H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar Notes

Part 1 325-340

325 D. 1. Homer inflects the personal pronouns as follows. (The forms ἀμμ-, ὐμμ- are Aeolic).

singular

Nom.

ἐγώ, ἐγών

σύ, τύ̄νη

Gen.

{

ἐμεῖο, ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ,
μευ (encl.), ἐμέθεν

σεῖο, σέο, σεο (encl. 
A 396),
σεῦ,
σευ (encl.), σέθεν

εῖο, ἕο, ἑο (encl.),
εὗ, εὑ (encl.),
ἕθεν, ἑθεν (encl.)

Dat.

ἐμοί, μοι (encl.)

σοί, τοι (encl.), τεΐν

ἑοῖ, οἷ, οἱ (encl.)

Acc.

ἐμέ, με (encl.)

σέ, σε (encl.)

ἑέ, ἕ, ἑ (encl.), μιν (encl.)

dual

N. A.

νῶϊ, νώ

σφῶϊ, σφώ

σφωε (encl.)

G. D.

νῶϊν

σφῶϊν, σφῷν (δ 62)

σφωϊν (encl.)

plural

Nom.

ἡμεῖς, ἄμμες

̄μεῖς, ὔμμες (and voc.)

Gen.

{

ἡμεῖς, ἄμμες ἡμείων, ἡμέων

̄μείων, ὑ̄μέων

σφείων, σφέων, 
σφεων
(encl.), σφῶν

Dat.

{

ἡμῖν, ἄμμι (ν)

̄μῖν, ὔμμι (ν)

σφίσι(ν), σφισι (ν) (encl.),
σφιν (encl.)

Acc.

{

ἡμέας, ἄμμε

̄μέας, ὔμμε

σφέας, σφεας (encl.),
σφε (encl.)

σφε (encl.) is used as accus. of all genders and numbers.

2. Herodotus inflects the personal pronouns as follows:

singular

Nom.

ἐγώ

σύ

Gen.

ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ, μευ (encl.)

σέο, σεῦ, σευ (encl.)

εὑ (encl.)

Dat.

ἐμοί, μοι (encl.)

σοί, τοι (encl.)

οἱ (encl.)

Acc.

ἐμέ, με (encl.)

σέ, σε (encl.)

(encl.), μιν (encl.)

plural

Nom.

ἡμεῖς

̄μεῖς

σφεῖς

Gen.

ἡμέων

̄μέων

σφέων, σφεων (encl.)

Dat.

ἡμῖν

Acc.

{

ἡμέας

̄μέας

σφέας, σφεας (encl.), neut.
σφεα (encl.)

σφίσι is used for ἑαυτοῖς, -αῖς; σφι (encl.) for αὐτοῖς, -αῖς; σφεα (encl.) for αὐτά.

3. Ionic μιν (encl.) is used in all genders (eum, eam, id), but not in the plural. ἄμμι, ὔμμε occur a few times, σέθεν often, in tragedy.

4. The chief forms peculiar to Doric are: I. ἐγών also before consonants; G. ἐμέος, ἐμοῦς, ἐμεῦς; D. ἐμίν; Pl. N. ἁ̄μές; G. ̄μέων, ἁ̄μῶν; D. ̄μίν(ῑ̆), ἇμιν; A. ̄μέ.  II. τύ, τύ̄νη; G. τέος, τεοῦς, τεῦς, τέο, τεῦ, τεοῦ; D. τίν, τί̄νη; A. τέ, τίν, τύ; Pl. N. ὑ̄μές; G. ̄μέων; D. ὑ̄μίν, ὗμιν; A. ̄μέ.  III. G. ἑοῦς, ἑοῦ; D. Ϝίν; A. νίν; Pl. G. σφείων, ψέων; D. φίν, ψίν; A. σφέ, ψέ.

