EWALD, GEORG HEINRICH AUGUST: Ori-
eataliet and Biblical scholar; b. at Göttingen Nov. 16, 1803; d. there May 4, 1875. His father was a cloth-weaver. Having been thoroughly prepared in the gymnasium of his native town, he studied classical philology, Orientalia, and theology at its university. After spending two years as teacher in the gymnasium at Wolfenbüttel, he returned to Göttingen in 1824 as repetent in the theological faculty. In 1827 he became extraordinary professor; ordinary profeasorin1831; in 1833, member of the Society of Sciences; in 1835, titular professor of Oriental languages and member of the honorary faculty. In 1838 he was made doctor of theology by the faculty of Copenhagen. Notwithstanding his extensive professorial activity he found time for ample production. Besides works on the Hebrew and Arabic languages, the moat important of which is the Lehrbuch der hebräischen Sprache des allen Bundza (5th ed., Leipsic, 1844; Eng. transl., from the 2d ed., London, 1836; of part iii.syntax-from the 8th ed., Edinburgh, 1879), there may be mentioned is this period, Comrnerttarius in apokalypsirt Joltdnnia (1828) and Die poetischen Bother den alten Bundes (4 parts, Göttingen, 1835-1839). He contributed also to several periodicals. These works are the product of strictly scientific researches, careful and at the same time generously proportioned. Ewald's importance was conceded willingly, and his renown was large. But this fortunate season had a sudden check; in 1837 he was dismissed from his public position because, with some of his colleagues, he had addressed a memorial to the board of university regents in Hanover, expostulating against the arbitrary repeal, by act of King Ernst August, of the liberal constitution of 1833.
After sojourning four months in England, Ewald accepted a call to Tübingen, where he worked until 1848 as professor, first in the philosophical, subsequently in the theological faculty. His productive activity during this period was confined mainly to the Biblical sciences. Among other works he issued Die Prophetert den Alters Bundea (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1840f11; Eng. transl., 5 vols., London, 1875-81); Geschichte des Volkes Israel (7 vols., Göttingen, 1843-59; Eng. transl., of vols. i. iv., 5 vols., London, 1867-74), a work of permanent value on account of its careful use of the sources. His dismissal from Göttingen having been hailed as an event of political consequence, Ewald unfortunately felt himself prompted to publish impassioned polemical writings, which embittered him personally, and drove him to a morbidly exaggerated estimation of himself. His irritability also injured him with his Tübingen colleagues, among whom he especially antagonized F. C. Baur, with both spoken and written vehemence.
In 1848 Ewald, at his own request, was reinstated at Göttingen. From this time forth he labored particularly upon the New Testament writings, in express opposition to Baur and Strauss. He occupied himself especially with pseudepigraphy, proceeding from foundations laid by his earlier investigations. His comprehensive scholarship is faithfully reflected in his JoJtrbuchef' der bibliac)le» Wissen-
Bibliography: G6ainger gekhrte Naehrichten, 1875, pp. 340-344; A. Dillmann, in Im neuen Reich, V., i (187b). 778-788; ADB, vi. 438-442; T. W. Davies, Heinrich Ewald, Orientalist and Theologian, London, 1903.
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