H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar (First Edition)

Part 2, 325-340


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PRONOUNS


325. The Personal Pronouns. The pronouns of the first, second, and third person are declined as follows:

singular

Nom.

ἐγώ I σύ thou he, she, it (325 d)

Gen.

ἐμοῦ; μου enclitic σοῦ; σου enclitic οὗ; οὑ enclitic

Dat.

ἐμοί; μοι enclitic σοί; σοι enclitic οἷ; οἱ enclitic

Acc.

ἐμέ; με enclitic σέ; σε enclitic ἕ; ἑ enclitic

dual

N. A.

νώ we two σφώ you two

G. D.

νῷν σφῷν

plural

Nom.

ἡμεῖς we ὑ̄μεῖς you σφεῖς they

Gen.

ἡμῶν ὑ̄μῶν σφῶν

Dat.

ἡμῖν ὑ̄μῖν σφίσι(ν)

Acc.

ἡμᾶς ὑ̄μᾶς σφᾶς

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a. The enclitic forms μου, μοι, με; σου, σοι, σε are used when the pronoun is unemphatic, the longer forms ἐμοῦ, ἐμοί, ἐμέ and the accented σοῦ, σοί, σέ are 


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used when the pronoun is emphatic. Thus, δός μοι τὸ βιβλίον give me the book, οὺκ ἐμοί, ἀλλὰ σοὶ ἐπιβουλεύουσι they are plotting not against me, but against you. See 187 a. On the use after prepositions see 187 N. 2.

b. For ἐγώ, ἐμοί, σύ the emphatic ἔγωγε, ἔμοιγε (186 a), σύγε occur. Also ἐμοῦγε, ἐμέγε.

c. The use of the plural you for thou is unknown in Ancient Greek; hence ̄μεῖς is used only in addressing more than one person.

d. Of the forms of the third personal pronoun only the datives οἷ and σφίσι(ν) are commonly used in Attic prose, and then only as indirect reflexives (1228). To express the personal pronouns of the third person we find usually: ἐκεῖνος, οὗτος, etc., in the nominative (1194), and the oblique forms of αὐτός in all other cases.

e. For the accus. οὗ the tragic poets use νιν (encl.) and σφε (encl.) for masc. and fem., both sing. and pl. (= eum, eam; eos, eas). Doric so uses νιν.  σφίν is rarely singular (ei) in tragedy.

f. ἡμῶν, ἡμῖν, ἡμᾶς, ὑ̄μῶν, ὑ̄μῖν, ὑ̄μᾶς, when unemphatic, are sometimes accented in poetry on the penult, and -ῑν and -ᾱς are usually shortened.  Thus, ἥμων, ἧμιν, ἧμας, ὕ̄μων, ὗμιν, ὗμας. -ῑν and -ᾱς are sometimes shortened even if the pronouns are emphatic, and we have ἡμίν, ἡμάς, ὑ̄μίν, ὑ̄μάς. σφάς occurs for σφᾶς.

326. Stems. I. (ἐ) με- (cp. Lat. me), νω- (cp. Lat. νο̄-ς), (ἐ)μο-, ἡμε-. ἐμοῦ is from ἐμέο; ἡμεῖς from ἀμμε-ες (37) with the rough breathing in imitation of ̄μεῖς; ἡμῶν from ἡμέων, ἡμᾶς from ἡμέας with not η by 56ἐγώ is not connected with these stems.  II. συ- and σε- from τϜε; το-; σφω-; ὑ̄με- from ὑμμε- (37).  III. for σϜε (cp. Lat. se), ἑέ for σεϜε, οἷ for σϜο-ι, and σφε-.  The form of the stems and formation of the cases is often obscure.

327. The Intensive Pronoun αὐτός. αὐτός self is declined thus:

singular

dual

plural

Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. neut.
Nom. αὐτός αὐτή αὐτό N. V. αὐτώ αὐτά̄ αὐτώ Nom. αὐτοί αὐταί αὐτά
Gen. αὐτοῦ αὐτῆς αὐτοῦ G. D. αὐτοῖν αὐταῖν αὐτοῖν Gen. αὐτῶν αὐτῶν αὐτῶν
Dat. αὐτῷ αὐτῇ αὐτῷ Dat. αὐτοῖς αὐταῖς αὐτοῖς
Acc. αὐτόν αὐτήν αὐτό Acc. αὐτούς αὐτά̄ς αὐτά

αὐτός is declined like ἀγαθός (287), but there is no vocative and the neuter nominative and accusative have no -ν.  But ταὐτόν the same is common (328 N.).

