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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 5)

5:1 {Rebuke not an elder} (\presbuterōi mē epiplēxēis\). Dative
case \presbuterōi\ used in the usual sense of an older man, not a
minister (bishop as in 3:2) as is shown by "as a father." First
aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive with negative \mē\
(prohibition against committing the act) of \epiplēssō\, to
strike upon, old verb, but here only in N.T. and in figurative
sense with words rather than with fists. Respect for age is what
is here commanded, an item appropriate to the present time. {The
younger men as brethren}
(\neōterous hōs adelphous\). Comparative
adjective \neōteros\ from \neos\ (young). No article, "younger
men." Wise words for the young minister to know how to conduct
himself with old men (reverence) and young men (fellowship, but
not stooping to folly with them)

5:2 {The elder women as mothers} (\presbuteras hōs mēteras\).
Anarthrous again, "older women as mothers." Respect and reverence
once more. {The younger as sisters, in all purity} (\neōteras hōs
adelphas en pasēi hagniāi\)
. Anarthrous also and comparative form
as in verse 1. See 4:12 for \hagnia\. No sort of behavior
will so easily make or mar the young preacher as his conduct with
young women.

5:3 {That are widows indeed} (\tas ontōs chēras\). For \ontōs\
(actually, really), see Lu 23:47; 1Co 14:25; and verse 5. For
widows (\chēra\) see Mr 12:40,42; Ac 6:1; 1Co 7:8. Parry notes
that in verses 3-8 Paul discusses widows who are in distress
and 9-16 those who are in the employment of the local church
for certain work. Evidently, as in Acts 6:1-6, so here in
Ephesus there had arisen some trouble over the widows in the
church. Both for individual cases of need and as a class Timothy
is to show proper respect (\timā\, keep on honouring) the widows.

5:4 {Grandchildren} (\ekgona\). Old word from \ekginomai\, here
only in N.T. {Let them learn} (\manthanetōsan\). The children and
grandchildren of a widow. Present active imperative third person
plural of \manthanō\. "Let them keep on learning." {First}
(\prōton\). Adverb, first before anything else. No "corban"
business here. No acts of "piety" toward God will make up for
impiety towards parents. {To shew piety} (\eusebein\). Present
active infinitive with \manthanetōsan\ and old verb, in N.T. only
here and Ac 17:23. From \eusebēs\ (\eu, sebomai\), pious,
dutiful. {Their own family} (\ton idion oikon\). "Their own
household." Filial piety is primary unless parents interfere with
duty to Christ (Lu 14:26). {To requite} (\amoibas apodidonai\).
Present active infinitive of \apodidōmi\, to give back, old and
common verb (Ro 2:6), to keep on giving back. \Amoibas\ (from
\ameibomai\, to requite like for like)
is old and common word,
but here only in N.T. {Their parents} (\tois progonois\). Dative
case of old and common word \progonos\ (from \proginomai\, to
come before)
, "ancestor." In N.T. only here and 2Ti 1:3. See
2:3 for "acceptable" (\apodekton\).

5:5 {Desolate} (\memonōmenē\). Perfect passive participle of
\monoō\ (from \monos\), "left alone," old verb, here alone in
N.T. Without husband, children, or other close kin. {Hath her
hope set on God}
(\ēlpiken epi theon\). Perfect active indicative
of \elpizō\, "hath placed her hope (and keeps it) on God." Text
doubtful whether God (\theon\) or Lord (\Kurion\). {Continues}
(\prosmenei\). See on ¯1:3. With dative case here. {Night and
(\nuktos kai hēmeras\). "By night and by day" (genitive, not
. Paul does not say that she should pray "all night
and day."

5:6 {She that giveth herself to pleasure} (\hē spatalōsa\).
Present active participle of \splatalaō\, late verb (Polybius)
from \spatalē\ (riotous, luxurious living). In N.T. only here and
Jas 5:5.

5:7 {That they may be without reproach} (\hina anepilēmptoi
. See 3:2 for \anepilēmptos\. Final clause with \hina\
and present subjunctive.

5:8 {Provideth not for his own} (\tōn idiōn ou pronoei\).
Condition of first class with \ei\ and present active (or middle
indicative of \pronoeō\, old verb, to think
beforehand. Pauline word in N.T. only here, 2Co 8:21; Ro 12:7.
With genitive case. {He hath denied the faith} (\tēn pistin
. Perfect middle indicative of old verb \arneomai\. His
act of impiety belies (Tit 1:16) his claim to the faith (Re
. {Worse than an unbeliever} (\apistou cheirōn\). Ablative
case of \apistou\ after the comparative \cheirōn\. Who makes no
profession of piety.

