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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 3)

3:1 {Faithful is the saying} (\pistos ho logos\). Here the phrase
points to the preceding words (not like 1:15) and should close
the preceding paragraph. {If a man seeketh} (\ei tis oregetai\).
Condition of first class, assumed as true. Present middle
indicative of \oregō\, old verb to reach out after something,
governing the genitive. In N.T. only here, 6:10; Heb 11:16.
{The office of a bishop} (\episkopēs\). Genitive case after
\oregetai\. Late and rare word outside of LXX and N.T. (in a
Lycaonian inscription)
. From \episkopeō\ and means
"over-seership" as in Ac 1:20.

3:2 {The bishop} (\ton episkopon\). The overseer. Old word, in
LXX, and inscriptions and papyri. Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, pp.
has shown it is applied to communal officials in Rhodes.
See Ac 20:28 for its use for the elders (presbyters) in verse
17. So also in Tit 1:5,7. See Php 1:1. The word does not in
the N.T. have the monarchical sense found in Ignatius of a bishop
over elders. {Without reproach} (\anepilēmpton\). Accusative case
of general reference with \dei\ and \einai\. Old and common
verbal (\a\ privative and \epilambanō\, not to be taken hold of),
irreproachable. In N.T. only here, 5:7; 6:14. {Of one wife}
(\mias gunaikos\). One at a time, clearly. {Temperate}
(\nēphalion\). Old adjective. In N.T. only here, verse 11; Tit
2:2. But see \nēphō\, to be sober in 1Th 5:6,8. {Soberminded}
(\sōphrona\). Another old adjective (from \saos\ or \sōs\, sound,
\phrēn\, mind)
in N.T. only here, Tit 1:8; 2:2,5. {Orderly}
(\kosmion\). See on ¯2:9. Seemly, decent conduct. {Given to
(\philoxenon\). Old word (see \philoxenia\ in Ro
, from \philos\ and \xenos\, in N.T. only here, Tit 1:8;
1Pe 4:9. {Apt to teach} (\didaktikon\). Late form for old
\didaskalikos\, one qualified to teach. In Philo and N.T. only
(1Ti 3:2; 2Ti 2:24).

3:3 {No brawler} (\mē paroinon\). Later word for the earlier
\paroinios\, one who sits long at (beside, \para\) his wine. In
N.T. only here and Tit 1:3. {No striker} (\mē plēktēn\). Late
word from \plēssō\, to strike. In N.T. only here and Tit 1:3.
{Gentle} (\epieikē\). See on ¯Php 4:5 for this interesting word.
{Not contentious} (\amachon\). Old word (from \a\ privative and
, not a fighter. In N.T. only here and Tit 3:2. {No
lover of money}
(\aphilarguron\). Late word (\a\ privative and
compound \phil-arguros\)
in inscriptions and papyri (Nageli; also
Deissmann, _Light_, etc., pp. 85f.)
. In N.T. only here and Heb

3:4 {Ruling} (\proistamenon\). Present middle participle of
\proistēmi\, old word to place before and (intransitive as here)
to stand before. See 1Th 5:12; Ro 12:8. {In subjection} (\en
. See verse 11.

3:5 {If a man knoweth not} (\ei tis ouk oiden\). Condition of
first class, assumed as true. {How to rule} (\prostēnai\). Second
aorist active infinitive of same verb \proistēmi\ and with
\oiden\ means "know how to rule," not "know that he rules." {How}
(\pōs\). Rhetorical question expecting negative answer. {Shall he
take care of}
(\epimelēsetai\). Future middle of \epimeleomai\,
old compound (\epi\, direction of care towards) verb, in LXX, in
N.T. only here and Lu 10:34f. {The church of God} (\ekklēsias
. Anarthrous as in verse 15, elsewhere with article
(1Co 10:32; 15:9; 2Co 1:1; Ga 1:13). The local church described
as belonging to God. No one in N.T. but Paul (Ac 20:28) so
describes the church. This verse is a parenthesis in the
characteristics of the bishop.

