} (\kurōsai\). First aorist active infinitive of
old verb \kuroō\, to make valid, to ratify, from \kuros\ (head,
. In N.T. only here and Ga 3:15.

2:9 {That I might know the proof of you} (\hina gnō tēn dokimēn
. Ingressive second aorist active subjunctive, come to
know. \Dokimē\ is proof by testing. Late word from \dokimos\ and
is in Dioscorides, medical writer in reign of Hadrian. Earliest
use in Paul and only in him in N.T. (2Co 2:9; 8:2; 9:13; 13:3;
Ro 5:4; Php 2:22)
. {Obedient} (\hupēkooi\). Old word from
\hupakouō\, to give ear. In N.T. only in Paul (2Co 2:9; Php 2:8;
Ac 7:39)

2:10 {In the person of Christ} (\en prosōpōi Christou\). More
exactly, "in the presence of Christ," before Christ, in the face
of Christ. Cf. \enōpion tou theou\ (4:2) in the eye of God,
\enōpion Kuriou\ (8:21).

2:11 {That no advantage may be gained over us} (\hina mē
. First aorist passive subjunctive after \hina
mē\ (negative purpose) of \pleonekteō\, old verb from
\pleonektēs\, a covetous man (1Co 5:10f.), to take advantage
of, to gain, to overreach. In N.T. only in 1Th 4:6; 2Co 2:11;
7:2; 12:17f. "That we may not be overreached by Satan." {His
(\autou ta noēmata\). \Noēma\ from \noeō\ to use the
\nous\ is old word, especially for evil plans and purposes as

2:12 {To Troas} (\eis tēn Trōiada\). Luke does not mention this
stop at Troas on the way from Ephesus to Macedonia (Ac 20:1f.),
though he does mention two other visits there (Ac 16:8; 20:6).
{When a door was opened unto me} (\thuras moi aneōigmenēs\).
Genitive absolute with second perfect passive participle of
\anoignumi\. Paul used this very metaphor in 1Co 16:9. He will
use it again in Col 4:3. Here was an open door that he could
not enter.

2:13 {I had no relief} (\ouk eschēka anesin\). Perfect active
indicative like that in 1:9, vivid dramatic recital, not to be
treated as "for" the aorist (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 896,
. He still feels the shadow of that restlessness.
\Anesis\, from \aniēmi\, to let up, to hold back, is old word for
relaxing or release (Ac 24:34). {For my spirit} (\tōi pneumati
. Dative of interest. {Because I found not Titus} (\tōi mē
heurein me Titon\)
. Instrumental case of the articular infinitive
with negative \mē\ and accusative of general reference \me\, "by
the not finding Titus as to me." {Taking my leave of them}
(\apotaxamenos autois\). First aorist middle participle of
\apotassō\, old verb, to set apart, in middle in late Greek to
separate oneself, to bid adieu to as in Mr 6:46.

2:14 {But thanks be unto God} (\tōi de theōi charis\). Sudden
outburst of gratitude in contrast to the previous dejection in
Troas. Surely a new paragraph should begin here. In point of fact
Paul makes a long digression from here to 6:10 on the subject
of the Glory of the Christian Ministry as Bachmann points out in
his _Kommentar_ (p. 124), only he runs it from 2:12-7:1 (_Aus
der Tiefe in die Hohe_, Out of the Depths to the Heights)
. We can
be grateful for this emotional outburst, Paul's rebound of joy on
meeting Titus in Macedonia, for it has given the world the finest
exposition of all sides of the Christian ministry in existence,
one that reveals the wealth of Paul's nature and his mature grasp
of the great things in service for Christ. See my _The Glory of
the Ministry (An Exposition of II Cor. 2:12-6:10_). {Always}
(\pantote\). The sense of present triumph has blotted out the
gloom at Troas. {Leadeth in triumph} (\thriambeuonti\). Late
common _Koinē_ word from \thriambos\ (Latin _triumphus_, a hymn
sung in festal processions to Bacchus)
. Verbs in \-euō\ (like
\mathēteuō\, to make disciples)
may be causative, but no example
of \thriambeuō\ has been found with this meaning. It is always to
lead in triumph, in papyri sometimes to make a show of. Picture
here is of Paul as captive in God's triumphal procession. {The
(\tēn osmēn\). In a Roman triumph garlands of flowers
scattered sweet odour and incense bearers dispensed perfumes. The
knowledge of God is here the aroma which Paul had scattered like
an incense bearer.

2:15 {A sweet savour of Christ} (\Christou euōdia\). Old word
from \eu\, well, and \ozō\, to smell. In N.T. only here and Php
4:18; Eph 5:2. In spreading the fragrance of Christ the preacher
himself becomes fragrant (Plummer). {In them that are perishing}
(\en tois apollumenois\). Even in these if the preacher does his

2:16 {From death unto death} (\ek thanatou eis thanaton\). From
one evil condition to another. Some people are actually hardened
by preaching. {And who is sufficient for these things?} (\kai
pros tauta tis hikanos?\)
. Rhetorical question. In himself no one
is. But some one has to preach Christ and Paul proceeds to show
that he is sufficient. {For we are not as the many} (\ou gar
esmen hōs hoi polloi\)
. A bold thing to say, but necessary and
only from God (3:6).

2:17 {Corrupting} (\kapēleuontes\). Old word from \kapēlos\, a
huckster or peddlar, common in all stages of Greek for
huckstering or trading. It is curious how hucksters were
suspected of corrupting by putting the best fruit on top of the
basket. Note Paul's solemn view of his relation to God as a
preacher ({from God} \ek theou\, {in the sight of God} \katenanti
theou\, {in Christ} \en Christōi\)

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 2)