328. αὐτός is a definite adjective and a pronoun.  It has three meanings:

a. self: standing by itself in the nominative, αὐτὸς ὁ ἀνήρ or ὁ ἀνὴρ αὐτός the man himself, or (without the article) in agreement with a substantive or pronoun; as ἀνδρὸς αὐτοῦ of the man himself.


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b. him, her, it, them, etc.:  standing by itself in an oblique case (never in the nominative).  The oblique cases of αὐτός are generally used instead of οὗ, οἷ, ἕ, etc., as ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ his father, οἱ παῖδες αὐτῶν their children.

c. same:  when it is preceded by the article in any case:  ὁ αὐτὸς ἀνήρ the same man, τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἀνδρός of the same man.

N. The article and αὐτός may unite by crasis (68 a): αὑτός, αὑτή, ταὐτό or ταὐτόν; ταὐτοῦ, ταὐτῆς; ταὐτῷ, ταὐτῇ, etc.  Distinguish αὑτή the same f. from αὕτη this f.; ταὐτά the same n. from ταῦτα these things n.; ταὐτῇ from ταύτῃ.

329.  Reflexive Pronouns. The reflexive pronouns (referring back to the subject of the sentence) are formed by compounding the stems of the personal pronouns with the oblique cases of αὐτός.  In the plural both pronouns are declined separately, but the third person has also the compounded form. The nominative is excluded by the meaning. There is no dual.

myself

thyself

himself, herself, itself

Gen.

ἐμαυτοῦ, -ῆς

σεαυτοῦ, -ῆς (σαυτοῦ, -ῆς)

ἑαυτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ (αὑτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ)

Dat.

ἐμαυτῷ, -ῇ

σεαυτῷ, -ῇ (σαυτῷ, -ῇ)

ἑαυτῷ, -ῆ, -ῷ (αὑτῷ, -ῇ, -ῷ)

Acc.

ἐμαυτόν, -ήν

σεαυτόν, -ήν (σαυτόν, -ήν)

ἑαυτόν, -ήν, -ό (αὑτόν, -ήν, -ό)

ourselves

yourselves

themselves

Gen.

ἡμῶν αὐτῶν

̄μῶν αὐτῶν

ἑαυτῶν or σφῶν αὐτῶν

Dat.

ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς, -αῖς

̄μῖν αὐτοῖς, -αῖς

ἑαυτοῖς, -αῖς, -οῖς or σφίσιν
αὐτοῖς, -αῖς

Acc.

ἡμᾶς αὐτούς, -ά̄ς

̄μᾶς αὐτούς, -ά̄ς

ἑαυτούς, -ά̄ς, -ά or σφᾶς αὐ-
τούς, -ά̄ς

a. For ἑαυτῶν, etc., we find αὑτῶν, αὑτοῖς, -αῖς, αὑτούς, -ά̄ς.   Distinguish αὑτοῦ of himself from αὐτοῦ (328).

330. Possessive Pronouns. Possessive pronouns, formed from the stems of the personal pronouns, are declined like ἀγαθός, ἄξιος (287).

ἐμός ἐμή ἐμόν my, my own; mine ἡμέτερος -ᾱ -ον our, our own; ours
σός σή σόν thy, thine own; thine ̄μέτερος -ᾱ -ον your, your own; yours
[ὅς ἥ ὅν his (her, its) own] σφέτερος -ᾱ -ον their own

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a. Distinguish the adjectival from the pronominal use: ὁ ἐμὸς φίλος or ὁ φίλος ὁ ἐμός my friend (adj.) from φίλος ἐμός a friend of mine (pron.). See 1196 a.

b. ὅς is not used in Attic prose.  For his, her, its, αὐτοῦ, -ῆς, -οῦ are used.

331. Reciprocal Pronoun. The reciprocal pronoun, meaning one another, each other, is made by doubling the stem of ἄλλος (ἀλλ-αλλο-).  It is used only in the oblique cases of the dual and plural.  (Cp. alii aliorum, alter alterius).

dual

plural

Gen.

