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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 4)

4:1 {Expressly} (\rētōs\). Late adverb, here alone in N.T., from
verbal adjective \rētos\ (from root \reō\). The reference is to
the Holy Spirit, but whether to O.T. prophecy (Ac 1:16) or to
some Christian utterance (2Th 2:2; 1Co 14:1ff.) we do not know.
Parry recalls the words of Jesus in Mt 24:10,24. {In later
(\en husterois kairois\). Old adjective (Mt 21:31)
usually as adverb, \husteron\ (Mt 4:2). Relative time from the
prediction, now coming true (a present danger). {Some shall fall
(\apostēsontai tines\). Future middle of \aphistēmi\,
intransitive use, shall stand off from, to fall away, apostatize
(2Co 12:8). {From the faith} (\tēs pisteōs\). Ablative case
(separation). Not creed, but faith in God through Christ. {Giving
(\prosechontes\). Supply \ton noun\ (the mind) as in 3:8.
{Seducing spirits} (\pneumasin planois\). Old adjective (\planē\,
, here active sense (deceiving). As substantive in 2Co
6:8. Probably some heathen or the worst of the Gnostics.
{Doctrines of devils} (\didaskaliais daimoniōn\). "Teachings of
\daimons\." Definite explanation of the preceding. Cf. 1Co

4:2 {Through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies} (\en
hupokrisei pseudologōn\)
. For \hupokrisis\, see Ga 2:13.
\Pseudologos\ (\pseudēs, legō\) _Koinē_ word from Aristophanes
on. Here only in N.T. "A good classical word for liars on a large
scale" (Parry). {Branded in their own conscience as with a hot
(\kekaustēriasmenōn tēn idian suneidēsin\). Accusative case
\suneidēsin\ retained with the perfect passive participle of
\kaustēriazō\, a rare verb only here and once in Strabo. Branded
with the mark of Satan (2Ti 2:26) as Paul was with the marks of
Christ (Ga 6:17). Agreeing in case with \pseudologōn\.

4:3 {Forbidding to marry} (\kōluontōn gamein\). Present active
participle of common verb \kōluō\, to hinder, genitive case
agreeing with \pseudologōn\. See Col 2:16,21f., where Paul
condemns the ascetic practices of the Gnostics. The Essenes,
Therapeutae and other oriental sects forbade marriage. In 1Co 7
Paul does not condemn marriage. {To abstain from meats}
(\apechesthai brōmatōn\). Infinitive dependent, not on
\kōluontōn\, but on the positive idea \keleuontōn\ (implied, not
. Ablative case of \brōmatōn\ after \apechesthai\
(present direct middle, to hold oneself away from). See 1Co
8-10; Ro 14; 15 for disputes about "meats offered to idols" and
Co 1:22f. for the Gnostic asceticism. {Which God created} (\ha
ho theos ektisen\)
. First active indicative of \ktizō\ (Co
. Cf. 1Co 10:25. {To be received} (\eis metalēmpsin\).
"For reception." Old word, only here in N.T. {By them that
believe and know}
(\tois pistois kai epegnōkosi\). Dative case,
"for the believers and those who (one article unites closely)
have known fully" (perfect active participle of \epiginōskō\), a
Pauline use of the word (Col 1:6).

4:4 {Creature} (\ktisma\). Late word from \ktizō\, result of
creating. See Ge 1:31; Mr 7:15; Ro 14:14 for the idea stated.
{To be rejected} (\apoblēton\). Old verbal adjective in passive
sense from \apoballō\, to throw away, here only in N.T. {If it be
(\lambanomenon\). "Being received." Present passive
participle of \lambanō\, in conditional sense, "with

4:5 {It is sanctified} (\hagiazetai\). Present passive indicative
of \hagiazō\, here "rendered holy" rather than "declared holy."
Cf. verse 4. {Through the word of God and prayers} (\dia logou
theou kai enteuxeōs\)
. See 2:1 for \enteuxis\. Paul seems to
refer to Genesis 1. It is almost a hendiadys "by the use of
Scripture in prayer."

