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LESSON VI

The Article. Adjectives of the First and Second Declension. Agreement. Use of the Article. Attributive and Predicate Positions of Adjectives. Substantive Use of Adjectives.

60. Vocabulary

gaqv, , n, adj., good.
llov, j, o, adj., other.
dkaiov, a, on, adj., righteous.
gerw, I raise up.
rjmov, , a desert.
scatov, j, on, adj., last.
kakv, , n, adj., bad.
kalv,,n, adj., good, beautiful.
kriov, , a lord, the Lord.
mikrv, , n, adj., small, little.
nekrv, , n adj.,, dead.
, , t, art., the.
dv, , a road, a way.
pistv,,n adj., faithful.

prtov,j,on, adj., first.

It will be observed that rjmov and dv are feminine, though nearly all nouns of the second declension ending in -ov are masculine.

61. The declension of the adjective gaqv, good, as follows:

Sing.

Plur.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

N. gaqv
G. gaqo
D. gaq
A. gaqn
V. gaq
gaq
gaqv
gaq
gaqn
gaq
gaqn
gaqo
gaq
gaqn
gaqn
N.V. gaqo
G. gaqn
D. gaqov
A. gaqov
gaqa
gaqn
gaqav
gaqv
gaq
gaqn
gaqov
gaq

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This declension, like all declensions of adjectives, and of the article, etc., is to be learned across and not in vertical columns - that is, the nominative singular is to be given in all three genders before the genitive is given, and the genitive singular is to be given in all three genders before the dative is given, and so on.

It will be observed that the masculine of the adjective gaqv is declined exactly like a masculine noun of the second declension, the feminine exactly like a feminine noun in j of the first declension, and the neuter exactly like a neuter noun of the second declension.

62. Learn the declension of mikrv, small, and of dkaiov, righteous (in 569, 570). Note that long a j stands in the feminine of these adjectives when the preceding letter is r or a vowel (compare 55). The accent in the genitive plural feminine of all adjectives of the second and first declension follows the regular noun rule and not the special rule for nouns of the first declension (51).

63. The declension of the article is as follows:

Sing.

Plur.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

N.
G. to
D. t
A. tn

tv
t
tn
t
to
t
t
N.V. o
G. tn
D. tov
A. tov
a
tn
tav
tv
t
tn
tov
t

64. The forms , , o, a are proclitics. A proclitic is a word that goes so closely with the following word as to have no accent of its own.

65. Note that except for (1) these irregular proclitic forms, (2) the form t in the nominative and accusative singular (instead of tn), and (3) the absence of the vocative, the article is declined like the adjective gaqv.

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66. Agreement

Adjectives, including the article, agree with the nouns that they modify, in gender, number, and case.

Examples: (1) lgov, to lgou, t lg, blpw tn lgon, o lgoi, tn lgwn, tov. (2) t dron, to drou, etc. (3) ra, qv rav, t r, blpw tn ran, a rai, etc. (4) dv (see 60), tv dhdo, t d, blpw tn dn, a rai, etc.

67. Use of the Article

The use of the article in Greek corresponds roughly to the use of the definite article in English. Thus lgov means a word; lgoi means words; o lgoi means the words. The differences between the Greek and the English use of the article must be learned by observation, as they occur. For the present, the presence or absence of the Greek article should always be carefully indicated in the English translation.

Attributive and Predicate Use of Adjectives

68. Adjectives are used in two distinct ways: (1) attributively, (2) predicatively.

In the phrase the good word, the adjective good is an attributive adjective; it tells what word we are mentioning. We are not mentioning all words or any word, but only the good word.

In the sentence, the word is good, the adjective good is a predicate adjective; with the verb is it makes an assertion about the subject, the word.

69. In Greek, the distinction between the attributive and the predicate adjective is of vastly more importance

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than in English; indeed, as will be observed later, some of the most important and characteristic parts of Greek grammar are based upon this distinction.

