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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 6)

6:1 {Under the yoke} (\hupo zugon\). As slaves (\douloi\,
. Perhaps under heathen masters (1Pe 2:18). For the
slave problem, see also Phm 1; Col 3:22; Eph 6:5; Tit 2:9. See
Mt 11:29 for Christ's "yoke" (\zugon\, from \zeugnumi\, to
. {Their own masters} (\tous idious despotas\). That is
always where the shoe pinches. Our "despot" is this very Greek
word, the strict correlative of slave (\doulos\), while \kurios\
has a wider outlook. Old word only here, Tit 2:9; 2Ti 2:21; 1Pe
2:18 for human masters. Applied to God in Lu 2:29; Ac 4:24,29
and to Christ in 2Pe 2:1. {The name of God} (\to onoma tou
. See Ro 2:24. If the heathen could say that Christian
slaves were not as dependable as non-Christian slaves. Negative
purpose with \hina mē\ and present passive subjunctive

6:2 {Let not despise them} (\mē kataphroneitōsan\). Negative
imperative active third plural of \kataphroneō\, to think down
on. See 4:12. He must not presume on the equality of Christian
brotherhood not allowed by the state's laws. Some of these
Christian slaves might be pastors of churches to which the master
belonged. For the difficulty of the Christian master's position,
see 1Co 7:22; Phm 1:16. {But rather} (\alla mallon\). Render
the Christian Master better service. {They that partake of the
(\hoi tēs energesias antilambanomenoi\). For
\euergesias\ (genitive case after participle) see Ac 4:9, only
other N.T. example of this old word. Present middle participle of
\antilambanō\, old verb, to take in turn, to lay fast hold of, in
N.T. only here, Lu 1:54; Ac 20:35.

6:3 {Teacheth a different doctrine} (\heterodidaskalei\). See
1:3 for this verb, present active indicative here in condition
of first class. {Consenteth not} (\mē proserchetai\). Also
condition of first class with \mē\ instead of \ou\.
\Proserchomai\ (old verb, to come to, to approach, with dative)
is common enough in N.T. (Heb 4:16; 7:25, etc.), but in the
metaphorical sense of coming to one's ideas, assenting to, here
only in N.T., but is so used in Philo and Irenaeus (Ellicott).
{Sound words} (\hugiainousin logois\). See 1:10 for \hugiainō\.
{The words of our Lord Jesus Christ} (\tois tou kuriou hēmōn
Iēsou Christou\)
. Either subjective genitive (the words from the
Lord Jesus, a collection of his sayings in Lock's opinion like
5:18; Ac 20:35, at least in the Spirit of Jesus as Ac 16:7;
1Co 11:23)
or objective genitive about Jesus like 2Ti 1:8; 1Co
1:18. {According to godliness} (\kata eusebeian\). Promoting
(designed for) godliness as in Tit 1:1.

6:4 {He is puffed up} (\tetuphōtai\). Perfect passive indicative
of \tuphoō\, for which see 3:6. {Knowing nothing} (\mēden
. Present middle participle of \epistamai\.
Ignorance is a frequent companion of conceit. {Doting} (\nosōn\).
Present active participle of \noseō\, to be sick, to be morbid
over, old word, only here in N.T. {Disputes of words}
(\logomachias\). Our "logomachy." From \logomacheō\ (2Ti 2:14),
and that from \logos\ and \machomai\, to fight over words, late
and rare word, here only in N.T. See Plato (_Tim_. 1085 F) for
"wars in words" (\machas en logois\). {Whereof} (\ex hōn\). "From
which things." {Surmisings} (\huponoiai\). Old word from
\huponoeō\, to surmise, to suspect (Ac 25:18), only here in
N.T. All these words are akin (envy, \phthonos\, strife, \eris\,
railings or slanders, \blasphēmiai\)
, all products of an ignorant
and conceited mind.

6:5 {Wranglings} (\diaparatribai\). Late and rare (Clem. of
double compound (\dia\, mutual or thorough, \paratribai\,
irritations or rubbings alongside)
. "Mutual irritations" (Field).
{Corrupted in mind} (\diephtharmenōn ton noun\). Perfect passive
participle of \diaphtheirō\, to corrupt, genitive case agreeing
with \anthrōpōn\ (of men) and retaining the accusative \ton
noun\. {Bereft of the truth} (\apesterēmenōn tēs alētheias\).
Perfect passive participle of \apostereō\, old verb (1Co 6:8)
with the ablative case after it (\alētheias\). {A way of gain}
(\porismon\). Late word from \porizō\, to provide, to gain. Only
here in N.T. "Rich Christians." Predicate accusative with \einai\
(indirect assertion) in apposition with \eusebeian\, the
accusative of general reference.

6:6 {With contentment} (\meta autarkeias\). Old word from
\autarkēs\ (\autos, arkeō\) as in Php 4:11. In N.T. only here
and 2Co 9:8. This attitude of mind is Paul's conception of
"great gain."