 

 

 

 

327 D. Hdt. has αὐτέων in the genitive plural.  For the crasis ωὐτός (Hom.), ωὑτός, τωὐτό (Hdt.), see 68 D.

 

 

 

 

329 D. Hom. never compounds the two pronouns: thus, ἐμέθεν αὐτῆς, σοὶ αὐτῷ, οἷ αὐτῷ, ἑὲ αὐτόν, ἓ αὐτήν.  Hdt. has a few cases of the uncompounded forms; usually ἐμεωυτοῦ, -τῷ, -τόν, σεωυτοῦ, ἑωυτοῦ, ἑωυτῶν, -οῖσι, -ούς, and σφέων αὐτῶν, etc.  The forms with εωυ started with ἑωυτῷ in the dative from ἑο(ῖ) αὐτῷ, and spread thence to the other cases.

 

 

 

 

330 D. 1. Hom. has also τεός thy, ἑός for ὅς his, her own, ̄μός our, ̄μός your, σφός their (rarely of the singular), νωΐτερος of us two, σφωΐτερος of you two.  For ἐμός Attic poetry may use ̄μός (sometimes printed ̄μός) our.

2. ὅς, ἑός in Hom. may mean my own, your own (1230 a).

 

 

 

 

332 D. Hom. has also gen. τοῖο, gen. dat. dual τοῖιν; nom. pl. τοί, ταί; gen. pl. fem. τά̄ων; dat. pl. masc. τοῖσι, fem. τῇσι, τῇς (Hdt. τοῖσι, τῇσι). Doric are τῶ, τᾶς, etc.; pl. also N. τοί, ταί; G. fem. τᾶν. Generally poetic are τοῖσι, ταῖσι. τοὶ μέν, τοὶ δέ occur rarely in tragedy for οἱ μέν, οἱ δέ.

 

 

 

 

333 D. For τοῖσδε Hom. has also τοῖσδεσσι or τοῖσδεσι. Doric has n. pl. τούτοι, ταύται, gen. pl. fem. ταυτᾶν (Aeol. ταύτᾱν). κεῖνος occurs in Hdt. (together with ἐκεῖνος). Doric and Aeolic have κῆνος.

 

 

 

 

333 e, D. Hom. always, Hdt. rarely, has the final ν.

 

 

 

 

334 D. Hom. and Hdt. have G. τέο, τεῦ, D. τέῳ (τῷ Hom.), G. τέων, D. τέοισι.  These forms are also indefinite and enclitic (gen. τεῶν Hdt.). Hom. has ἄσσα for the indefinite τινά.

 

 

 

 

338 D. 1. Hom. uses the demonstrative forms ὁ, ἡ, τό (332) as relatives (1105).  In this case the nom. pl. has τοί, ταί (332 D.).

2. Besides the forms in 338, Hom. has gen. ὅο (miswritten ὅου) and ἕης.

3. Hdt. has ὅς, ἥ, τό, οἵ, αἵ, τά.  In the oblique cases he uses τοῦ, τῆς, etc.; though, especially after prepositions capable of elision, he has the relative forms, as δι' οὗ, παρ' ᾧ, κατ' ἥν, ὑπ' ὧν; also ἐς ὅ.

 

 

 

 

339 D. Hom. has the following special forms. The forms not in ( ) are used also by Hdt. In the nom. and acc. Hdt. has the usual forms.

singular

plural

Nom.

(ὅτις)

(ὅ ττι)

ἅσσα

Gen.

(ὅττεο), (ὅττευ) ὅτευ

ὅτεων

Dat.

ὅτεῳ

ὁτέοισι

Acc.

(ὅτινα)

(ὅ ττι)

(ὅτινας)

ἅσσα

 

 

 

 

340 D. Hom. has (Aeolic) ππ in ὁππότερος, ὁπποῖος, and σσ in ὅσσος, τόσσος, etc.  Hdt. has κ for π in (ὁ)κότερος, (ὁ)κόσος, (ὁ)κοῖος.