4:6 {If thou put the brethren in mind of these things} (\tauta
hupotithemenos tois adelphois\)
. Present middle participle of
\hupotithēmi\, to place under, to suggest, old and common verb,
here only in N.T., "suggesting these things to the brethren."
{Thou shalt be a good minister of Christ Jesus} (\kalos esēi
diakonos Christou Iēsou\)
. This beautiful phrase covers one's
whole service for Christ (3:1-7). {Nourished in}
(\entrephomenos\). Present passive participle of \entrephō\, old
verb, to nourish in, used by Plato of "nourished in the laws,"
here only in the N.T. {The words of the faith} (\tois logois tēs
. Locative case. The right diet for babes in Christ. The
Bolshevists in Russia are feeding the children on atheism to get
rid of God. {Which thou hast followed} (\hēi parēkolouthēkas\).
Perfect active indicative of \parakoloutheō\, old verb, to follow
beside, of persons (often in old Greek) or of ideas and things
(Lu 1:3; 1Ti 4:6; 2Ti 3:10). With associative instrumental case
\hēi\ (which).

4:7 {Refuse} (\paraitou\). Present middle imperative second
person singular of \paraiteō\, old verb, to ask of one and then
to beg off from one as in Lu 14:18f.; Ac 25:11; 1Ti 4:7; 5:11;
Tit 3:10; 2Ti 2:23. {Profane} (\bebēlous\). See 1:9. {Old
wives' fables}
(\graōdeis muthous\). On \muthos\, see 1:4.
\Graōdeis\, late word (Strabo, Galen) from \graus\, old woman,
and \eidos\ (look, appearance). Such as old women tell to
children like the Gnostic aeons. {Exercise thyself} (\gumnaze
. Present active imperative of \gumnazō\, originally to
exercise naked (\gumnos\). Old and common verb, but in N.T. only
here and Heb 5:14; 12:11.

4:8 {Bodily exercise} (\hē sōmatikē gumnasia\). \Gumnasia\ (from
, also a common old word, here only in N.T. So also
\sōmatikē\ (from \sōma\, body) in N.T. only here and Lu 3:22.
{Profitable} (\ōphelimos\). Another old word (from \ōpheleō\, to
help, to profit)
, in N.T. only here, Tit 3:8; 2Ti 3:16. {For a
(\pros oligon\). "For little." Probably extent in
contrast to \pros panta\ (for all things), though in Jas 4:14
it is time "for a little while." {Which now is} (\tēs nun\). "The
now life." {Of that which is to come} (\tēs mellousēs\). "Of the
coming (future) life."

4:9 See 1:15 for these very words, but here the phrase points
to the preceding words, not to the following as there.

4:10 {To this end} (\eis touto\). The godliness (\eusebeia\) of
verse 8. See 2Co 6:10 as Paul's own commentary. {We labour}
(\kopiōmen\, Col 1:29) {and strive} (\kai agōnizometha\, Col
. Both Pauline words. {Because we have set our hope} (\hoti
. Perfect active indicative of \elpizō\ (Ro 15:12).
{Saviour of all men} (\sōtēr pantōn anthrōpōn\). See 1:1 for
\sōtēr\ applied to God as here. Not that all men "are saved" in
the full sense, but God gives life (6:13) to all (Ac 17:28).
{Specially of them that believe} (\malista pistōn\). Making a
distinction in the kinds of salvation meant. "While God is
potentially Saviour of all, He is actually Saviour of the
\pistoi\" (White). So Jesus is termed "Saviour of the World"
(Joh 4:42). Cf. Ga 6:10.

4:12 {Despise} (\kataphroneitō\). Imperative active third
singular of \kataphroneō\, old verb, to think down on, to despise
(Ro 2:4). {Thy youth} (\sou tēs neotētos\). Genitive case of
old word (from \neos\) as in Mr 10:20. {Be thou} (\ginou\).
Present middle imperative of \ginomai\. "Keep on becoming thou."
{An ensample} (\tupos\). Old word from \tuptō\, a type. Pauline
use of the word (1Th 1:7; 2Th 3:9; Php 3:17; Tit 2:7). {To them
that believe}
(\tōn pistōn\). Objective genitive. {In word} (\en
. In conversation as well as in public speech. {In manner
of life}
(\en anastrophēi\). "In bearing" (Ga 1:13; Eph 4:22).
{In purity} (\en hagneiāi\). Old word from \hagneuō\ (\hagnos\).
Sinlessness of life. Used of a Nazirite (Nu 6:2,21). Only here
and 5:2 in N.T.