70. The good word can be expressed in two common ways in Greek-either gaqv lgov or by lgov gaqv. It will be observed that what is characteristic about this attributive position of the Greek adjective is that the adjective comes immediately after the article. The former of the two alternatives, gaqv. It is just like English; it has the order (1) article, (2) attributive adjective, (3) noun, and is a literal translation of the good word. The latter of the two alternatives, lgov gaqv, means literally the word--namely the good one. But it is of course vastly commoner than this cumbersome usage is in English, and like gaqv lgov should be translated simply the good word.

71. The word is good can be expressed in two ways in Greek-- either by lgov gaqv or by gaqv lgov (the simple copula, meaning is, can be omitted). What is characteristic about this predicate position of the adjective in Greek is that the adjective does not come immediately after the article.

72. The matter can be summarized as follows:

Attributive Position
of the Adjective
gaqv lgov
or
lgov gaqv
= the good word.
Predicate Position
of the Adjective
lgov gaqv
or
gaqv lgov
= the word is good.

73. The student should fix this distinction in his mind by thoughtful reading aloud of the above and similar phrases, until gaqv lgov, for example, comes to mean to

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him, even without conscious translation, good (is) the word, and comes to be dissociated entirely from the idea the good word. If this advice be heeded, a solid foundation will have been laid for the mastery of a large part of Greek syntax.

74. It should be observed that the distinction between the attributive and the predicate position of the adjective can be made in Greek only when the noun has the article. gaqv lgov or lgov gaqv (the noun here not having the article) may mean either a good word (attributive) or a word is good (predicate).

75. Substantive Use of the Adjective

The adjective may be used as a noun, especially with the article.

Examples- (1) gaqv may mean a good man; gaq, a good woman; gaqn, a good thing; gaqo, good men; gaqa, good women; gaq, good things. (2) gaqv means the good man; gaq, the good woman; t gaqn, the good thing; o gaqo, the good men; a gaqa, the good women; t gaq, the good things.

Sometimes, in the plural masculine, the English language, like Greek, can use the adjective as a noun without adding the word men. Thus o gaqo may be translated the good meaning the good men or the good people; o nekro, the dead, meaning the dead people, etc.

76. Exercises

I. 1. gaq kkljsa ka basilea kak. 2. kak karda tn nqrpwn ginskei qnaton. 3. o postoloi blpousi tov mikrov okouv ka t kakav dov. 4. o doloi o kako lousi1 1 tn okon to postlou. 5. o kako

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lousi t ern. 6. kriov tv zwv2 gerei tov nekrov. 7. o lgoi tv ljqeav didskousi tov llouv postlouv. 8. o dkaioi lambnousi t dra to kurou t kal. 9. kakv blpei tn rjmon ka tov sctouv okouv. 10. prtoi o doloi; scatoi o krioi. 11. t kkljs t mikr grfei kriov lgon gaqn. 12. tov prtoi o uo oagaqo. 13. scatoi o doloi o kako; prtoi o uo o gaqo. 14. uv to sctou delfo blpei tv kalv kkljsav to kurou. 15. lljn paraboln lgomen t kak basile. 16. prtj kkljsa; sctj llj basilea. 17. tav pistav lgei kriov paraboln kaln ka tov pistov. 18. gaqv grfei gaq; kakv kak. 19. gaqv dolov ka lgei kal. 20. lqeia pist ka ra kak.

II. 1. To the first church the Lord writes the first parable. 2. The good woman sees the ways of the desert. 3. The good things are first and the bad things last. 4. Death is bad and life is good. 5. The Lord of the kingdom raises up the faithful men and the faithful women. 6. The good know the bad, and the bad the good. 7. The good words we say to the Church, and the bad words we write to the brethren. 8. Thou seest the good days of the Lord of life. 9. The roads are good and the men bad. 10. The first gift is last and the last (gift) first. 11. The good servants know the truth and the glory of the Lord. 12. The last day takes the bad servants. 13. The men are destroying the beautiful temples and the small houses. 14. The righteous have another house. 15. The church is taking the other house. 16. I know the other ways. 17. The Lord is saying the other parable to the first church.

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1 1lu sometimes means I destroy.

2 Abstract nouns, and nouns such as zw often have the article where it is omitted in English.

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