Egypt fell under the dominion of the Turks in 1517, but retained its independence in- great measure. It is now formally dependent on the Sultan, although it has its own prince, who is called Khedive. The present Khedive is Abbas II., crowned 1892. Since 1882 England has exercised actual control, which was secured until further notice by an agreement with France in 1904. The area of the country, which is now officially bounded on the south by Wadi Halfa, amounts, according to Hübner and Jursechek, to 994,275 square kilometers (somewhat less than 400,000 square miles) or a little over three times the area of Great Britain, but only one- s. Statie_ thirtieth is fertile and inhabited. The rice, den- census of 1897, according to the same eras and authorities, showed a population of
Religions, 9,821,045, a number slightly in excess of that given by the Almanac de Goths, which includes about 113,000 foreigners, consisting mainly of Greeks, English, French, Aus- trians, and Hungarians. The majority of the English and Germane belong to the Protestant Church. Hübner and Juraschek give the number of Protestants as 11,894, while the Almanac de Goths. raises the number, probably with greater correctness, to 24,409. The number of Roman Catholics, according to the former, is 58,343; according to the latter, 81,051. By far the greater number of natives are Mohammedans. The majority of native Christians belong to the Coptic Church (q.v.), which, according to Hilbner and Jurasehek, numbers 608,448 members. There are also 53,479 " orthodox Greeks "; but no distinction is made between the members of the Orthodox Church proper, over which the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople presides, and those Christians whom that Church regards as heretical sad schismatic. The latter are represented by many denominations, especially the Armenian and Syrian Jacobites.
The Orthodox Church is under the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Alexandria. Egypt was for centuries the moat splendid seat of the Oriental Church, but has declined more and more since the invasion of the Arabs. The most famous patriarch of modern times was Cyril Lucar (q.v.), who lived for the most part at Constantinople, where he became ecumenical patriarch in 1620. In 1846
1900 with the title of "moat blessed and all-holy pope (Gk. papas) and patriarch of the great city of Alexandria and all Egypt, of Pentapolis and Pelusium, of Libya and Ethiopia." Under him are four titular metropolitans. Formerly the patriarchate had large estates in Rumania, but they were sequestrated some decades ago. It must not 5e supposed, however, that all the Orthodox who live in Egypt belong to the Church of Alexandria, but only those who settled there long ago, whose number is not over 10,000. Although the immigrant Greeks and Russians take part in the. service held by the clergy of the patriarch, they have no rights concerning it. The most important privilege vested in the subjects of the patriarchate is his election, in which the laity take a prominent part. The congregations in Cairo and Alexandria are rich, and supply the patriarch with large means. The first patriarch to return to reside in the country founded schools and hospitals with ecclesiastical funds. The patriarch is aided in the government of the Church by a permanent synod, consisting of the four metropolitans, and a council, or committee, for secular and financial affairs. Some important monasteries belong to the patriarchate, especially the large cloister of St. George in Cairo; the monastery of Sinai is ecclesiastically independent.
The Roman Catholic Church has an influential mission in the country, and since the time of the crusades has nominally a patriarch there, although he actually resides at Rome, where he has the church S. Paolo fuori le Mure. The Uniates have a dis. tinct organization. The Anglican Church is largely represented in the principal cities, and Preabyteri;:n
Bibliography: Articles which cover the whole topic ex cept Modern Egypt are DB, i. 65367; EB, ii. 1203-1247. On the archeology consult: A. Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, New York, 1894 (supersedes all earlier works); the various Reports and other publications of the two societies treated below, which give results of their operations; the publications of the Mission arehdo logique française an Caire, Paris, 1885 sqq. (a magnificent series of volumes dealing with various topics); G. Perrot andC. Chipiez, Hist. of Art in Ancient Egypt, 2 vols., London, 1883; W. M. F. Petrie, Historical Scarabs, London, 1889; idem, Ten Years' Digging in Egypt, New York, 1892; idem, Egyptian Decorative Art, ib. 1895; G. Maspero, Life in Ancient Egypt, ib. 1891; E. A. W. Budge, The Mummy: Chapters on Egyptian Funeral A rchharology, Cambridge, 1893; W. Max Moller, Amen and Europa reach allagyptischen Denkmtilern, Leipsic, 1893; M. Benson and J. Gourlay, The Temple of Mut in Asher illustrating the Hist. of Egypt and the Main Relig ious Ideas of the Egyptians, London, 1899; J. de Morgan, Recherches our les ariyinea de Ligypte; l'dge de la pierce et lee metauz, Paris, 1895-96; H. Wallis, Egyptian Pot tery, London, 1598; M. Brodrick and A. A. Morton, Con cise Dictionary of Egyptian A rchasoIoyy, ib. 1901; J. Ca part, Les Debuts de fart en tgypte, Brussels. 1904, Eng. trans[., Primitive Art in Egypt, Philadelphia, 1905; F. W. von Bessing, Monuments of Egyptian Sculpture, New York, 1906 (typical examples of art arranged chrono logically): T. M. Davis, E. Neville, H. Carter, Theodore M. Davis' Excavations, New York, 1908; A. H. Gardiner, Inscription of Mea: Study of Egyptian Judicial Procedure, ib. 1906; G. Maspero, Manual of Egyptian A rcheaology, ib. 1906; P. E. Newberry, Scarabs: Introduction to the Study of Egyptian Seals and Signet Rings, London, 1908; H. Schneider, Kultur and Denken der alter Aeyypter, Leip sic, 1907; E. A. W. Budge, The Egyptian Sudan, its History and Monuments, 2 vols., London, 1907. On the history it is to be remarked that the earlier works are superseded and should be used only with the greatest care. Consult J. H. Breasted. A Hist. of Egypt, New York, 1905 (in connection with this may be employed Breasted'sAncient Records of Egypt, including the Historical
Documents, 5 vols., Chicago, 1905-06); idem, History of the Ancient Egyptians, New York, 1908 (s brief and handy manual); A. Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte, Gotha, 1884; E. Meyer, Geschichte des Allertums, vol. i., Stuttgart, 1884; idem, Geschichte des aZten Aepyptens, Berlin, 1887; W. M. F. Petrie, A Hist. of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the Thirtieth Dynasty. 6 vols., New York, 1894-1905: A. H. Sayce, The Egypt of the Hebrews and of Herodotu.e, ib. 1895; F. G. Flesy, Egyptian Chronology, ib. 1899; G. Maepero, History of the Ancient Peoples of the Classic East, 3 vols., ib. 1897-1900; E. A. W. Budge, A Hist. of Egypt, 8 vols., ib. 1902. On the Greek period, besides the appropriate sections in works mentioned above, consult: J. P. Mahaffy, The Empire of the Ptolemies, London, 1895; M. C. 3traek, Die D ynaatie der PtolemSer, Berlin, 1897. For the Roman period, J. G. Mine, History of Egypt under Roman Rule, London, 1899. On the externs! relations of Egypt, consult W. M. Moller, cat sup., and the literature under AMearre TearrTa.
