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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Corinthians: Chapter 16)

16:1 {Now concerning the collection for the saints} (\peri de tēs
logias tēs eis tous hagious\)
. Paul has discussed all the
problems raised by the Corinthians. Now he has on his own heart
the collection for the saints in Jerusalem (see chapters 2Co 8;
. This word \logia\ (or \-eia\) is now known to be derived
from a late verb \logeuō\, to collect, recently found in papyri
and inscriptions (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 143). The word
\logia\ is chiefly found in papyri, ostraca, and inscriptions
that tell of religious collections for a god or a temple
(Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 105). The
introduction of this topic may seem sudden, but the Corinthians
were behind with their part of it. They may even have asked
further about it. Paul feels no conflict between discussion of
the resurrection and the collection. {So also do ye} (\houtōs kai
humas poiēsate\)
. Paul had given orders (\dietaxa\) to the
churches of Galatia and now gives them like commands. As a matter
of fact, they had promised a long time before this (2Co 8:10;
. Now do what you pledged.

16:2 {Upon the first day of the week} (\kata mian sabbatou\). For
the singular \sabbatou\ (sabbath) for week see Lu 18:12; Mr
16:9. For the use of the cardinal \mian\ in sense of ordinal
\prōtēn\ after Hebrew fashion in LXX (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
as in Mr 16:2; Lu 24:1; Ac 20:7. Distributive use of
\kata\ also. {Lay by him in store} (\par' heautōi tithetō
. By himself, in his home. Treasuring it (cf. Mt
6:19f. for \thēsaurizō\)
. Have the habit of doing it, \tithetō\
(present imperative). {As he may prosper} (\hoti ean euodōtai\).
Old verb from \eu\, well, and \hodos\, way or journey, to have a
good journey, to prosper in general, common in LXX. In N.T. only
here and Ro 1:10; 3Jo 1:2. It is uncertain what form \euodōtai\
is, present passive subjunctive, perfect passive indicative, or
even perfect passive subjunctive (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 54).
The old MSS. had no accents. Some MSS. even have \euodōthēi\
(first aorist passive subjunctive). But the sense is not altered.
\Hoti\ is accusative of general reference and \ean\ can occur
either with the subjunctive or indicative. This rule for giving
occurs also in 2Co 8:12. Paul wishes the collections to be made
before he comes.

16:3 {When I arrive} (\hotan paragenōmai\). Whenever I arrive,
indefinite temporal conjunction \hotan\ and second aorist middle
subjunctive. {Whomsoever ye shall approve by letters} (\hous ean
dokimasēte di' epistolōn\)
. Indefinite relative with \ean\ and
aorist subjunctive of \dokimazō\ (to test and so approve as in
Php 1:10)
. "By letters" to make it formal and regular and Paul
would approve their choice of messengers to go with him to
Jerusalem (2Co 8:20ff.). Curiously enough no names from Corinth
occur in the list in Ac 20:4. {To carry} (\apenegkein\). Second
aorist active infinitive of \apopherō\, to bear away. {Bounty}
(\charin\). Gift, grace, as in 2Co 8:4-7. As a matter of fact,
the messengers of the churches (\apostoloi ekklēsiōn\ 2Co 8:23)
went along with Paul to Jerusalem (Ac 20:4f.).

16:4 {And if it be meet for me to go also} (\ean de axion ēi tou
kame poreuesthai\)
. "If the collection be worthy of the going as
to me also." Condition of third class (\ean--ēi\) and the
articular infinitive in the genitive (\tou\) after \axion\. The
accusative of general reference (\kame\, me also) with the
infinitive. So the awkward phrase clears up.

16:5 {When I shall have passed through Macedonia} (\hotan
Makedonian dielthō\)
. "Whenever I pass through (second aorist
active subjunctive of \dierchomai\)
Macedonia" (see construction
in verse 3)
. {I do pass through} (\dierchomai\). I plan to pass
through, futuristic use of present indicative.

16:6 {It may be} (\tuchon\). Neuter accusative of second aorist
active participle of \tugchanō\ used as an adverb (in Plato and
Xenophon, but nowhere else in N.T.)
. {Or even winter} (\ē kai
. Future active of late verb \paracheimazō\
(\cheimōn\, winter). See on ¯Ac 27:12; 28:11; Tit 3:12. He did
stay in Corinth for three months (Ac 20:3), probably the coming
winter. {Whithersoever I go} (\hou ean poreuōmai\). Indefinite
local clause with subjunctive. As a matter of fact, Paul had to
flee from a conspiracy in Corinth (Ac 20:3).

16:7 {Now by the way} (\arti en parodōi\). Like our "by the way"
(\parodos\), incidentally. {If the Lord permit} (\ean ho Kurios
. Condition of the third class. Paul did everything
\en Kuriōi\ (Cf. Ac 18:21).

16:8 {Until Pentecost} (\heōs tēs Pentēkostēs\). He writes them
in the spring before pentecost. Apparently the uproar by
Demetrius hurried Paul away from Ephesus (Ac 20:1).