ἀλλήλοιν

ἀλλήλαιν

ἀλλήλοιν

ἀλλήλων

ἀλλήλων

ἀλλήλων

Dat.

ἀλλήλοιν

ἀλλήλαιν

ἀλλήλοιν

ἀλλήλοις

ἀλλήλαις

ἀλλήλοις

Acc.

ἀλλήλω

ἀλλήλᾱ

ἀλλήλω

ἀλλήλους

ἀλλήλᾱς

ἄλληλα

332. The Definite Article. The definite article ὁ, ἡ, τό (stems ὁ-, ἁ̄-, το-) is thus declined:

singular

dual

plural

Nom. τό N. A. τώ τώ τώ Nom. οἱ αἱ τά
Gen. τοῦ τῆς τοῦ G. D. τοῖν τοῖν τοῖν Gen. τῶν τῶν τῶν
Dat. τῷ τῇ τῷ Dat. τοῖς ταῖς τοῖς
Acc. τόν τήν τό Acc. τούς τά̄ς τά

b. τά̄ (especially) and ταῖν, the feminine forms in the dual, are very rare in the authors, and are unknown on Attic prose inscriptions of the classical period.

333. Demonstrative Pronouns. The chief demonstrative pronouns are ὅδε this (here), οὗτος this, that, ἐκεῖνος that (there, yonder).

singular

Nom. ὅδε ἥδε τόδε οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο ἐκεῖνος ἐ̓κείνη ἐκεῖνο
Gen. τοῦδε τῆσδε τοῦδε τούτου ταύτης τούτου ἐκείνου ἐκείνης ἐκείνου
Dat. τῷδε τῇδε τῷδε τούτῳ ταύτῃ τούτῳ ἐκείνῳ ἐκείνῃ ἐκείνῳ
Acc. τόνδε τήνδε τόδε τοῦτον ταύτην τοῦτο ἐκεῖνον ἐκείνην ἐκεῖνο

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dual

N. A. τώδε τώδε τώδε τούτω τούτω τούτω ἐκείνω ἐκείνω ἐκείνω
G. D. τοῖνδε τοῖνδε τοῖνδε τούτοιν τούτοιν τούτοιν ἐκείνοιν ἐκείνοιν ἐκείνοιν

plural

Nom. οἵδε αἵδε τάδε οὗτοι αὗται ταῦτα ἐκεῖνοι ἐκεῖναι ἐκεῖνα
Gen. τῶνδε τῶνδε τῶνδε τούτων τούτων τούτων ἐκείνων ἐκείνων ἐκείνων
Dat. τοῖσδε ταῖσδε τοῖσδε τούτοις ταύταις τούτοις ἐκείνοις ἐκείναις ἐκείνοις
Acc. τούσδε τά̄σδε τάδε τούτους ταύτᾱς ταῦτα ἐκείνους ἐκείνᾱς ἐκεῖνα

a. ὅδε is formed from the old demonstrative ὁ, ἡ, τό this or that, with the indeclinable demonstrative (and enclitic) ending -δε here (cp. hī-c from hī-ce, Fr. ce-ci). For the accent of ἥδε, οἵδε, αἵδε see 186.

b. οὗτος has the rough breathing and τ in the same places as the article. ου corresponds to the ο, αυ to the α, of the article. For οὗτος as a vocative, see 1288 a(οὗτος is from ὁ + the particle *υ + the demonstrative suffix το ̈ ς).

c. ἐκεῖνος has a variant form κεῖνος in poetry, and sometimes in prose (Demosthenes). (ἐκεῖνος stands for ἐκε(ι)-ενος from ἐκεῖ there + suffix -ενος.)

d. Other demonstrative pronouns are

τοσόσδε τοσήδε τοσόνδε so much, so many }
a
pointing forward (to what follows).
τοιόσδε τοιά̄δε τοιόνδε such (in quality)
τηλικόσδε τηλικήδε τηλικόνδε so old, so great

These are formed from -δε and the (usually) poetic τόσος, τοῖος, τηλίκος with the same meanings.

e. Combinations of the above words and οὗτος are

τοσοῦτος τοσαύτη τοσοῦτο(ν) so much, so many

}a

pointing backward 
(to what precedes).
τοιοῦτος τοιαύτη τοιοῦτο(ν) such (in quality)
τηλικοῦτος τηλικαύτη τηλικοῦτο(ν) so old, so great