3:6 {Not a novice} (\mē neophuton\). Our "neophyte." Vernacular
word from Aristophanes on, in LXX, and in papyri in the original
sense of "newly-planted" (\neos, phuō\). Only here in N.T. {Lest}
(\hina mē\). "That not." {Being puffed up} (\tuphōtheis\). First
aorist passive participle of \tuphoō\, old word (from \tuphos\,
smoke, pride)
, to raise a smoke or mist (a smoke-screen of
. In N.T. only here; 6:4; 2Ti 3:4. {He fall into}
(\empesēi eis\). Second aorist active subjunctive with \hina mē\,
negative purpose, of \empiptō\, old verb, to fall into. Note both
\en\ and \eis\ as in Mt 12:11; Lu 10:36. {The condemnation of
the devil}
(\krima tou diabolou\). See Ro 3:8 for \krima\. Best
to take \tou diabolou\ as objective genitive, though subjective
in verse 7, "the condemnation passed on or received by the
devil" (not just "the slanderer," any slanderer).

3:7 {From them that are without} (\apo tōn exōthen\). "From the
outside (of the church) ones." Paul's care for the witness of
outsiders is seen in 1Th 4:12; 1Co 10:32; Col 4:5. There are,
of course, two sides to this matter. {Reproach} (\oneidismon\).
Late word from \oneidizō\. See Ro 15:3. {The snare of the
(\pagida tou diabolou\). Here subjective genitive, snare
set by the devil. \Pagis\, old word from \pēgnumi\, to make fast.
So a snare for birds (Lu 21:35), any sudden trap (Ro 11:9),
of sin (1Ti 6:9), of the devil (1Ti 3:7; 2Ti 2:26). Ancients
used it of the snares of love. The devil sets special snares for
preachers (conceit verse 6, money 6:9, women, ambition).

3:8 {Deacons} (\diakonous\). Accusative case of general reference
like the preceding with \dei einai\ understood. Technical sense
of the word here as in Php 1:1 which see (two classes of church
officers, bishops or elders, deacons)
. {Grave} (\semnous\). See
Php 4:8. Repeated in verse 11; Tit 2:2. {Not double-tongued}
(\mē dilogous\). Rare word (\dis, legō\) saying same thing twice.
Xenophon has \dilogeō\ and \dilogia\. In Pollux, but LXX has
\diglōssos\ (double-tongued, Latin _bilinguis_). Only here in
N.T. One placed between two persons and saying one thing to one,
another to the other. Like Bunyan's Parson "Mr. Two-Tongues."
{Not given to much wine} (\mē oinōi pollōi prosechontas\). "Not
holding the mind (\ton noun\ understood as usual with \prosechō\,
1Ti 1:4)
on much wine" (\oinōi\, dative case). That attitude
leads to over-indulgence. {Not greedy of filthy lucre} (\mē
. Old word from \aischros\ (Eph 5:12) and
\kerdos\ (Php 1:21). "Making small gains in mean ways" (Parry).
Not genuine in verse 3. In N.T. only here and Tit 1:7 (of

3:9 {The mystery of the faith} (\to mustērion tēs pisteōs\). "The
inner secret of the faith," the revelation given in Christ. See
for \mustērion\ in Paul (2Th 2:7; 1Co 2:7; Ro 16:25; Col 1:26;
Eph 3:9)
. {In a pure conscience} (\en katharāi suneidēsei\). See
1:19. "The casket in which the jewel is to be kept" (Lock).