On the religion: A. Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, New York, 1897 (the best single work); G. Steindorff, The Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, ib. 1906 (covers the subject, but largely on the basis of Herodotus); M. Brimmer, Egypt: Three Essays on the Religion, His&, and Art, Boston, 1891; G. Maspero, Atudea de mythologic et d'archeologie, 4 vols., Paris, 1893-1900; G. St. Clair, Creation Records in Egypt. Studies in the Book of the Dead, London, 1898; W. M. F. Petrie, Religion and Conscience in Ancient Egypt, ib. 1898; E. A. W. Budge, Egyptian Ideas of a Future Life, Oxford, 1899; idem, Egyptian Magic, ib. 1899; idem, The Gods of the Egyptians, 3 vols., London, 1905 (sumptuous and meaty); idem, Egyptian Heaven and Hell, ib. 1906; A. H. Sayee, Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia, New York, 1903; A. Erman, Die dtyyptische Religion, Berlin, 1905, Eng. transl.. Handbook of Egyptian Religion, London . 1907; E. Neville, La Religion des a nciena 9gyptiena, Paris, 1906; DB, Extra volume, pp. 176-197
On the literature: For the Book of the Dead, the recession of the British Museum copy was reproduced in color by Griggs, London, 1859; that of the Turin Papyrus was edited by R. Lepaius, Leipsic, 1842; The Book of the Dead was translated in part by Le P. Renouf for the Society of Biblical Archaeology, parts i.-iv., London, 1893-95, completed by h. Neville, 1907; it has been translated into English by C. H. S. Davis, New York, 1894, and by E. A. W. Budge, 3 vols., London, 1898 (text, vocabulary, sad translation). An excellent Fr. transl. is by P. Pierret, Paris, 1882. Collections are: K. Piehl, Inscriptions hieroglyphiques, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1886-1903; Corpus papyrorum Rgypti, ed. R. Revillout and A. Eisenlohr, Paris, 1894 sqq.; Urkunden des a eyyptischen Altertuma, ed. G. Steindorff, Leipsic, 1903 sqq. Egyptian Tales from the Papyri, 2 series, ed. and transl. by W. M. F. Petrie, New York, 1894-95 is of great interest psychologically and from the point of view of folklore. Consult also: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumakunde A eyyptena, ed. K. 3ethe, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1896 sqq.; R. Lepsius, Denkmttler a ua Aepypten and Aethio pien, Leipsic, 1897 sqq. (4 vols. issued): G. Ebers. Papy rus Ebera, 2 vols., ib. 1875: I. Myer, The Oldest Books in the World, London, 1900; A. Erman, Aegyptische Chrea tomaUtie, New York, 1895.
On exploration and excavation consult: G. Steindorff, in H. V. Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible Lands, Phila delphia, 1903; W. M. F. Petrie, Ten Years' Digging in Egypt, London, 1892; the Annual Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund, 1890 sqq., furnish socounts not only of the work of that association but of the discoveries made by other investigators; Bibl%ofheque egyptologique, Paris, 1893 sqq., contains many memoirs of s historical nature concerning exploration and excavation.
On Modern Egypt: De Chabroe, Easai. scar les mmurs des habitants m odernea de l'ggypte, in Description de ligypte, ii. 2. pp. 381-526, Paris, 1822; J. Silbernagl, Verfasaung cared yeyenwdrtiger Bestand attmmtlicher Kirchen des Orients, Landahut, 1907; H. Stephen, Das heutige Aegypten, Leipsic, 1872; M. L�ttke, Aeyyptena neue Zeit, Leipsic, 1873 (the most comprehensive book for ecclesiastical matters); O. Schneider, Beiträge zur Kenatniaa der priechisch-orthodoxen Kirche Aepyptens, Dresden, 1874 (important); O. Werner, thbia terrarum catholicus, pp. 195 sqq. Freiburg, 1890; F. Kattenbusch, Lehrbuch der veryteichenden Confeaaionekunde, i. 170 sqq. Freiburg,
Calvin College. Last modified on 08/11/06. Contact the CCEL.