EWALD (HERMANN AUGUST), PAUL: German Protestant; b. at Leipsic Jan. 13, 1857. He studied in Erlangen and Leipsic (Ph. D., 1881), and from 1880 to 1882 was a member of the clergy staff of St. Paul's, Leipsic. In 1883 he became privat-docent at the university in the same city, and associate professor in 1887. In 1886 he went to Vienna as professor of the New Testament in the Protestant faculty of that city, and in 1894 to Erlangen as professor of dogmatic theology and New Testament exegesis. He has edited G. B. Winer's Komparative Darstellung der Lehrbegriffe der verschiedenert christlichen KirchenpaTteien (Leip sic, 1882), and has written Der Ein floss der stoischciceronianischen Moral auf die Darstellung der Ethik bei Ambrosias (Leipsic, 1881); De vocis syrteideseos aped scriptorea Novi Testamenti vi ac potentate (1883); Die Hauptprobleme der Evangelienfrage (1890); Der geschichtliche Christus und die synoptinchen Evangelien (1892); Ueber das Verhkltnis der systematischen Theologie zur Schriftwissenschaft (1895); Ueber die Glaubenswiirdigkeit der Evangelien (1897); Religion and Christentum (1898); Wer war Jesus (`(1899); Der Christ und die Wissenschaft (1903); and Kommentar zu den Briefen den Paulus an die Ephesier, Kolossier, and Philemon (1905).

EWING, FINIS: One of the founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church; b. in Bedford County, Va., June 10, 1773; d. at Lexington, Mo., July 4, 1841. He early removed to Davidson County, Tenn., and subsequently to Logan County, Ky. His education was limited,

Evolution Exclusion, Right of

but under the influence of revivalist preachers he offered himself as a candidate for the Presbyterian ministry. About 1800 he was licensed as a probationer and in Nov., 1803, was ordained by the Cumberland presbytery. The Kentucky synod did not recognize this ordination and in 1806 dissolved the Cumberland presbytery. As a result, Ewing, with two others, organized on Feb. 4, 1810, the first presbytery of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (see Presbyterians). In 1820 he removed to Missouri, settling first in what is now Cooper County. He soon built up a large congregation at New Lebanon, which still flourishes. In 1836 he went to Lexington, Lafayette County, Mo., where he labored till his death. He published Lectures art Important Subjects in Divinity (Nashville, 1824).

Bibliography: F. R. Coseitt, Life and Times of Rev. Finia Ewing, Nashville, 1853 ; R. Beard, Biographical Sketches of , , , Early Ministers of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 2 vols., ib. 1867; J. B. Lindaley, Sources and Sketches of Cumberland Presbyterian Hist. in Theological Medium 1877-78; R. V. Foster, in American Church History Series, xi. 259, 288, 288.


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