3:10 {First be proved} (\dokimazesthōsan prōton\). Present
passive imperative third plural of \dokimazō\, old and common
verb, to test as metals, etc. (1Th 2:4, and often in Paul). How
the proposed deacons are to be "first" tested before approved
Paul does not say. See Php 1:10 for the two senses (test,
of the word. {Let them serve as deacons}
(\diakoneitōsan\). Present active imperative of \diakoneō\ (same
root as \diakonos\)
, common verb, to minister, here "to serve as
deacons." Cf. \diakonein\ in Ac 6:2. See also verse 13. {If
they be blameless}
(\anegklētoi ontes\). "Being blameless"
(conditional participle, \ontes\). See 1Co 1:8; Col 1:22 for

3:11 {Women} (\gunaikas\). Accusative with \dei einai\ understood
(\hosautōs\, likewise) as in verse 8. Apparently "women as
deacons" (Ro 16:1 about Phoebe) and not women in general or
just "wives of deacons." See Pliny (_Ep_. X. 97) _ministrae_.
{Not slanderers} (\mē diabolous\). Original meaning of \diabolos\
(from \diaballō\, Lu 16:1), the devil being the chief slanderer
(Eph 6:11). "She-devils" in reality (Tit 2:3). "While men are
more prone to be \dilogous\, double-tongued, women are more prone
than men to be slanderers" (White). {Faithful in all things}
(\pistas en pāsin\). Perhaps as almoners (Ellicott) the
deaconesses had special temptations.

3:12 {Of one wife} (\mias gunaikos\). At a time as in verse 2.
{Ruling well} (\proistamenoi kalōs\). As in 4.

3:13 {Gain to themselves} (\heautois peripoiountai\). Present
middle indicative of \peripoieō\, old verb, to make besides
(\peri\, around, over), to lay by. Reflexive (indirect) middle
with reflexive pronoun (\heautois\) repeated as often happens in
the _Koinē_. In N.T. only here, Lu 17:33; Ac 20:28 (Paul also,
quoting Isa 43:21)
. {A good standing} (\bathmon kalon\). Late
word from \bainō\, in LXX for steps at a door (1Sa 5:5). In
plural the steps of a stair. In the inscriptions it means a good
foothold or standing. The ecclesiastical writers (Theodoret) take
it to be a higher grade or rank, but it is doubtful if Paul means
that here. {Much boldness} (\pollēn parrēsian\). A Pauline phrase
(2Co 3:12; 7:4; Php 1:20). {In the faith which is in Christ
(\en pistei tēi en Christōi Iēsou\). Pauline phrase again
(Ac 26:18; Ga 3:26; Col 1:4; Eph 1:15; 2Ti 1:13; 3:15).

3:14 {Shortly} (\en tachei\). Old idiom (locative case of
\tachos\, quickness, speed)
. See Ro 16:20. A pseudonymous
writer would hardly have put in this phrase. Paul's hopes were
not to be realized, but he did not know that.

3:15 {But if I tarry long} (\ean de bradunō\). Condition of third
class with \ean\ and the present active subjunctive of \bradunō\,
old verb, to be slow (usually intransitive), from \bradus\ (slow,
dull, Lu 24:25)
, in N.T. only here and 2Pe 3:9. {That thou
mayest know}
(\hina eidēis\). Final clause with \hina\ and second
perfect active subjunctive of \oida\, to know. {How men ought}
(\pōs dei\). "How it is necessary for thee" (supply \se\ more
naturally than \tina\, any one)
. Indirect question. {To behave
(\anastrephesthai\). Present middle (direct)
infinitive of \anastrephō\, old verb, to turn up and down. See
2Co 1:12; Eph 2:3. {In the house of God} (\en oikōi theou\).
Probably here "household of God," that is "the family of God"
rather than "the house (or temple) of God." Christians as yet had
no separate houses of worship and \oikos\ commonly means
"household." Christians are the \naos\ (sanctuary) of God (1Co
3:16f.; 2Co 6:16)
, and Paul calls them \oikeioi tou theou\ (Eph
"members of God's family." It is conduct as members of
God's family (\oikos\) that Paul has in mind. {Which} (\hētis\).
"Which very house of God," agreeing (feminine) with the predicate
word \ekklēsia\ (church). {The church of the living God}
(\ekklēsia theou zōntos\). Probably here the general church or
kingdom as in Colossians and Ephesians, though the local church
in verse 5. {The pillar and ground of the truth} (\stulos kai
hedraiōma tēs alētheias\)
. Paul changes the metaphor again as he
often does. Those words are in apposition to \ekklēsia\ and
\oikos\. On \stulos\, old word for pillar, see Ga 2:9; Re 3:12
(only other N.T. examples). \Hedraiōma\, late and rare word (from
\hedraioō\, to make stable)
occurs here first and only in
ecclesiastical writers later. Probably it means stay or support
rather than foundation or ground. See Co 1:23; 2Ti 2:19 for
similar idea. See also Mt 16:18f.

