EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND: A society founded in 1882 by Miss Amelia B. Edwards, Sir Erasmus Wilson, and others to carry on systematic and scientific research of ancient Egypt. The success of the undertaking was assured when the promoters obtained tho services of the well-known Swiss Egyptologist, Adouard Naville, and the distinguished explorer, W. H. Flinders Petrie (since 1892 Edwards professor of Egyptology, University College, London). The results achieved may be classed under three heads ~ (1) Biblical, that is throwing light on the Old Testament narrative; (2) classical, showing the connection between Greece and Egypt at a very early period; (3) purely Egyptian, illustrating the history, religion, arts, and literature of ancient Egypt. During the season of 1882-83 M. Navitle excavated the site of PithomSuccoth and determined the starting-point of the Exodus; the city was built in the reign of Ramesea the Great, the oppressor of the Hebrews. In 188384 Prof. Petrie excavated Zoan (cf. Num. xiii. 22), but did not reach the Biblical city, as many centuries of later builders had buried it so deep that the cost and labor of reaching it was prohibitive. In the following season Prof. Petrie excavated at Tell Defenneh (the Biblical Tahpanhes), "The Palace of the Jew's Daughter," and found traces of the pavement before the entry of Pharaoh's house

(cf. Jer. xliii. 8-10). In 1885 M. Naville identified the location of the Land of Goshen at Saft el-Henneh

(cf. Ex. viii. 22). The three chief classical sites are those of Naucratis, Tanis, and Tel( Defenneh

(Gk. Daphnui). Naucratis was the city in which Psammetichua II. allowed his Greek mercenaries to settle. At Tanis remains of many Roman houses were found; that of a lawyer named Bak-akhiu of c. 174 was especially rich in papyri and objects of the Greco-Roman period. At Tell Defenneh traces of the camp of the Greek mercenaries were found. Other sites excavated have been: the city of Onias and Tell el-Yehudiyeh (" Mound of the Jew "); the great temple of Bubastis; where monuments of the Hykaos, the shepherd kings who ruled in the time of Joseph (see Egypt), were found; Ahnas el-Dledineh, Deir el-Bahari, the great temple of Queen Hatshepsu, and the eleventhdynasty temple of Mentuhetep adjoining; Deshasheh, Dendereh, and Abydos.

There are two auxiliary branches of the Fund, (1) the Archeological Survey, which copies wall sculptures and the like which have been uncovered and thus are liable to injury; and (2) the GrecoRoman Branch, established to search for papyri.

The Archeological Survey has done excellent work at Beni Haaan, el-Bersheh, Saqqareh, Sheikh Said, Deir el-Gebrawi, and el-Amarna. To the excavators of the Greco-Roman Branch, Drs. Grenfell and Hunt, are due the recovery of the "sayings of Jesus" (see Agrapha), many portions of the Gospels, as well as invaluable Greek papyri. The principal site worked by the Greco-Roman Branch has teen Oxyrhynchus.

Emily Paterson.

Bibliography: The following is a list of the publications

of the Fund: I. The Memoirs: 1, for 1883-84, by E. Neville, The Store City of Pithom and the Routs of as Exodus, 2, for 1884-85, by W. M. F. Petrie, Tanis, part

i.; 3, for 188588, by W. M. F. Petrie, Naukrad%a, part i.; 4, for 188887, by E. Neville, Goshen and the Shrine of Saft-d-Henneh; 5, for 1887--88, by W. M. F. Petrie, F. Ll. Griffith and A. S. Murray, Tanis, part ii., Tell Da fenneh, and Tall Nebeaheh: 6, for 1888-89, by E. A. Gardiner and F. Ll. Griffith, Naukratie, part ii.; 7, extra

volume, by E. Neville and F. L1. Griffith, The City of Oniaa and the Mound of the Jew; 8, for 1889-90, by E.

Neville, Bubaetia; 9, extra volume, by F. Ll. Griffith and W. M. F. Petrie, Two Hieroglyphic Papyri from Tanis; 10, for 1890-91, by E. Neville, The Festival Hall of Oeorkon II. (Bukaetia); 11, for 1891-92, by E. Neville, J. J. Tylor and F. Lt. Griffith, Ahnaa eNMedineh, and The Tomb of Paheri at el-Kab; 12-14, 16, 19 and 27, for 1892-95, 189897, 1899-1900 and 1904--05, by E. Neville, Deir el-Bahari, Introductory and parts i.-v.; 15, for 1895-96, by W. M. F. Petrie, Deahaaheh ; 17, for 1897-98, by W. M. F. Petrie, Dendereh; 18, for 1898-99, by W. M. F. Petrie, Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty; 20, extra volume, by W. M. F. Petrie, Dioapolia Parva; 21, for 1900-01, by W. M. F. Petrie, The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties, part ii.; 22 and 24, for 1901-03 by W. M. F. Petrie, Abydoa, parts i.-ii.; 23, extra volume, by D. Randall-MacIver, A. C. Mace and F. Ll. Griffith, El-Amrah and Abydoa; 25, extra volume, by C. T. Cur relly, E. R/Ayrton and A. E. P. Weigall, Abydos, part iii.; 26, for 1903-04, by W. M. F. Petrie, Ehnasya; 28, for 1905-06, by E. Naville and H. R,. Hall, The Eleventh Dynasty Temple at Deir el Bahari.

II. The Archeological Survey: 1-2, for 1890-92, by P. E. Newberry and G W Fraser. Beni Haean, parts i. ii.; 3, for 1892-93, by P. E. Newberry, El-Beraluh, part i.; 4, for 1893-94, by F. LI. Griffith and P. E. Newberry. El-Beraheh, part ii.; 5 and 7, for 1894-95 and 1898-97, by F. LI. Griffith, Beni Haean, parts iii.-iv.; 6, for 1895-96, by F. Ll. Griffith, Hieroglyphs from the Collections of the Egypt Exploration Fund; 8-9, for 189799, by N. de G. Davies and F. Ll. Griffith, The Maatabah of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqareh, parts i. ii.; 10, for 1899-191)0, by N. de G. Davies, The Rock Tombs of Sheikh Said, 11-12, for 1900-02 by N, de G. Davies, The Rack Tombs of Deir e1-Gebrawi, parts i.-ii.; 13-15, for 1902-05, The Rock Tombs of el-Amarna, parts i.-iii.

III. Grew-Roman Branch: 1, 2. 5, 6, b, for 189799, 1902-04, 1908-07, by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, The Ozyrhynchua Papyri, parts i.-v.; 3, for 1899-1900, by D. G. Hogarth. B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, Fayum Towns and their Papyri; 4, 1901-02, by B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt and J. G. Smyly, The Tebtunia Papyri; 7, for 1904-06, The Hibeh Papyri.

IV. Annual Archeological Reports on the seasons' work, running from 1890-91 to date.

V. Special Publications: B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, A01`IA IHTOY ; " Sayings of Our Lord,, and

New Sayings of Jesus and Fragment of a Loaf Gospel; Atlas of Ancient Egypt; Guide to Temple of Deir at_Bahari; W. E. Cruet, Coptic oakum.


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