EXACTIONS (Exactiones tallice): In canon law, taxes of an extraordinary sort, either entirely new, or old taxes levied at a higher rate. They are essentially illegal, and were forbidden as early as the Third Council of Toledo (509). When levied, valid ground (manifests ac rationabilia causa) must exist, and they must be limited to the indispensable requirement (moderatum auxilium).
EXARCH: A title applied to the head of an ecclesiastical province, whose rank, historically, was equivalent sometimes to that of Patriarch (q.v.), sometimes to that of Metropolitan or Archbishop (qq.v.). Cf. Bingham, Origines, II., xvi. 5, xvii. 1-2, where the synodical decisions are given.
EXCLUSION, RIGHT OF (Exclusiva): In the wider sense, the right of a sovereign or secular official to veto the nomination of a candidate for an ecclesiastical office. In the narrower and more usual sense, the ius exclusivte is the right to exclude a candidate for the papacy who is unacceptable to the power exercising it. The constitutional influence of the emperors on papal elections ceased in the eleventh century; but since the fifteenth the great Roman Catholic powers (the Roman-German Empire, Austria, France, Spain) have, as a matter of fact, attempted to exercise a certain influence in the direction of what appeared to be their interests by means of cardinals devoted to them, and to exclude undesirable candidates by getting together so many votes for their own that the others failed of the necessary two-thirds. As this practise became publicly recognized, since the seventeenth century it has developed into a formal assumption of the right to exclude from election one candidate for each power, by a declaration made before the termination of the balloting through a cardinal authorized for the purpose. Besides the powers named Naples and Portugal claimed this right. Though it was not exercised at the election of Leo XIII., at that of Pius X. in 1903 the emperor of Austria attempted to enforce it against Cardinal Rampolla,. It was understood, however,
Bibliography: The subject has been especially studied by L. wahrmund, in Das Auaechlieaaungarecht . . . bei den Papstwahlen, Vienna, 1888; Excluaionsrecht bei den Papstwahlen, ib. 1890; Die Bulls "lEEerni patria filius," ib. 1894. Consult further: N. Wiseman, Recollections of the Last Four Popes, pp. 358, 416, London, 1858; J. B. Sagmiiller, Die Papsttoahlbullen und das ataatliche Recht der Exkluaiva, Tübingen, 1892; idem, Neueate Ltiaunga verauche in der Frage . . . der Exkluaiva, Freiburg,1898; L. Lector, Le Conclave. Origins, histoirc, organisation, Paris, 1894.
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