5. General Results
deficiencies sufficiently indicated by the differences in the chronology as determined by different students shown in the chronological table given above. Yet the dynasties are few of which definite knowledge is not at hand, while the gaps are ever being filled in. The general course of civilization and of development of science, art, and letters in the Nile land is determined even into the prehistoric period, and the investigations have fixed within narrow limits the period of alien civilizations such as the Greek


Mycena'an and Cretan. With this goes considerable light upon the movements and control of Mediterranean commerce and intercourse prior to 1000 B.c. New light is continually directed upon the two riddles of the Egyptian sphinx-the ethnology and language of the valley and delta. The increase in the number of monuments and cultic and social implements on the one hand and of inscriptions and literary remains on the other promise ultimate solution of these two problems. Single questions of importance settled definitely are: the relations of Egypt to Palestine in the fifteenth century s.o. (see Amarna Tablets); the situation of the Goshen of the Israelites through the location of Pithom (1883) and poeaiblyRameeea (1906) alongthe Tannic branch of the Nile; the relations of Egypt to Greece in the use of Greek mercenaries from the seventh to the fourth century B.C. by the excavations of the sites of Naukratis and Daphnes (Tahpanhea); the character of the cult of Hathor (1908) through finding an untouched temple of the goddess with a cow sculptured in sandstone as the cultic object--the first discovery of a shrine with its deity and paraphernalia of worship intact; and the recovery of the site of the Onus temple (1906). Among the unexpected results is the recovery of early fragments of classical, Jewish, and Christian literature, including the famous Logic Jesu (see Agrapha), early bite of the Greek Old and New Testaments, new fragments of Sappho, and Menander, the Epitome of Livy covering several lost books; while of Baruch, Hermae, Pindar, Julius Africanus, Euripides, tEechinea, the Iliad and the Odyssey, Plato, Demosthenes, and others, texts, fragmentary to be sure, earlier than any before known have been unearthed. Added to these are a mesa of oatraca, accounts, letters, official documents, and other materials of the post-Alexandrine period which has already required a recasting of the history of the Greek language. With th0 last phase of work and of epoch-making finds the names of Bernard P. Grenfell, Arthur S. Hunt, David G. Hogarth and the versatile W. M. Flinders Petrie are indissolubly connected. See Egypt Exploration Fund .

Geo. W. Gilmore.

II. Modern Egypt:


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