6:7 {Brought into} (\eisēnegkamen\, second aorist active stem
with first aorist ending, common in the _Koinē_)
, {carry out}
(\exenegkein\, second aorist active infinitive). Note play on the
prepositions \eis-\ and \ex-\.

6:8 {Food} (\diatrophas\). Plural, supports or nourishments (from
\diatrephō\, to support)
. Old word, here only in N.T. {Covering}
(\skepasmata\). Plural, "coverings." Late word from \skepazō\, to
cover. Here only in N.T. {We shall be content}
(\arkesthēsometha\). First future passive of \arkeō\, to be
content. Old word. See 2Co 12:9. This is the \autarkeia\ of
verse 6. {There with} (\toutois\). Associative instrumental
case, "with these."

6:9 {Desire to be rich} (\boulomenoi ploutein\). The will
(\boulomai\) to be rich at any cost and in haste (Pr 28:20).
Some MSS. have "trust in riches" in Mr 10:24. Possibly Paul
still has teachers and preachers in mind. {Fall into}
(\empiptousin eis\). See on ¯3:6 for \en -- eis\ and ¯3:7 for
\pagida\ (snare). {Foolish} (\anoētous\). See Ga 3:1,3.
{Hurtful} (\blaberas\). Old adjective from \blaptō\, to injure,
here alone in N.T. {Drown} (\buthizousin\). Late word (literary
from \buthos\ (bottom), to drag to the bottom. In N.T.
only here and Lu 5:7 (of the boat). Drown in the lusts with the
issue "in destruction and perdition" (\eis olethron kai
. Not annihilation, but eternal punishment. The
combination only here, but for \olethros\, see 1Th 5:3; 2Th 1:9;
1Co 5:5 and for \apōleia\, see 2Th 2:3; Php 3:19.

6:10 {The love of money} (\hē philarguria\). Vulgate, _avaritia_.
Common word (from \philarguros\, 2Ti 3:12, and that from
\philos, arguros\)
, only here in N.T. Refers to verse 9
(\boulomenoi ploutein\). {A root of all kinds of evil} (\riza
pantōn tōn kakōn\)
. A root (\riza\). Old word, common in literal
(Mt 3:10) and metaphorical sense (Ro 11:11-18). Field (_Ot.
argues for "the root" as the idea of this predicate
without saying that it is the only root. Undoubtedly a proverb
that Paul here quotes, attributed to Bion and to Democritus (\tēn
philargurian einai mētropolin pantōn tōn kakōn\)
, where
"metropolis" takes the place of "root." Surely men today need no
proof of the fact that men and women will commit any sin or crime
for money. {Reaching after} (\oregomenoi\). Present middle
participle of \oregō\ (see 3:1) with genitive \hēs\ (which).
{Have been led astray} (\apeplanēthēsan\). First aorist passive
indicative of \apoplanaō\, old compound verb, in N.T. only here
and Mr 13:22. {Have pierced themselves through} (\heautous
. First aorist active (with reflexive pronoun) of
late compound \peripeirō\, only here in N.T. Perfective use of
\peri\ (around, completely to pierce). {With many sorrows}
(\odunais pollais\). Instrumental case of \odunē\ (consuming,
eating grief)
. In N.T. only here and Ro 9:2.

6:11 {O man of God} (\ō anthrōpe theou\). In N.T. only here and
2Ti 3:17, there general and here personal appeal to Timothy.
Cf. De 33:1; 1Sa 2:27. {Flee} (\pheuge\), {follow after}
(\diōke\). Vivid verbs in present active imperative. The preacher
can not afford to parley with such temptations. {Meekness}
(\praupathian\). Late compound from \praupathēs\, in Philo about
Abraham, here only in N.T.

6:12 {Fight the good fight} (\agōnizou ton kalon agōna\). Cognate
accusative with present middle imperative of \agōnizō\, Pauline
word (1Co 9:25; Col 1:29). {Lay hold on} (\epilabou\). Second
(ingressive) aorist middle imperative of \epilambanō\, "get a
grip on." See same verb with genitive also in verse 19. {Thou
wast called}
(\eklēthēs\). First aorist passive of \kaleō\ as in
1Co 1:9; Col 3:15. {The good confession} (\tēn kalēn
. Cognate accusative with \hōmologēsas\ (first aorist
active indicative of \homologeō\, the public confession in
baptism which many witnessed. See it also in verse 13 of Jesus)

6:13 {Who quickeneth all things} (\tou zōogonountos ta panta\).
Present active participle of \zōogoneō\ (\zōogonos\, from \zōos,
, late word to give life, to bring forth alive, in N.T.
only here and Ac 7:19. See 1Sa 2:6. {Before Pontius Pilate}
(\epi Pontiou Peilatou\). Not "in the time of," but "in the
presence of." {Witnessed} (\marturēsantos\). Note \martureō\, not
\homologeō\ as in verse 12. Christ gave his evidence as a
witness to the Kingdom of God. Evidently Paul knew some of the
facts that appear in Joh 18.