The forms in are more common than those in -ο.  Attic prose inscriptions have only -ον.

f. The dual rarely has separate feminine forms.

g. The deictic suffix -ῑ may be added to demonstratives for emphasis. Before it α, ε, ο are dropped. Thus, ὁδ this man here, ἡδί. τοδί. G. τουδί. τησδί. etc.; οὑτοσί. αὑτη̆ί. τουτί. οὑτοῐί. τουτωνί.  So with other demonstratives and with adverbs: τοσουτοσί. οὑτωσί. ὡδί.  For -ῑ we have, in comedy, -γῑ or (rarely) -δῑ formed from γ(ε), δ(ε) + ί.  Thus, αὑτηγί, τουτογί, τουτοδί.

334. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns. The interrogative pronoun τίς, τί who, which, what?  never changes its accent to the grave (154).  The indefinite pronoun τὶς, τὶ any one, some one, anything, something is enclitic (181 b).


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singular

Interrogative

Indefinite

Nom.

τίς

τί

τὶς

τὶ

Gen.

τίν-ος, τοῦ

τιν-ός, τοῦ

Dat.

τίν-ι, τῷ

τιν-ί, τῷ

Acc.

τίν-α

τί

τινά

τὶ

dual

N. A. V.

τίν-ε

τιν-έ

G. D.

τίν-οιν

τιν-οῖν

plural

Nom.

τίν-ες

τίν-α

τιν-ές

τιν-ά

Gen.

τίν-ων

τιν-ῶν

Dat.

τί-σι(ν)

τι-σί(ν)

Acc.

τίν-ας

τίν-α

τιν-άς

τιν-ά

a. ἄττα (not enclitic) is sometimes used for the indefinite τινά.  ἄττα is derived from such locutions as πολλάττα, properly πολλά ̈ ττα (for τι ̯α).

335. ἄλλος. The indefinite pronoun ἄλλος another (Lat. alius, cp. 110) is declined like αὐτός:  ἄλλος, ἄλλη, ἄλλο (never ἄλλον).

336. Δεῖνα. The indefinite pronoun δεῖνα, always used with the article, means such a one.  It is declined thus:  sing. ὁ, ἡ, τὸ δεῖνα; τοῦ, τῆς, τοῦ δεῖνος; τῷ, τῇ, τῷ δεῖνι; τὸν, τὴν, τὸ δεῖνα; plur. (masc.) οἱ δεῖνες, τῶν δείνων, τοὺς δεῖνας.  Example:  ὁ δεῖνα τοῦ δεῖνος τὸν δεῖνα εἰσήγγειλεν such a one son of such a one impeached such a one [D.] 13. 5.  δεῖνα is rarely indeclinable.  Its use is colloquial and it occurs (in poetry) only in comedy.

337. Other indefinite pronominal adjectives are:  ἕτερος, -ᾱ, -ονwith article, the other, one of two, the one (Lat. alter, alteruter); without article, other, another, a second (alius). By crasis (69) ̄τερος, θά̄τερον, etc. ἑκάτερος, -ᾱ, -ονeach (of two) uterque; pl. either party, both parties, as utriqueἕκαστος, -η, -ονeach, each one, every, every one, used of more than one (quisque). μόνος, -η, -ονalone, only, soleπᾶς (299): all, entire, every.  The negatives οὐδείς, μηδείς (349 b) no one (poetical οὔτις, μήτις, in prose only οὔτι, μήτι, declined like τὶς; accent 186), Lat. nemo, nullus. οὐδέτερος , μηδέτερος neither of two (Lat. neuter).

338. Relative Pronouns. The relative pronoun ὅς, ἥ, ὅ who, which, that is declined thus:


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singular

Dual

plural

Nom.

ὅς

N. A.

Nom.

οἵ

αἵ

Gen.

οὗ

ἧς

οὗ

D. A.

οἷν

οἷν

οἷν

Gen.

ὧν

ὧν

ὧν

Dat.

ὅᾧ

Dat.

οἷς

αἷς

οἷς

Acc.

ὅν

ἥν

Acc.

