GARRUCCI, gdr-ru'cht, RAFFAELE: Italian Jesuit and archeologist; b. at Naples Jan. 23,1812; d. at Rome May 5, 1885. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of fourteen, and after 1845 published numerous monographs and books on Christian archeology, including numismatics, , epigraphy, painting, sculpture, and the art of the catacombs in all its ramifications. His principal works are : Antichitd dei Bebiani (Naples, 1845); La Storia di Isermia (1848); Tre sepolchri del cimiterio di Pretestato in Roma (1852); Questioni pompejani (1853); Inscriptions gravces sur les murs de Pompei (Brussels, 1854); 11 Crocifrsso graffito in casa dei Cesari (Rome, 1857); Yetri ornati di figure in oro trovati nei cimiteri dei Cristiani primitivi (1858); Monumenti del Museo Lateranense (2 vols., 1862); Cimiterno degli antichi Ebrei scoperto in vigna Randanini (1862); Storia dell' ante cristiana nei primi Otto secoli dells ehiesa (6 vols., Prato, 1872-81); and Le Monete dell' Italic antica (Rome, 1885). He also prepared the first edition of the Hagivglypta Rive pieturm et seulpturm sacree antiquiores prcesertim qutv homes reperiuntur, which had been written by Jean 1'Heureux (Macarius) as early as 1605 (Paris, 1856).

Bibliography: De Backer, BibliotALqm de la compagnie de June, ed. C. Sommervogel, vol. iii., Paris, 1892; 3limmen Gus Maria-Laarl4 x. 158-180; KL, v. 105-108.


GARVE, KARL BERNHARD: German Moravian preacher and hymn-writer; b. at Jeinsen (a. of Han over) Jan. 24, 1763; d. at Herrnhut (42 m. e. of Dresden) June 21, 1841. His father's house was a meeting-place for the Moravian brethren of that part of Germany, and a candidate from Herrnhut was a private tutor in his father's family. At the age of five Karl was sent to the institution of the Brethren in Zeist, then to Neuwied-on-the-Rhine. His edu cation was completed in the Paedagogium in Niesky and in the theological seminary in Barby. In 1784 he received his first position as teacher at the Pa'da gogium. In 1789 he. became docent of historical and philosophical sciences in the theological semi nary. Starting from the criticism of Kant and fol lowing closely Jacobi and Reinhold, he endeavored to build a foundation for the Moravian conception of Christianity. But his lectures on philosophy only fostered an aversion to theology and practical service in the Congregation of Brethren so that the authorities were compelled to dismiss Garvein 1797, acknowledging, however, their kindly feelings to ward him. From 1799 to 1816 he was successively preacher in the Moravian congregations at Amster dam, Ebersdorf, Norden, Berlin, and from 1816 to 1836 at Neusalz-on-the-Oder. In 1837 he retired to Herrnhut. [carve was one of the most noted of the Moravian hymn-writers; his best hymn is probably Dein Wort, 0 Herr, is$ milder Thau, trans lated by Miss Winkworth as " Thy Word, O Lord, like gentle dews."] He wrote: Chxistliche Gesange (Görlitz, 1825); Briidergesdnge (Gnadau, 1827); Der deutsche Verabau (Berlin, 1827); Die Themes der Dichtkunst (1828); Die Schule der Weisheit (Leipsic, 1830); and Der Volka»ertreter (Carlsruhe, 1839).

Jospeh Müller.

Bibliography: A notice by his son Leopold appeared in the Nakrolog der Deutaduen, mix. 1, pp. 609-610. Consult also Julian, Hymnology, pp. 404-405.


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