5:9 {Let none be enrolled as a widow} (\chēra katalegesthō\).
Present passive imperative of \katalegō\, old verb, to set down
in an official list, only here in N.T. "Let a widow be enrolled,"
the negative coming later, "having become of no less than sixty
years" (\mē elatton etōn hexēkonta gegonuia\). Second perfect
active participle of \ginomai\. For the case of \etōn\, see Lu
2:42. This list of genuine widows (verses 3,5) apparently had
some kind of church work to do (care for the sick, the orphans,
. {The wife of one man} (\henos andros gunē\). Widows on
this list must not be married a second time. This interpretation
is not so clear for 3:2,12; Tit 1:6.

5:10 {If she hath brought up children} (\ei eteknotrophēsen\).
Condition of first class. Late and rare word (Aristotle,
, first aorist active indicative of \teknotropheō\
(\teknotrophos\, from \teknon, trephō\), here only in N.T.
Qualification for her work as leader. {If she hath used
hospitality to strangers}
(\ei exenodochēsen\). First aorist
again and same condition. Late form (Dio Cassius) of old verb
\xenodokeō\ (Herodotus), to welcome strangers (\xenous
. Only here in N.T. Hospitality another qualification
for such leadership (3:2). {If she hath washed the saints'
(\ei hagiōn podas enipsen\). Same condition and tense of
\niptō\ (old form \nizō\), common in N.T. (Joh 13:5). Proof of
her hospitality, not of its being a church ordinance. {If she
hath relieved the afflicted}
(\ei thlibomenois epērkesen\). Same
condition and tense of \eparkeō\, to give sufficient aid, old
word, in N.T. only here and verse 16. Experience that qualified
her for eleemosynary work. {If she hath diligently followed} (\ei
. Same condition and tense of \epakoloutheō\, old
verb, to follow close upon (\epi\). So here, verse 24; 1Pe
2:21. In a word such a widow must show her qualifications for
leadership as with bishops and deacons.

5:11 {But younger widows refuse} (\neōteras de chēras paraitou\).
Present middle imperative as in 4:7. "Beg off from." They lack
experience as above and they have other ambitions. {When they
have waxed wanton}
(\hotan katastrēniasōsin\). First aorist
(ingressive) active subjunctive of \katastrēniaō\, late compound
(only here and Ignatius), to feel the impulse of sexual desire,
but simplex \strēniaō\ (Re 18:7,9). Souter renders it here
"exercise youthful vigour against Christ" (\tou Christou\,
genitive case after \kata\ in composition)

5:12 {Condemnation} (\krima\). See 3:6. {They have rejected}
(\ēthetēsan\). First aorist passive of \atheteō\, late verb
(first in LXX and Polybius), to reject, set aside (from
. See 1Th 4:8; Ga 2:21. {Their first faith} (\tēn
prōtēn pistin\)
. "Their first pledge" (promise, contract) to
Christ. It is like breaking the marriage contract. Evidently one
of the pledges on joining the order of widows was not to marry.
Parry suggests a kind of ordination as with deacons and bishops
(technical use of \krima\ and \pistis\).

5:13 {And withal} (\hama de kai\). See Phm 1:22 for this very
phrase, "and at the same time also." Such young enrolled widows
have other perils also. {They learn to be idle} (\argai
. There is no \einai\ (to be) in the Greek. This
very idiom without \einai\ after \manthanō\ occurs in Plato and
Dio Chrysostom, though unusual. \Argai\ (idle) is old adjective
(\a\ privative and \ergon\, without work). See Mt 20:3; Tit
1:12. {Going about} (\perierchomenai\). Present middle
participle of \perierchomai\, old compound verb. See Ac 19:13
of strollers. {From house to house} (\tas oikias\). Literally
"the houses," "wandering around the houses." Vivid picture of
idle tattlers and gossipers. {But tattlers also} (\alla kai
. Old word from \phluō\ (to boil up, to throw up
bubbles, like blowing soap bubbles)
. Only here in N.T. \Phluareō\
in 3Jo 1:10 only in N.T. {And busybodies} (\kai periergoi\).
Old word (from \peri, ergon\), busy about trifles to the neglect
of important matters. In N.T. only here and Ac 19:19. See 2Th
3:11 for \periergazomai\. {Things which they ought not} (\ta mē
. "The not necessary things," and, as a result, often
harmful. See Tit 1:11 \ha mē dei\ (which things are not

5:14 {I desire} (\boulomai\). See 2:8. {The younger widows}
(\neōteras\). No article and no word for widows, though that is
clearly the idea. \Neōteras\ is accusative of general reference
with \gamein\ (to marry) the object (present infinitive active)
of \boulomai\. {Bear children} (\teknogonein\). A compound verb
here only in N.T. and nowhere else save in Anthol. See
\teknogonia\ in 2:15. {Rule the household} (\oikodespotein\).
Late verb from \oikodespotēs\ (Mr 14:14), twice in the papyri,
only here in N.T. Note that the wife is here put as ruler of the
household, proper recognition of her influence, "new and improved
position" (Liddon) . {Occasion} (\aphormēn\). Old word (\apo,
, a base to rush from, Pauline use in 2Co 5:12; 11:12; Ga
5:13. {To the adversary} (\tōi antikeimenōi\). Dative case of
the articular participle of \antikeimai\, a Pauline idiom (Php
. {Reviling} (\loidorias\). Old word (from \loidoreō\), in
N.T. only here and 1Pe 3:9. Genitive case with \charin\.