οὕς

ἅ̄ς

a. The feminine dual forms ἅ̄ and αἷν are seldom, if ever, used in Attic.

b. ὅς is used as a demonstrative in Homer and sometimes in prose (1113).

c. The enclitic particle -περ may be added to a relative pronoun (or adverb) to emphasize the connection between the relative and its antecedent. Thus, ὅσ-περ, ἥ-περ, ὅ-περ the very person who, the very thing which; so ὥσπερ just as. ὅσπερ is declined like ὅς.

d. Enclitic τε is added in ἐφ' ᾧτε on condition that, οἷός τε (186 a) able to, ἅτε inasmuch as.

339. The indefinite or general relative ὅστις, ἥτις, ὅ τι whoever (any-who, any-which), any one who, whatever, anything which, inflects each part (and τὶς) separately.  For the accent, see 186.

singular

Nom.

ὅστις

ἥτις

ὅ τι

Gen.

οὗτινος, ὅτου

ἧστινος

οὗτινος, ὅτου

Dat.

ᾧτινι, ὅτῳ

ᾗτινι

ᾧτινι, ὅτῳ

Acc.

ὅντινα

ἥντινα

ὅ τι

dual

N. A.

ὥτινε

ὥτινε

ὥτινε

G. D.

οἷντινοιν

οἷντινοιν

οἷντινοιν

plural

Nom.

οἵτινες

αἵτινες

ἅτινα, ἅττα

Gen.

ὧντινων, ὅτων

ὧντινων

ὧντινων, ὅτων

Dat.

οἷστισι(ν), ὅτοις

αἷστισι(ν)

οἷστισι(ν), ὅτοις

Acc.

οὕστινας

ἅ̄στινας

ἅτινα, ἅττα

a. The neuter ὅ τι is sometimes printed ὅ, τι to avoid confusion with the conjunction ὅτι that, because.

b. The shorter forms are rare in prose, but almost universal in poetry (especially ὅτου, ὅτῳ). Inscriptions have almost always ὅτου, ὅτῳ, ἅττα.

c. The plural ἅττα is to be distinguished from ἄττα (334 a).


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d. τὶς may be added to ὁπότερος, ὅσος, οἷος (340) to make them more indefinite, as ὁποῖός τις of whatsoever kind.

e. οὖν, δή, or δήποτε may be added to the indefinite pronouns to make them as general as possible, as ὁστισοῦν (or ὅστις οὖν), ἡτισοῦν, ὁτιοῦν any one whatever, any thing whatever, and so ὁποιουσ-τινασ-οῦν, ὁστισ-δή-ποτε, or ὁστισ-δηποτ-οῦν.  In these combinations all relative or interrogative force is lost.

f. The uncompounded relatives are often used in an exclamatory sense, and sometimes as indirect interrogatives. Indefinite relatives may be used as indirect interrogatives.

340. Correlative Pronouns. Many pronominal adjectives correspond to each other in form and meaning. In the following list poetic or rare forms are placed in ().


Interrogatives
Direct or
Indirect

Indefinite
(Enclitic)

Demonstrative

Relative
(Specific) or
Exclamatory

Indefinite Relative
or Indirect
Interrogative

τίς who?
which? what?

qui?

τὶς
some one, any
one
, aliquis,
quidam

(ὁ, ὅς) ὅδε this
(here), hic
οὗτος this, that
is, ille

ἐκεῖνος ille
a

ὅς who, which
qui

ὅστις whoever,
any one who
quisquis,
quicunque

πότερος
which of two?
uter?

πότερος or
ποτερός one of
two
(rare)

ἕτερος the one or
the other of two
alter

ὁπότερος
whichever
of the two

ὁπότερος
whichever
of the two
utercumque
a

πόσος how
much? how
many? quan-
tus? quot?

ποσός of some
quantity
or
number

(τόσος)
τοσόσδε
τοσοῦτος

{

so
much,
so
many

ὅσος as
much as,
as many as
quantus, quot

ὁπόσος
of whatever
size
, number
quantuscumque,
quotquot

tantus, tot
a

ποῖος
of what sort?
qualis?

ποιός of some
sort

(τοῖος)
τοιόσδε
τοιοῦτος

}

such
talis

οἷος of which
sort
,
(such) as
qualis

ὁποῖος
of whatever sort
qualiscumque

πηλίκος
how old?
how large?

πηλίκος
of some
age
, size

(τηλίκος)
τηλικόσδε
τηλικοῦτος

{ so old,
so
young
,
so
large
,
so
great

ἡλίκος of
which age
,
size, (as old,
large) as

ὁπηλίκος
of whatever age
or size

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