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Ps 4:1-8. On Neginoth, that is, stringed instruments, as the kind of musical accompaniment. On other parts of title, see Introduction., The historical occasion was probably the same as that of the foregoing [see on Ps 3:1]. The writer, praying for further relief, admonishes his enemies of the vanity of attacking God's servant, exhorts them to repentance, and avows his confidence and peace in God's favor.

1. Hear—as in Ps 3:4.

God of my righteousness—or, "my righteous God, as my holy hill" (Ps 2:6), who will act towards me on righteous principles.

thou hast enlarged—expresses relief afforded in opposition to "distress," which is expressed by a word denoting straits or pressure. Past favor is a ground of hope for the future.

2. sons of men—men of note or prominence (compare 2Ch 21:9).

turn my glory—or, "royal dignity."

into shame—or, "reproach."

vanity—a foolish and hopeless enterprise (Ps 2:1).

leasing—a lie.

3. godly—an object as well as subject of divine favor (compare Ps 105:14, 15).

4. Stand in awe—(Eph 4:26), from Septuagint, "be angry." Both clauses are qualified by "not."

5. Not only repent, but manifest penitence by sacrifices or righteousness or righteous sacrifices, &c.

6, 7. Contrast true with vain confidence.

light of thy countenance upon us—figure for favor (Nu 6:26; Ps 44:3; 81:16).

7. corn and wine—literally, "new corn and wine."

increased—an abundant harvest giving great joy (Isa 9:3).

8. both lay me down, &c.—or, will lie down at once, and sleep in sure confidence and quiet repose (Ps 3:5).

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