ąggelov, ť, an angel, a messenger.
ągw, I lead
ápÁ, with gen., from
bÄllw, I throw, I cast, I put.
diÄ, with gen., through;
with acc., on account of.
ełv, prep., into. Ěk (Ěx before vowels), prep. with gen., out of.
Ěn, prep. with dat., in
qeÁv, ť, a god, God (When it means God, qeÁv may have the article).
kÁsmov, ť, a world
lįqov, ť, a stone
maqjt–v, ť, a disciple
mônw, I remain.
metÄ, prep. with gen., with; with acc., after.
o«ranÁv, ť, heaven
pômpw, I send.
prÁv, prep. with acc., to.
prof–tjv, ť, a prophet.
tôknon, tÁ, a child
tÁpov, ť, a place
fôrw, I bear, I bring.
78. Nouns of the first declension ending in -jv are masculine.
79. The declension of prof–tjv, ť, a prophet, is as follows:
Sing. † Plur. N.†prof–tjv
It will be observed that although prof–tjv is masculine it is a true first-declension noun, being just like a feminine noun of the first declension except in the nominative, genitive, and vocative singular.maqjt–v is declined like prof–tjv, except for the accent.
80. Prepositions express relationship. Thus in the sentence, the book is in the desk, the preposition in expresses a certain relationship between the book and the desk. In the sentence, the book is on the desk, a different relationship is expressed (by the preposition on).
In English, nouns standing after prepositions are always in the same case (the "objective" case). But in Greek different prepositions take different cases.
81. The preposition Ěn meaning in, always takes the dative case. Thus in the house is expressed by Ěn tĢ oĻkŻ ; in the truth by Ěn tř áljqeįč etc. The preposition ełv, meaning into, on the other hand, always takes the accusative. Thus into the house is expressed by ełv tŤn oļkon. Finally, the preposition ápÁ always takes the genitive. Thus from the house is expressed by ápŤ to¬ oĻkou.
82. These three prepositions illustrate the general principle that the genitive is the case of separation, the dative the case of rest in a place, and the accusative the case of motion toward a place. Prepositions expressing separation naturally take the genitive, prepositions expressing rest in a place naturally take the dative, and prepositions expressing motion toward a place naturally take the accusative.
83. But a very great number of usages of prepositions cannot be reduced to any such general rule. Thus many
84. It should be observed that Ěn, ełv, and Ěk are all proclitics (see ß 64) .
85. Ěn, ełv, Ěk, and ápÁ each take only one case, and prÁv is not commonly used with any case except the accusative. But many other prepositions take several cases. Those that take several cases often have quite a different meaning when used with one case from their meaning when used with another case. Thus diÄ with the genitive means through; diÄ with accusative, on account of; metÄ with the genitive means with; metÄ with the accusative, after.
86. In studying the vocabularies it is quite insufficient to learn how the prepositions are to be translated, but it is also necessary to learn with what case they are construed in any particular meaning. Thus it is quite insufficient to say that Ěn means in. What should rather be said is that " Ěn-with-the-dative" means in. The phrase " Ěn- with-the-dative" should form in the student's mind one absolutely indivisible idea; Ěn should never be thought of apart from its case. In the same way, but still more obviously, it is insufficient to say that metÄ means with or after. What should rather be said is that "metÄ -with-the-genitive " means with, and that " metÄ -with-the-accusative" means after. This same method of study should be applied to all prepositions.
87. A further important principle is that of precision. in learning the meanings of prepositions. It is true that no one English word or phrase is capable of translating in all instances a single Greek preposition. Sometimes, for example, Ěn with the dative cannot be translated by in in English. But the proper method is to learn first the usual meaning
88. Finally, the importance of this subject should be noticed. Few things more necessary for a correct understanding of the New Testament than a precise acquaintance with the common prepositions. The prepositions therefore should always be singled out from the vocabularies for special attention, and when new prepositions are learned the old ones should be reviewed.
I. 1. o≥ maqjtaĪ tÚn profjtÚn mônousin Ěn tĢ kÁsmŻ. 2. o≥ kakoĪ bÄllousin lįqouv ełv tŤn oļkon tÚn maqjtÚn. 3. ť qeŤv pômpei toŃv ággôlouv ełv tŤn kÁmon. 4. ť prof–tjv pômpei toŃv maqjtĀv to¬ kurįou Ěk tÚn oĻkwn ełv t—n Ěkkljsįan. 5. ť qeŤv Ěgeįrei toŃv nekroŃv Ěk qanÄtou. 6. lambÄnete tĀ kalĀ dÚra ápŤ tÚn tôkwn. 7. ągomen tĀ tôkna Ěk tÚn oĻkwn. 8. metĀ toŃv ággôlouv pômpei ť qeŤv tŤn u≥Án. 9. metĀ tÚn ággelwn ągei ť kņriov toŃv dikaįouv ełv tŤn o«ranÁn. 10. diĀ tÚn ťdÚn t“v Ěr–mou fôrousin o≥ do¬loi tĀ dÚra ełv ąllon tÁpon. 11. diĀ tÚn grafÚn tÚn profjtÚn ginūskomen tŤn kņrion. 12. diĀ t—n dÁxan to¬ qeo¬ Ěgeįrei ť kņriov toŃv nekroņv. 13. fôrousin toŃv nekroŃv ełv t—n ěrjmon. 14. o≥ maqjtaĪ didÄskousi tĀ ágaqĀ tôkna Ěn tř Ěkkljsįč. 15. diĀ t—n ál–qeian blôpousin o≥ maqjtaĪ toŃv ágaqoŃv doņlouv kaĪ toŃv u≥oŃv tÚn profjtÚn prŤv toŃv mikroŃv oĻkouv tÚn maqjtÚn. 16. diĀ t—n ál–qeian blôpousin o≥ prof“tai tŤn qÄnaton. 17. ápŤ t“v Ěr–mou ągousin o≥ maqjtaĪ toŃv ágaqoŃv doņlouv kaĪ toŃv u≥oŃv tÚn profjtÚn prŤv toŃv mikroŃv oĻkouv tÚn maqjtÚn.
18. diĀ t—n basileįan to¬ qeo¬ fôromen tĀ kakÄ. 19. diĀ tĀv yucĀv tÚn ádelfÚn blôpei kakÄ. 20. kalŤv ť o«ranÁv; kakŤv ť kÁsmov.
II. 1. In the world we have death, and in the Church life. 2. The prophets lead the righteous disciples of the Lord into the way of the desert. 3. The child is throwing a stone into the little house. 4. The man is saying a good word to the disciples and is leading the disciples to the Lord.1 1 5. The disciples are remaining in the church and are saying a parable to the other prophets. 6. Through the voice of the prophet the Lord is teaching the disciples. 7. On account of the Church the disciples and the apostles write good words to the brethren. 8. On account of the children the prophet is sending the evil men into the desert. 9. After the Lord the apostle sees the disciple. 10. The prophets are teaching the disciples with the children. 11. They are bringing the disciples to the Lord. 12. The Lord is remaining with the prophet in another place. 13. The righteous are leading the disciples through the desert to the Lord. 14. We see the days of the Son of God in the evil world. 15. Evil are the days; good are the churches. 16. Through the word of the Lord God raises the dead.
1 1Care should be taken to distinguish the two ways in which the English word to is used in this sentence.