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Pr 28:1-28.

1. A bad conscience makes men timid; the righteous are alone truly bold (Pr 14:26; Ps 27:1).

2. Anarchy producing contending rulers shortens the reign of each.

but by a man … prolonged—or, "by a man of understanding—that is, a good ruler—he who knows or regards the right, that is, a good citizen, shall prolong (his days)." Good rulers are a blessing to the people. Bad government as a punishment for evil is contrasted with good as blessing to the good.

3. A poor man, &c.—Such, in power, exact more severely, and so leave subjects bare.

4. They that forsake … wicked—Wrongdoers encourage one another.

5. (Compare Joh 7:17). Ignorance of moral truth is due to unwillingness to know it.

6. (Compare Pr 10:6). Riches cannot compensate for sin, nor the want of them affect integrity.

7. (Compare Pr 17:25).

riotous men—or, "gluttons" (Pr 23:20, 21).

8. usury … unjust gain—(Compare Margin). The two terms, meaning nearly the same, may denote excessive interest. God's providence directs the proper use of wealth.

9. (Compare Pr 15:8; 21:27).

hearing—that is, obeying. God requires sincere worshippers (Ps 66:18; Joh 4:24).

10. (Compare Pr 26:27).

11. A poor but wise man can discover (and expose) the rich and self-conceited.

12. great glory—or, cause for it to a people, for the righteous rejoice in good, and righteousness exalts a nation (Pr 14:34).

a man … hidden—that is, the good retire, or all kinds try to escape a wicked rule.

13. (Compare Ps 32:3-5). Concealment of sin delivers none from God's wrath, but He shows mercy to the humble penitent (Ps 51:4).

14. feareth—that is, God, and so repents.

hardeneth his heart—makes himself insensible to sin, and so will not repent (Pr 14:16; 29:1).

15. The rapacity and cruelty of such beasts well represent some wicked men (compare Ps 7:2; 17:12).

16. The prince … understanding—that is, He does not perceive that oppression jeopards his success. Covetousness often produces oppression, hence the contrast.

17. doeth violence … blood, &c.—or, that is oppressed by the blood of life (Ge 9:6), which he has taken.

to the pit—the grave or destruction (Pr 1:12; Job 33:18-24; Ps 143:7).

stay him—sustain or deliver him.

18. (Compare Pr 10:9; 17:20). Double dealing is eventually fatal.

19. (Compare Pr 10:4; 20:4).

vain persons—idle, useless drones, implying that they are also wicked (Pr 12:11; Ps 26:4).

20. maketh haste … rich—implying deceit or fraud (Pr 20:21), and so opposed to "faithful" or reliable.

21. respect of persons—(Pr 24:23). Such are led to evil by the slightest motive.

22. (Compare Pr 28:20).

evil eye—in the general sense of Pr 23:6, here more specific for covetousness (compare Pr 22:9; Mt 20:15).

poverty … him—by God's providence.

23. (Compare Pr 9:8, 9; 27:5). Those benefited by reproof will love their monitors.

24. (Compare Mt 15:4-6). Such, though heirs, are virtually thieves, to be ranked with highwaymen.

25. of a proud heart—literally, "puffed up of soul"—that is, self-confident, and hence overbearing and litigious.

made fat—or, "prosperous" (Pr 11:25; 16:20).

26. (Compare Pr 3:6-8).

walketh wisely—that is, trusting in God (Pr 22:17-19).

27. (Compare Pr 11:24-26).

hideth his eyes—as the face (Ps 27:9; 69:17), denotes inattention.

28. The elevation of the wicked to power drives men to seek refuge from tyranny (compare Pr 28:12; 11:10; Ps 12:8).

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