5:15 {Are turned aside} (\exetrapēsan\). Second aorist
(effective) passive indicative of \ektrepō\. See 1:6. {After
(\opisō tou Satanā\). "Behind Satan." Late use of \opisō\
(behind) as a preposition. Used by Jesus of disciples coming
behind (after) him (Mt 16:24).

5:16 {That believeth} (\pistē\). "Believing woman." {Hath widows}
(\echei chēras\). The "any believing woman" is one of the
household-rulers of verse 14. The "widows" here are the widows
dependent on her and who are considered as candidates to be
enrolled in the list. {Let her relieve them} (\eparkeitō
. For this verb (imperative present active) see verse
10. {Let not be burdened} (\mē bareisthō\). Present passive
imperative (in prohibition \mē\) of \bareō\, old verb (\baros\,
, Pauline word (2Co 1:8). {That are widows indeed}
(\tais ontōs chērais\). Dative case with \eparkesēi\ (first
aorist active subjunctive with \hina\, final clause)
. See verse
3 for this use of \ontōs\ with \chērais\ "the qualified and
enrolled widows." Cf. verse 9.

5:17 {The elders that rule well} (\hoi kalōs proestōtes
. See verse 1 for ordinary sense of \presbuteros\
for "older man." But here of position in same sense as
\episkopos\ (3:2) as in Tit 1:5 = \episkopos\ in verse 7.
Cf. Luke's use of \presbuteros\ (Ac 20:17) = Paul's
\episkopous\ (Ac 20:28). \Proestōtes\ is second perfect active
participle of \proistēmi\ (intransitive use) for which see 3:4.
{Let be counted worthy} (\axiousthōsan\). Present passive
imperative of \axioō\, to deem worthy (2Th 1:11). With genitive
case here. {Of double honour} (\diplēs timēs\). Old and common
contract adjective (\diploos\, two-fold, in opposition to
\haploos\, single fold)
. But why "of double honour"? See 6:1
for "of all honour." White suggests "remuneration" rather than
"honour" for \timēs\ (a common use for price or pay). Liddon
proposes "honorarium" (both honour and pay and so "double").
Wetstein gives numerous examples of soldiers receiving double pay
for unusual services. Some suggest twice the pay given the
enrolled widows. {Especially those who labour in word and
(\malista hoi kopiōntes en logōi kai didaskaliāi\).
Either those who work hard or toil (usual meaning of \kopiaō\,
2Ti 2:6)
in preaching and teaching (most probable meaning. See
verse 18)
or those who teach and preach and not merely preside
(a doubtful distinction in "elders" at this time). See Tit
1:8f. See both \kopiaō\ and \proistamai\ used for same men
(elders) in 1Th 5:12 and the use of \kopiaō\ in 1Co 15:10;

5:18 {Thou shalt not muzzle} (\ou phimōseis\). Prohibition by
\ou\ and future (volitive) indicative of \phimoō\ (from \phimos\,
, old word, quoted also in 1Co 9:9 as here from De
25:4, and for the same purpose, to show the preacher's right to
pay for his work. See 1Co 9:9 for \aloōnta\ ({when he treadeth
out the corn}
. {The labourer is worthy of his hire} (\axios ho
ergatēs tou misthou autou\)
. These words occur in precisely this
form in Lu 10:7. It appears also in Mt 10:10 with \tēs
trophēs\ (food) instead of \tou misthou\. In 1Co 9:14 Paul has
the sense of it and says: "so also the Lord ordained," clearly
meaning that Jesus had so said. It only remains to tell whether
Paul here is quoting an unwritten saying of Jesus as he did in
Ac 20:35 or even the Gospel of Luke or Q (the Logia of Jesus).
There is no way to decide this question. If Luke wrote his Gospel
before A.D. 62 as is quite possible and Acts by A.D. 63, he could
refer to the Gospel. It is not clear whether Scripture is here
meant to apply to this quotation from the Lord Jesus. For
\ergatēs\ (labourer) see Php 3:2.

