6. Schleiermacher and his Influence

to historical theology; and practical theology dealt with church governand hisment and church service. The operInfluence. ation of Schleiermacher's principles was for a time thwarted by the entrance of the Hegelian philosophy which regarded religion and its results as transitional in the march of evolution, but with the help of the growing historical and linguistic criticism it established itself ever more firmly. Meanwhile there appeared the contrast between emphasis upon the historical (Strauss's Leben Jesu) and Hegelian opposition between pantheism and atheism, a problem to the solution of which F. C. Baur devoted himself in the history of early Christianity. Next to appear was the "Mediating theology," the fundamental thought of which was that a view of the world which includes supernaturalism is not an obstacle to scientific work. Recognizable here is the influence of Schleiermacher and Neander in the acknowledgment of a revealed character in Christianity, and of Hegel and Schelling in the tendency to speculation. The writing which best exhibits this character is A. F. L. Pelt's Theologische Encyklopädie (Hamburg, 1843), which makes historical theology take precedence of dogmatic and practical. Noteworthy are E. L. T. Henke's Grundriss I fir Yorlesungen zur Einleitung in das theologische Stadium (Marburg, 1869), J. P. Lange's Grundriss der theologischen Encyklopädie and Methodologie (Heidelberg, 1877) which unites systematic and practical theology, and K. Rosenkranz's Encyklopädie der theologischen Wissenschaft (Halle, 1831) which seeks to use Hegel's philosophy in the construction of theological science. The "mediating theology" was left behind by K. R. Hagenbach in the work which long remained the standard (Encyklopädie der theologischen Wissenschaft, Leipsic 1833, 9th ed. with the help of E. Scharer, 1874, 11th ed. by Kautzsch, 1884, 12th ed. by Reischle, 1889). J. F. Rabiger's Encyklopkdie der Theologie (1880) differs from R. Rothe's Theologische Encyklopädie (ed. Ruppelius, Wittenberg, 1880) in that it uses the historic standpoint of the Tübingen school, while

Rothe gives the preference to a speculative tendency. The Encyklopiiaie of J. C. K. Hofmann (ed. Beatmann, Nördlingen; 1879) closely follows Schleiermacher in emphasizing the personal relationship of man to God, in which he was preceded by G. C. A. Harless (Nuremberg, 1837). More in the direction which Hengstenberg gave to theology is the series issued under the editorship of O. Zöckler (B vols., Nördlingen, 1881-90) under the title Hcendbücher der theologischen Wissenschaften in encykloPadischer Darstellung.

The question what the present condition of theological work demands has been answered by Ritschl, who asserts as the starting-point of theology the Gospel alit lies in Scripture. This Gospel is essentially a revelation, set forth, however, in historical relations and under historic conditions. So that there results a double field of investigation, philosophical history and the internal developments of church life. On this basis, investigation of theology without reference to the


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