Masculine Nouns of the First Declension. Prepositions

77. Vocabulary

ggelov, , an angel, a messenger.
gw, I lead
p, with gen., from
bllw, I throw, I cast, I put.
di, with gen., through;
with acc., on account of.
prep., into. k (x before vowels), prep. with gen., out of.
prep. with dat., in
qev, ,
a god, God (When it means God, qev may have the article).

ksmov, , a world
lqov, , a stone
maqjtv, , a disciple
mnw, I remain.
met, prep. with gen., with; with acc., after.
oranv, , heaven
pmpw, I send.
prv, prep. with acc., to.
proftjv, , a prophet.
tknon, t, a child
tpov, , a place
frw, I bear, I bring.

78. Nouns of the first declension ending in -jv are masculine.

79. The declension of proftjv, , a prophet, is as follows:



It will be observed that although proftjv is masculine it is a true first-declension noun, being just like a feminine noun of the first declension except in the nominative, genitive, and vocative singular.

maqjtv is declined like proftjv, except for the accent.


80. Prepositions express relationship. Thus in the sentence, the book is in the desk, the preposition in expresses a certain relationship between the book and the desk. In the sentence, the book is on the desk, a different relationship is expressed (by the preposition on).

In English, nouns standing after prepositions are always in the same case (the "objective" case). But in Greek different prepositions take different cases.

81. The preposition n meaning in, always takes the dative case. Thus in the house is expressed by n t ok ; in the truth by n t ljqe etc. The preposition ev, meaning into, on the other hand, always takes the accusative. Thus into the house is expressed by ev tn okon. Finally, the preposition p always takes the genitive. Thus from the house is expressed by p to okou.

82. These three prepositions illustrate the general principle that the genitive is the case of separation, the dative the case of rest in a place, and the accusative the case of motion toward a place. Prepositions expressing separation naturally take the genitive, prepositions expressing rest in a place naturally take the dative, and prepositions expressing motion toward a place naturally take the accusative.

83. But a very great number of usages of prepositions cannot be reduced to any such general rule. Thus many


prepositions that do not express any idea of separation take the genitive.

84. It should be observed that n, ev, and k are all proclitics (see 64) .

85. n, ev, k, and p each take only one case, and prv is not commonly used with any case except the accusative. But many other prepositions take several cases. Those that take several cases often have quite a different meaning when used with one case from their meaning when used with another case. Thus di with the genitive means through; di with accusative, on account of; met with the genitive means with; met with the accusative, after.

86. In studying the vocabularies it is quite insufficient to learn how the prepositions are to be translated, but it is also necessary to learn with what case they are construed in any particular meaning. Thus it is quite insufficient to say that n means in. What should rather be said is that " n-with-the-dative" means in. The phrase " n- with-the-dative" should form in the student's mind one absolutely indivisible idea; n should never be thought of apart from its case. In the same way, but still more obviously, it is insufficient to say that met means with or after. What should rather be said is that "met -with-the-genitive " means with, and that " met -with-the-accusative" means after. This same method of study should be applied to all prepositions.

87. A further important principle is that of precision. in learning the meanings of prepositions. It is true that no one English word or phrase is capable of translating in all instances a single Greek preposition. Sometimes, for example, n with the dative cannot be translated by in in English. But the proper method is to learn first the usual meaning


before proceeding to the unusual. A reversal of this method will lead to hopeless confusion. Let the student, therefore, so far as prepositions are concerned, adhere for the present rigidly to the translations given in the vocabularies. In that way a feeling for the really fundamental meaning of the prepositions will be formed, and further on the derived meanings can be studied without confusion.

88. Finally, the importance of this subject should be noticed. Few things more necessary for a correct understanding of the New Testament than a precise acquaintance with the common prepositions. The prepositions therefore should always be singled out from the vocabularies for special attention, and when new prepositions are learned the old ones should be reviewed.

89. Exercises

I. 1. o maqjta tn profjtn mnousin n t ksm. 2. o kako bllousin lqouv ev tn okon tn maqjtn. 3. qev pmpei tov gglouv ev tn kmon. 4. proftjv pmpei tov maqjtv to kurou k tn okwn ev tn kkljsan. 5. qev gerei tov nekrov k qantou. 6. lambnete t kal dra p tn tkwn. 7. gomen t tkna k tn okwn. 8. met tov gglouv pmpei qev tn un. 9. met tn ggelwn gei kriov tov dikaouv ev tn orann. 10. di tn dn tv rmou frousin o doloi t dra ev llon tpon. 11. di tn grafn tn profjtn ginskomen tn krion. 12. di tn dxan to qeo gerei kriov tov nekrov. 13. frousin tov nekrov ev tn rjmon. 14. o maqjta didskousi t gaq tkna n t kkljs. 15. di tn lqeian blpousin o maqjta tov gaqov dolouv ka tov uov tn profjtn prv tov mikrov okouv tn maqjtn. 16. di tn lqeian blpousin o proftai tn qnaton. 17. p tv rmou gousin o maqjta tov gaqov dolouv ka tov uov tn profjtn prv tov mikrov okouv tn maqjtn.


18. di tn basilean to qeo fromen t kak. 19. di tv yucv tn delfn blpei kak. 20. kalv oranv; kakv ksmov.

II. 1. In the world we have death, and in the Church life. 2. The prophets lead the righteous disciples of the Lord into the way of the desert. 3. The child is throwing a stone into the little house. 4. The man is saying a good word to the disciples and is leading the disciples to the Lord.1 1 5. The disciples are remaining in the church and are saying a parable to the other prophets. 6. Through the voice of the prophet the Lord is teaching the disciples. 7. On account of the Church the disciples and the apostles write good words to the brethren. 8. On account of the children the prophet is sending the evil men into the desert. 9. After the Lord the apostle sees the disciple. 10. The prophets are teaching the disciples with the children. 11. They are bringing the disciples to the Lord. 12. The Lord is remaining with the prophet in another place. 13. The righteous are leading the disciples through the desert to the Lord. 14. We see the days of the Son of God in the evil world. 15. Evil are the days; good are the churches. 16. Through the word of the Lord God raises the dead.


1 1Care should be taken to distinguish the two ways in which the English word to is used in this sentence.