5:19 {Against an elder} (\kata presbuterou\). In the official
sense of verses 17f. {Receive not} (\mē paradechou\). Present
middle imperative with \mē\ (prohibition) of \paradechomai\, to
receive, to entertain. Old verb. See Ac 22:18. {Accusation}
(\katēgorian\). Old word (from \katēgoros\). In N.T. only here,
Tit 1:6; Joh 18:29 in critical text. {Except} (\ektos ei mē\).
For this double construction see 1Co 14:5; 15:2. {At the mouth
(\epi\). Idiomatic use of \epi\ (upon the basis of) as in
2Co 13:1.

5:20 {Them that sin} (\tous hamartanontas\). The elders who
continue to sin (present active participle). {In the sight of
(\enōpion pantōn\). "In the eye of (\ho en opi ōn\, the one
who is in the eye of, then combined = \enōpion\)
all" the elders
(or even of the church). See next verse 21 and Ga 1:20.
Public rebuke when a clear case, not promiscuous gossip. {May be
in fear}
(\phobon echōsin\). Present active subjunctive with
\hina\ (final clause), "may keep on having fear" (of exposure).
Possibly, "the rest of the elders."

5:21 {The elect angels} (\tōn eklektōn aggelōn\). For this triad
of God, Christ, angels, see Lu 9:26. "Elect" in the sense of
the "holy" angels who kept their own principality (Jude 1:6)
and who did not sin (2Pe 2:4). Paul shows his interest in
angels in 1Co 4:9; 11:10. {Observe} (\phulaxēis\). First aorist
active subjunctive of \phulassō\, to guard, to keep (Ro 2:26).
Subfinal use of \hina\. {Without prejudice} (\chōris
. Late and rare word (from \prokinō\, to judge
, three times in the papyri, here only in N.T.
"Without prejudgment." {By partiality} (\kata prosklisin\). Late
word from \prosklinō\, to incline towards one (Ac 5:36), only
here in N.T.

5:22 {Lay hands hastily} (\cheiras tacheōs epitithei\). Present
active imperative of \epitithēmi\ in the sense of approval
(ordination) as in Ac 6:6; 13:3. But it is not clear whether it
is the case of ministers just ordained as in 4:14
(\epithesis\), or of warning against hasty ordination of untried
men, or the recognition and restoration of deposed ministers
(verse 20) as suits the context. The prohibition suits either
situation, or both. {Be partakers of other men's sins} (\koinōnei
hamartiais allotriais\)
. Present active imperative of \koinōneō\
(from \koinōnos\, partner) with \mē\ in prohibition with
associative instrumental case as in 2Jo 1:11; Ro 12:13. On
\allotrios\ (belonging to another) see Ro 14:4. {Keep thyself
(\seauton hagnon tērei\). "Keep on keeping thyself pure."
Present active imperative of \tēreō\.

5:23 {Be no longer a drinker of water} (\mēketi hudropotei\).
Present active imperative (prohibition) of \hudropoteō\, old verb
(from \hudropotēs\, water drinker, \hudōr, pinō\), here only in
N.T. Not complete asceticism, but only the need of some wine
urged in Timothy's peculiar physical condition (a sort of medical
prescription for this case)
. {But use a little wine} (\alla ainōi
oligōi chrō\)
. Present middle imperative of \chraomai\ with
instrumental case. The emphasis is on \oligōi\ (a little). {For
thy stomach's sake}
(\dia ton stomachon\). Old word from \stoma\
(mouth). In Homer throat, opening of the stomach (Aristotle),
stomach in Plutarch. Here only in N.T. Our word "stomach." {Thine
often infirmities}
(\tas puknas sou astheneias\). \Puknos\ is old
word, dense, frequent. In N.T. only here, Lu 5:33; Ac 24:26.
\Astheneias\ = weaknesses, lack of strength (Ro 8:26). Timothy
was clearly a semi-invalid.

5:24 {Evident} (\prodēloi\). "Openly plain," "plain before all."
Old word, in N.T. only here and Heb 7:24. {Going before unto
(\proagousai eis krisin\). See 1:18 for \proagō\. The
sins are so plain that they receive instant condemnation. {And
some men also they follow after}
(\tisin de kai
. Associative instrumental case \tisin\ with
\epakolouthousin\ for which verb see verse 10, "dog their
steps" (Parry) like 1Pe 2:21, not clearly manifest at first,
but come out plainly at last. How true that is of secret sins.

5:25 {Such as are otherwise} (\ta allōs echonta\). "Those (deeds,
which have it otherwise." That is good deeds not clearly
manifest. {Cannot be hid} (\krubēnai ou dunantai\). Second aorist
passive infinitive of \kruptō\. There is comfort here for modest
preachers and other believers whose good deeds are not known and
not blazoned forth. They will come out in the end. See Mt

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 5)