6:14 {That thou keep} (\tērēsai se\). First aorist active
infinitive of \tēreō\, with accusative of general reference
(\se\) in indirect command after \paraggellō\. {Without spot}
(\aspilon\). Late adjective (\a\ privative, \spilos\, spot, Eph
. In inscription and papyri. {Without reproach}
(\anepilēmpton\). See 3:2; 5:7. {Until the appearing} (\mechri
tēs epiphaneias\)
. "Until the epiphany" (the second epiphany or
coming of Christ)
. Late word in inscriptions for important event
like the epiphany of Caligula, in the papyri as a medical term.
In 2Th 2:18 we have both \epiphaneia\ and \parousia\. See Tit
2:13; 2Ti 1:10; 4:1,8.

6:15 {In its own times} (\kairois idiois\). Locative case. May be
"in his own times." See 2:6. Clearly not for us to figure out.
{Who is the blessed and only Potentate} (\ho makarios kai monos
. "The happy and alone Potentate." \Dunastēs\, old
word, in N.T. only here, Lu 1:52; Ac 8:27 (the Eunuch). See
1:11 for \makarios\. {The King of kings} (\ho basileus tōn
. "The King of those who rule as kings." Oriental
title. So with "Lord of lords." See Re 10:16.

6:16 {Who only hath immortality} (\ho monos echōn athanasian\).
"The one who alone has immortality." \Athanasia\ (\athanatos\,
\a\ privative and \thanatos\)
, old word, in N.T. only here and
1Co 15:53f. Domitian demanded that he be addressed as "_Dominus
et Deus noster_." Emperor worship may be behind the use of
\monos\ (alone) here. {Unapproachable} (\aprositon\). See Ps
104:2. Late compound verbal adjective (\a\ privative, \pros,
ienai\, to go)
. Here only in N.T. Literary _Koinē_ word. {Nor can
(\oude idein dunatai\). See \aoraton\ in Col 1:15 and also
Joh 1:18; Mt 11:27. The "amen" marks the close of the doxology
as in 1:17.

6:17 {In this present world} (\en tōi nun aiōni\). "In the now
age," in contrast with the future. {That they be not high-minded}
(\mē hupsēlophronein\). Present active infinitive with negative
in indirect command after \paraggelle\, "not to be high-minded."
Only instance of the word save some MSS. of Ro 11:20 (for \mē
and a scholion on Pindar. {Have their hope set}
(\ēlpikenai\). Perfect active infinitive of \elpizō\. {On the
uncertainty of riches}
(\epi ploutou adēlotēti\). Literary
_Koinē_ word (\adēlotēs\), only here in N.T. A "vigorous
oxymoron" (White). Cf. Ro 6:4. Riches have wings. {But on God}
(\all' epi theōi\). He alone is stable, not wealth. {Richly all
things to enjoy}
(\panta plousiōs eis apolausin\). "A lavish
emphasis to the generosity of God" (Parry). \Apolausis\ is old
word from \apolauō\, to enjoy, in N.T. only here and Heb 11:25.

6:18 {That they do good} (\agathoergein\). Late word (\agathos\,
, in N.T. only here and Ac 14:17. {Rich in good works}
(\ploutein en ergois kalois\). See Lu 12:21 "rich toward God"
and Mt 6:19f. for "treasures in heaven." {Ready to distribute}
(\eumetadotous\). Late and rare verbal (\eu, meta, didōmi\). Free
to give, liberal. Only here in N.T. {Willing to communicate}
(\koinōnikous\). Old adjective, ready to share, gracious, liberal
again. Only here in N.T. See Ga 6:6; Php 4:15.

6:19 {Laying up in store} (\apothēsaurizontas\). Late literary
word (\apo\ and \thēsaurizō\), only here in N.T. Same paradox as
in Mt 6:19f., "laying up in store" by giving it away. {Which is
life indeed}
(\tēs ontōs zōēs\). See 5:3 for \ontōs\. This life
is merely the shadow of the eternal reality to come.

6:20 {Guard that which is committed unto thee} (\tēn parathēkēn
. "Keep (aorist of urgency) the deposit." \Parathēkēn\
(from \paratithēmi\, to place beside as a deposit, 2Ti 2:2), a
banking figure, common in the papyri in this sense for the Attic
\parakatathēkē\ (Textus Receptus here, 2Ti 1:12,14). See
substantive also in 2Ti 1:12,14. {Turning away from}
(\ektrepomenos\). Present middle participle of \ektrepō\, for
which see 1:6; 5:15. {Babblings} (\kenophōnias\). From
\kenophōnos\, uttering emptiness. Late and rare compound, in N.T.
only here and 2Ti 2:16. {Oppositions} (\antitheseis\). Old word
(\anti, thesis\), antithesis, only here in N.T. {Of the knowledge
which is falsely so called}
(\tēs pseudōnumou gnōseōs\). "Of the
falsely named knowledge." Old word (\pseudēs, onoma\). Our
"pseudonymous." Only here in N.T.

6:21 {Have erred} (\ēstochēsan\). First aorist active indicative
of \astocheō\. See 1:6 for this word.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 6)