3:16 {Without controversy} (\homologoumenōs\). Old adverb from
the participle \homologoumenos\ from \homologeō\. Here only in
N.T. "Confessedly." {Great} (\mega\). See Eph 5:32. "A great
mystery." {The mystery of godliness} (\to tēs eusebeias
. See verse 9 "the mystery of the faith," and 2:2
for \eusebeia\. Here the phrase explains "a pillar and stay of
the truth" (verse 15). See in particular Co 1:27. "The
revealed secret of true religion, the mystery of Christianity,
the Person of Christ" (Lock). {He who} (\hos\). The correct text,
not \theos\ (God) the reading of the Textus Receptus (Syrian
nor \ho\ (neuter relative, agreeing with \mustērion\) the
reading of the Western documents. Westcott and Hort print this
relative clause as a fragment of a Christian hymn (like Eph
in six strophes. That is probably correct. At any rate
\hos\ (who) is correct and there is asyndeton (no connective) in
the verbs. Christ, to whom \hos\ refers, is the mystery (Col
1:27; 2:2)
. {Was manifested} (\ephanerōthē\). First aorist
passive indicative of \phaneroō\, to manifest. Here used to
describe the incarnation (\en sarki\) of Christ (an answer also
to the Docetic Gnostics)
. The verb is used by Paul elsewhere of
the incarnation (Ro 16:26; Col 1:26) as well as of the second
coming (Col 3:4). {Justified in the spirit} (\edikaiōthē en
. First aorist passive indicative of \dikaioō\, to
declare righteous, to vindicate. Christ was vindicated in his own
spirit (Heb 9:14) before men by overcoming death and rising
from the dead (Ro 1:3f.). {Seen of angels} (\ōphthē aggelois\).
First aorist passive indicative of \horaō\, to see, with either
the instrumental or the dative case of angels (\aggelois\). The
words were probably suggested by the appearance of Jesus
(\ōphthē\, the usual form for the resurrection appearances of
of the angels at the tomb and at the ascension of Christ.
See Php 2:10; 1Pe 3:22 for the appearance of Jesus to the
angels in heaven at the ascension. Some would take "angels" here
to be "messengers" (the women). {Preached among the nations}
(\ekēruchthē en ethnesin\). First aorist passive indicative of
\kērussō\, to proclaim. The word \ethnos\ may mean "all creation"
(Col 1:23) and not just Gentiles as distinct from Jews. Paul
had done more of this heralding of Christ among the Gentiles than
any one else. It was his glory (Eph 3:1,8). Cf. 2:7.
{Believed on in the world} (\episteuthē en kosmōi\). First aorist
indicative passive again of \pisteuō\, to believe (2Th 1:10).
Cf. 1:15; 2Co 5:19. {Received up in glory} (\anelēmphthē en
. First aorist passive again (six verbs in the same voice
and tense in succession, a rhythmic arrangement like a hymn)
. Cf.
Ro 8:29f. This time the verb is \analambanō\, the verb used of
the ascension (Ac 1:11,22, which see). In a wonderful way this
stanza of a hymn presents the outline of the life of Christ.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 3)