7. Modern Problems

Church which developed it is out of the question; it would make the Bible simply a part of the world's religious literature, deprive it of the interest derived from churchly relations, separate it from its accompanying conceptions of canon, symbol, and dogma. Yet the tendency is strong in modern times in this way to seek,a universal theology. In this direction look the methodological proposals of G. Krüger (Was heisst and zu welchem Ende studiert man DogmengeschichteP, Freiburg, 1895; Das Dogma vom neuen Testament, Giessen, 1896) and W. Wrede (Ueber Aufgabe and Methode der sogenannten neutestamentlichen Theologie, Göttingen, 1897); the former would do away with the distinction between canonical Scripture and the early patristic writings, and the latter would put the theology of the New Testament into a philosophy of religion. Another advocate of this method is C. A. Bernouilli (Die urissenschaftliche und die kirchliche Methode in der Theologie, Tübingen, 1897), who takes the position that the true theology is something apart from the Church and that "religion is history." This school calls its method the "purely historical." Yet can that be "purely historical" which disre gards the historical fact of him who is cometo save the lost? which attempts a vivisection between Church and theology which is possible only in the ory? The latest development analyzes the situation into a necessity for investigation of three points: the conception of the Church, of science, and the view of the world which Christianity would set forth. The Roman Catholic conception of the Church as a sanatorium excludes the action of science, the Lutheran conception of it as a community of faith requires that .action for its own good. The con ception of the world as set forth by the physicist is different from that reached by the theologian and is reached by different methods. The decision upon the worth of the Scriptures of the New Testament as compared with early patristic writings in the construction of a history of dogma is helped by the consideration that the former are the classi cal expression fromtheearliest generations of Chris tians of the faith which had been transmitted to


them, while in the history of dogma Biblical science can not maintain itself as a separate entity over against church history and as a dogmatic fact. The history of Christianity involves the connection of the external and the internal, the latter the facts of Church life.

In countries other than Germany the development of the encyclopedia of theology rune nearly parallel with the German. In Holland the two conflicting tendencies are the Reformed and the historical schools, with a "mediating theology" between. Representative of these are for the Reformed A. Kuyper (Encyklopedie der heilige godgeleerdheid, 3 vols., Amsterdam, 1894); for the historical school J. T. Doedea (EncykloPedie der

christelijke theologie, Utrecht, 1876); 8. Develop- and for the mediating school J. Cla-

ment rinse (Encyelopmdice theologicce epitome, outside Leyden, 1832) and H. de Grout and Germany. L. G. Pareau (Encyclopædia theologi,. Christiani, 3d ed., Utrecht, 1851). In England the historical school is represented by the Unitarian J. Drummond (Introduction to the Study of Theology, London, 1884), the Evangelical by A. Cave (An Introduction to Theology, its Principles, its Branches, its Results, and its Literature , 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1896). In America the mediating school is represented by P. Schaff (Theological Prop4Tdeutic, a general Introduction to the .Shiny of Theology . . . , New York, 1893), whose results are not unlike those of Hagenbach. France is represented by H. G. Kienlen (Encyclop6die . . . de la theologie chrétienne, Strasburg, 1845) and E. Martin (Introduction d l'etude de is theologie protestante, Geneva, 1883). Schleiermacher has found a follower in Sweden in Reuterdahl, whose work was published 1837. Hagenbach's work was reproduced in Hungary by Imre Rwdsz (1857) and practically reproduced in America by G. K. Crooks and J. F. Hurst (New York, 2d ed., 1894).

The Roman Catholic Church, while not unmoved by the movements of Humanism and the Reformation, was yet not driven from the methods of scholasticism, and its development of theological encyclopedia was in the direction of polemic and apologetics (N. J. Laforet's Diasertatio historicodogmatica de methbdo theolog£ce sive de authorilate ecclesice catholic(e tanquam reg2tla ftdei christiante, Louvain, 1849). The key-note was struck by Melchior Cano (De locis theologicis, Louvain, 1564),

taking the Scriptures and tradition g. In the as the starting-point. The Jesuit

Roman Posaevinus (Bibliotheea selects de Catholic rations studiorum, Rome, 1593) fol- Church. lowed a revived scholasticism. Much

material was furnished by the work of the Benedictines in patristics, and J. Mabillon produced an encyclopedic work in his De stttdiis monasticis (Venice, 1705). E. Du Pin's Methode pour etttdier la theologie (Paris, 1716, 1768, often translated) exhibited something of the breadth of Gallicanism, though the influence of the Jesuits did much to restrain this tendency. The work of P. Annato (Apparatus ad Positivam theologiam methodicus, 2 vols., Paris, 1700, 7th ed., 1744), exhibiting a tendency toward agreement with

Protestantism, was put on the Index. Under the stimulus of Protestant work after the middle of the eighteenth century a host of books by Roman Catholics appeared in Germany, and at the beginning of the nineteenth century, under the influence of the philosophy of Schelling, Baader, and Gunther there were contributions by J. S. Drey (1819), H. Klee (1832), F. A. Staudenmaier (1834, 1840), A. Gengler (1834), A. Buchner (1837), and A. von Sieger (1839). Under the influence of the new dogma of infallibility J. B. Wirthmuller produced his Encyklolvdidie der katholischert Theologie . (Landshut, 1873), and the scientific method was employed by H. Kihn (Freiburg, 1892). The former distinguishes between an Ideal- and a Real-Encyklopltdie, the latter includes under "formal" theology the " ideal" and the "instrumental," and under "material ". theology the departments of historical, doctrinal and ethical, and practical theology.

(G. Heinrici.)

Bibliography: Zyro, Verauch einer Revision der christdich theologischen Enebeklopsdie, in TSK, 1837, pp 880-881; W. Grimm, in ZWT, 1882, pp. 1-28; M. Köhler, Wissenacha ft der christdichen Lehre, pp. 1-42, Leipsic, 1893. All the later and best works mentioned is the text, such as Cave, Schaff, Kuyper, and I3agenbach, discuss the subject. An excellent handbook to Roman Catholic literature is D. GIs, Repertorium der katholisch-theologischen Litteratur, Paderborn, 1895. Consult also: A. Dorner, Gnandriaa der EncycTopSaiie der Theologie, Berlin, 1901; L. Emery, Introduction h L'e~tudede la thEologie protestante, pp. 1-55, Paris, 1904; E. D. Davies, Theological Encyclopedia, London, 1905.


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