16:9 {For a great and effectual door is opened unto me} (\thura
gar moi aneōigen megalē kai energēs\)
. Second perfect active
indicative of \anoigō\, to open. Intransitive, stands wide open
at last after his years there (Ac 20:31). A wide open door.
What does he mean by \energēs\? It is a late word in the _Koinē_.
In the papyri a medical receipt has it for "tolerably strong."
The form \energos\ in the papyri is used of a mill "in working
order," of "tilled land," and of "wrought iron." In the N.T. it
occurs in Phm 1:6; Heb 4:12 of "the word of God" as "\energēs\"
(powerful). Paul means that he has at least a great opportunity
for work in Ephesus. {And there are many adversaries} (\kai
antikeimenoi polloi\)
. "And many are lying opposed to me," lined
up against me. These Paul mentions as a reason for staying in,
not for leaving, Ephesus. Read Ac 19 and see the opposition
from Jews and Gentiles with the explosion under the lead of
Demetrius. And yet Paul suddenly leaves. He hints of much of
which we should like to know more (1Co 15:32; 2Co 1:8f.).

16:10 {That he be without fear} (\hina aphobōs genētai\).
Evidently he had reason to fear the treatment that Timothy might
receive in Corinth as shown in 4:17-21.

16:11 {For I expect him} (\ekdechomai gar auton\). Apparently
later Timothy had to return to Ephesus without much success
before Paul left and was sent on to Macedonia with Erastus (Ac
and Titus sent to Corinth whom Paul then arranged to meet
in Troas (2Co 2:12).

16:12 {And it was not at all his will to come now} (\kai pantōs
ouk ēn thelēma hina nun elthēi\)
. Adversative use of \kai\ =
"but." Apollos had left Corinth in disgust over the strife there
which involved him and Paul (1Co 1-4). He had had enough of
partisan strife over preachers.

16:13 {Watch ye} (\grēgoreite\). Stay awake. Late present from
\egrēgora\ second perfect of \egeirō\, to awake. {Quit you like
(\andrizesthe\). Play the man. Middle voice, show yourselves
men. From \anēr\, a man.

16:15 {Ye know} (\oidate\). _Koinē_ form for second perfect
indicative used as present of \horaō\. Parenthetic clause through
rest of the verse. Stephanas is mentioned also in 1:16 and in
16:17. For \aparchē\ see on ¯15:20,23. {They have set
(\etaxan heautous\). Remarkable statement worthy of
attention today. This noble family appointed themselves to be
ministers to the saints that needed it (the poor and needy).
Personal work for Christ is still the only way to win the world
for Christ, voluntary personal work. If all Christians did it!

16:16 {That ye also be in subjection unto such} (\hina kai humeis
hupotassēsthe tois toioutois\)
. This is the exhortation begun in
verse 15. The family of Stephanas took the lead in good works.
Do ye also follow such leaders. This is our great problem today,
to find great leaders and many loyal followers. This would solve
all church problems, great leadership and great following. Lend a

16:17 {At the coming} (\epi tēi parousiāi\). At the coming here
of Stephanas, etc., the very word used of the \parousia\ of
Christ (15:23). {That which was lacking on your part they
(\to humeteron husterēma houtoi aneplērōsan\). Either
"these filled up my lack of you" or "these filled up your lack of
me." Either makes perfectly good sense and both were true. Which
Paul meant we cannot tell.

16:18 {For they refreshed my spirit and yours} (\anepausan gar to
emon pneuma kai to humōn\)
. They did both. The very verb used by
Jesus in Mt 11:28 for the refreshment offered by him to those
who come to him, fellowship with Jesus, and here fellowship with
each other.

16:19 {The churches of Asia} (\hai ekklēsiai tēs Asias\). True of
the Roman province (Ac 10:10,26; Col 1:6; 2:1; 4:13,16). The
gospel spread rapidly from Ephesus. {With the church that is in
their house}
(\sun tēi kat' oikon autōn ekklēsiāi\). Paul had
long ago left the synagogue for the school house of Tyrannus (Ac
. But Aquila and Prisca opened their house here for the
services. The churches had to meet where they could. Paul had
laboured and lived with this family in Corinth (Ac 18:2) and
now again in Ephesus (Ac 18:19; 20:34). It was their habit
wherever they lived (Ro 16:5).

16:20 {With a holy kiss} (\en philēmati hagiōi\). In the
synagogue men kissed men and women kissed women. This was the
Christian custom at a later date and apparently so here. See 1Th
5:26; 2Co 13:12; Ro 3:8; 1Pe 5:14. It seems never to have been
promiscuous between the sexes.

16:21 {Of me Paul with mine own hand} (\tēi emēi cheiri Paulou\).
Literally, "With the hand of me Paul." The genitive \Paulou\ is
in apposition with the possessive pronoun \emēi\ which is in the
instrumental case just as in 2Th 3:17, the sign in every
Epistle. He dictated, but signed at the end. If we only had that
signature on that scrap of paper.

16:22 \Anathema\. The word seems a bit harsh to us, but the
refusal to love Christ (\ou philei\) on the part of a nominal
Christian deserves \anathema\ (see on ¯12:3 for this word).
\Maran atha\. This Aramaic phrase means "Our Lord (\maran\)
cometh (\atha\)" or, used as a proleptic perfect, "has come." It
seems to be a sort of watchword (cf. 1Th 4:14ff.; Jas 5:7f.; Php
4:5; Re 1:7; 3:11; 22:20)
, expressing the lively hope that the
Lord will come. It was a curious blunder in the King James
Version that connected \Maran atha\ with \Anathema\.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Corinthians: Chapter 16)