5. Pietism and Rationalism Influential

Zogici. Study of the Bible is the and Ration- foundation of all theology, interpre- alism In- tation is the mistress who orders all fluential. the parts and affords the basis; dog matics and ethics are to come from Scripture. Historical development was lost to sight, church history simply furnished a bounding line. The orthodox cultivation of homiletics seemed to Spener the greatest hindrance to theo logical study, while catechetics is especially im portant. A. H. Franks took up Spener's thesis in Idea studiosi theologici (Halle, 1718) and Methodus studii theologici. (1723), as did J. J. Breithaupt in Ezercitationes de studio theologico (1702), J. Large in Institutianes atudii theologici (1723), and J. J. Rambach in Studiosus theologise (Frankfort, 1723). Related spirits were Franz Buddeus (Isagoge historico-theologica, Leipsic, 1727) and C. M. Pfaff (Introductio in historiam theologize litterariam, 3 vols., Tübingen, 1723), who reinstated the division into exegetical, historical, dogmatic, and practical theology. To the filling in of these outlines L. Mosheim contributed in his Kurze Anweisung, die Gottesgelehrtheit verniinftig zu erkennen (ed. Wind heim, Helmstadt, 1756-63). Through the preva lence of the Wolffian philosophy rationalism had its influence, and the works of J. S. Semler rapidly succeeded each other (1757-80). J. A. N&eselt united a view of the materials and the literature of theology in his Anweisung zur Kenntnisa der besseren Bücher in der Theologie (Leipsic, 1800).


Similar lines were followed in the text-books of G. S. Franke (Theologische EncykloPadie, vol. i., Altona, 1819), K. F. Staudlin (Encyklopkdie and Methodologie, Hanover, 1821), and J. T. L. Danz (Encyklopädie and Methodologie, Weimar, 1832).

A new start was made with Schleiermacher, who in opposition to rationalism in religion wished to recover for religion its own province in a philosophic consideration of the self-consciousness of Christians. It was he who first discerned the essence of theology as subject to scientific treatment and gave to the science organic form. In this respect his Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Stadiums (Berlin, 1811, enlarged, 1830) made an epoch. He showed that theology had developed out of the needs of the Church and by those needs was to be oriented. He produced a clear demarcation between philosophy and the history of religion, but he divided the science into the parts, philosophical, historical, and practical. The first governed apologetical and polemic theology;


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