4:13 {Till I come} (\heōs erchomai\). "While I am coming"
(present indicative with \heōs\), not "till I come" (\heōs
. {Give heed} (\proseche\). Present active imperative,
supply \ton noun\, "keep on putting thy mind on." {The reading}
(\tēi anagnōsei\). Old word from \anaginōskō\. See 2Co 3:14.
Probably in particular the public reading of the Scriptures (Ac
, though surely private reading is not to be excluded. {To
(\tēi paraklēsei\), {to teaching} (\tēi
. Two other public functions of the minister.
Probably Paul does not mean for the exhortation to precede the
instruction, but the reverse in actual public work. Exhortation
needs teaching to rest it upon, a hint for preachers today.

4:14 {Neglect not} (\mē amelei\). Present active imperative in
prohibition of \ameleō\, old verb, rare in N.T. (Mt 22:5; 1Ti
4:14; Heb 2:3; 8:9)
. From \amelēs\ (\a\ privative and \melei\,
not to care)
. Use with genitive. {The gift that is in thee} (\tou
en soi charismatos\)
. Late word of result from \charizomai\, in
papyri (Preisigke), a regular Pauline word in N.T. (1Co 1:7; 2Co
1:11; Ro 1:11; etc.)
. Here it is God's gift to Timothy as in
2Ti 1:6. {By prophecy} (\dia prophēteias\). Accompanied by
prophecy (1:18), not bestowed by prophecy. {With the laying on
of the hands of the presbytery}
(\meta epitheseōs tōn cheirōn tou
. In Ac 13:2f., when Barnabas and Saul were
formally set apart to the mission campaign (not then ordained as
ministers, for they were already that)
, there was the call of the
Spirit and the laying on of hands with prayer. Here again \meta\
does not express instrument or means, but merely accompaniment.
In 2Ti 1:6 Paul speaks only of his own laying on of hands, but
the rest of the presbytery no doubt did so at the same time and
the reference is to this incident. There is no way to tell when
and where it was done, whether at Lystra when Timothy joined
Paul's party or at Ephesus just before Paul left Timothy there
(1:3). \Epithesis\ (\from epitithēmi\, to lay upon) is an old
word, in LXX, etc. In the N.T. we find it only here, 2Ti 1:16;
Ac 8:18; Heb 6:2, but the verb \epitithēmi\ with \tas cheiras\
more frequently (Ac 6:6 of the deacons; 8:19; 13:3; 1Ti 5:22,
. \Presbuterion\ is a late word (ecclesiastical use also),
first for the Jewish Sanhedrin (Lu 22:66; Ac 22:5), then (here
only in N.T.)
of Christian elders (common in Ignatius), though
\presbuteros\ (elder) for preachers (bishops) is common (Ac
11:30; 15:2; 20:17, etc.)

4:15 {Be diligent in these things} (\tauta meleta\). Old verb
from \meletē\ (care, practice), present active imperative, "keep
on practising these things." In N.T. only here and Ac 4:25.
{Give thyself wholly to them} (\en toutois isthi\). Present
imperative second person singular of \eimi\, "keep on in these
things." Note five uses of \en\ in verse 12 and three datives
in verse 14. Plutarch (Pomp. 656 B) says Caesar was \en
toutois\ ("in these things"). It is like our "up to his ears" in
work (\in medias res\) and sticking to his task. {Thy progress}
(\sou hē prokopē\). _Koinē_ word from \prokoptō\, to cut forward,
to blaze the way, in N.T. only here and Php 1:12,25. Paul's
concern (purpose, \hina\ and present subjunctive \ēi\ of \eimi\)
is that Timothy's "progress" may be "manifest to all." It is
inspiring to see a young preacher grow for then the church will
grow with him.

4:16 {Take heed to thyself} (\epeche seautōi\). Present active
imperative of old verb \epechō\, to hold upon (Php 2:1,16), but
here \ton noun\ (the mind) must be supplied as in Ac 3:5 and as
is common with \prosechō\. With dative case \seautōi\. "Keep on
paying attention to thyself." Some young preachers are careless
about their health and habits. Some are too finical. {And to the
(\kai tēi didaskaliāi\). This is important also.
{Continue in these things} (\epimene autois\). Present active
imperative of \epimenō\, old and common verb to stay by the side
of a person or thing. See Ro 6:1; Col 1:23. "Stay by them,"
"stick to them," "see them through." "Stick to the business of
framing your own life and your teaching on right lines" (Parry).
{Thou shalt save} (\sōseis\). Future active of \sōzō\, effective
future, finally save. Cf. 1Co 9:27; Joh 10:9.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 4)