NEANDER, JOACHIM: Principal poet of the Reformed Church; b. at Bremen 1650; d. there May 31, 1680. He was educated at the Latin school of Bremen and in 1666 entered the Gymnasium illustre. After a carelessly spent youth he was converted by a sermon of Theodor Undereick, pastor of St. Martini in Bremen, by whom he was led into the path of Reformed pietism. As the tutor of the sons of distinguished Frankfort merchants, and also to continue his studies, Neander went to Heidelberg. In 1674 the Reformed congregation of Düsseldorf called him as rector to their Latin school, but private religious meetings instituted by him in 1676 and some arbitrary rules in the administration of the school, brought him into conflict with the preacher and consistory. He was deposed in 1677, but before the notification reached him he signed a declaration in which among other things he condemned separation from the external church community as practised by Labadie and his people. He also renounced secret meetings and the "detention of members from the Lord's Supper." Neander was in consequence merely suspended. In 1679 he was called to Bremen as third preacher of the church of St. Martin, but died in the following year. The first edition of his songs appeared under the title, A & W Joachimi Neandri Glaub- und Liebes-Uebung: Auffgemuntert durch einfältige Bundes Lieder und Danck-Psalmen . . . (Bremen, 1680), contained fifty-seven songs, of which about twenty editions appeared before 1730. Although not suitable for church hymns because of their marked subjectivity, and though they contained reminiscences of Labadie and of Cocceius, the songs were taken into the hymnals. In the second part of the hymn-book for Cleve, Jülich, Berg, and Mark of 1738, Neander's name stands beside that of Luther on the title page.


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Negeb Negro Education THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 100

(Josh. xv. 21-32) and partly to Simeon (Josh. xix. 2-3). Among the cities mentioned as being in

Simeon was Beersheba (Josh. xix. 2), 3. Cities of a noted shrine visited by Israelites Simeonitic (Amos v. 5, viii. 14), where were a Negeb. tree planted by Abraham (Gen. xxi. 33)

and an altar built by Isaac (Gen. xxvi. 55'). The city formed the southern extremity of the land inhabited by the Israelitic tribes (II Sam. xvii. 11). It was noted for the well from which it derived its name, said to have been dug by Abraham (Gen. xxi. 30) or Isaac (Gen. xxvi. 32-33). It was still in the days of Jerome and Eusebius a large village eighteen miles south of Hebron. Some churches were seen there by William of Boldensele (1332) and Ludolph of Sudheim (1335-41), although the place was then deserted. The locations of Molada,h and Hazar-ahual are unknown. Azem suggests Azmon on the southwestern boundary of Canaan (Num. xxxiv. 4 sqq.). Hormah is probably identical with the place where David sent presents of Amalekite booty (Josh. xv. 30; T Sam. xxx. 30). Ziklag lay northwest or west of Beersheba (I Sam. xxx.), perhaps in the Hirbet Zubailil~e, e.s.e. of Gaza. Beth-marcaboth (Josh. xix. 5), or Madmannah (Josh. xv. 31), was Calebitic (I Chron. ii. 49). Shaaraim (I Chron. iv. 31), or Shilhim (Josh. xv. 32), apparently corresponds to a place mentioned in an inscription of Thothmes III. between Tanis and Gaza. Ain and Rimmon, apparently the En-Rimmon of Nehemiah xi. 29, is apparently the modern Umm al-Ramamin, nine miles north of Beersheba.

In the Negeb of Judah, Kinah may be associated with the nomadic Kenites (I Sam. xxx. 29). Ads, da,h is probably the modern `Ar'ara, three hours southeast of Beersheba. The Kedesh of Joshua xv. 24 may perhaps be the Kadus mentioned by alMu$addasi as a day's journey southeast of Hebron.

Hazor is perhaps the modern al- 4. Cities of Huderah, while Ithnan may be the Judaic Calebite Ethnan of I Chron. iv. 7. Negeb Ziph must not be confused with the and the Calebite place of the same name be- Border. tween Carmel and Juttah (Josh. xv. 55).

Telem is apparently the Telaim of T Sam. xv. 4, and so the eastern boundary of the Amalekites. Bealoth seems to have been located to the northeast of Kadesh-Barnes. KeriothHezron (Josh. xv. 25) was a Calebite site and may denote the plateau north of the Wadi Marrah. The Shema of Josh. xv. 26 appears to be connected with Simeon. In the list in Nehemiah xi. 26 it is represented by Jeahua, which has been identified with Hirbat Sa'weh, north of Tell al-Milb. Tamar, which formed a southern boundary of Israel in the east (Ezek. x1vii. 18-19; xlviii. 28), was located by the Onomasticon of Eusebius (ed. Lagarde, 210, 85) a day's journey from Mapsis. The Medeba mosaic (see MEDEBA) likewise locates Tamar south of the Dead Sea at the eastern foot of the mountain east of Mapsis, and it is apparently identical with the Tamar built by Solomon (Hebr. of T Kings ix. 18, A. V., Tadmor) to protect the southern trade route. Kadesh-Barnes (Deut. i. 19, 46), lying on the southern boundary of Israel (cf. Num. xx. 1)

and between Tamar and the brook of Egypt (Ezek. xlvii. 19, xlviii. 28; cf. Num. xxxiv. 4), was east of Gerar (Gen. xx.,1) and was long inhabited by Iaraelitic tribes. The site corresponds to the modern 'Ain 1~adis. Its vicinity is called the wilderness of Kadesh (Pa. xxix. 8) or the wilderness of Zin (Num. xx. 1, 22; Deut. xxxii. 51). Here Moses brought water from the rock by his staff, whence the spring was called " the water of strife " (Num. xx. 2 sqq.; Deut. xxxiii. 8). This latter name, however, is associated in Ex. xvll. 2-7 with Massah and located on Horeb; and Massah seems originally to have been distinct from Kadesh, or Meriba,h, though later identified with it. Kadesh was also the place where Miriam, the sister of Moses, died and was buried. The place was called also En-mishpat (Gen. xiv. 7), and seems to have been the scene of a battle against the Amalekites (Ex. xvii.), and possibly the occasion of the expedition of Saul described in T Sam. xv.

The Negeb also included the wells Esek, Sitnah, and Rehoboth, dug by the servants of Isaac (Gen. xxvi. 19-22). The two latter have been identified with the remains of an ancient city with wells some eighteen miles southwest of Beersheba. The term Negeb was also often used to connote the south (e.g., Gen. xiii. 14), and in Daniel even denotes Egypt (xi. 5 sqq.; and possibly also in Isa. xxx. 6). See PALESTINE, II., 2 . (H. xUTHE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The three works of moment are: Robinson, Researches, vol. iii.; A. Musil, Arabia Petraa, vol. ii., parts 1-2, Vienna, 1907-08; and E. H. Palmer, Desert of the Exodus, vol. ii., ib. 1871. Consult further: G. Williams, The Holy City, i.463-468, 487 sqq., London, 1849; E. Wilton, The Nepeb or " South Country " of Scripture, ib. 1863; H. B. Tristram, The Lard of Israel, ib. 1865; V. Gu6rin, Description de la Palestine, part I., Jud6e, vol. iii., 7 vols., Paris, 1868-80; H. C. Trumbull, Kadesh Barnea, New York, 1884; F. Buhl, Geographie van Palllstiua, Freiburg, 1896; G. A. Smith. Historical Geography of the Holy Land, pp. 278 sqq., London, 1897; H. Goths, Paldstina, Bielefeld, 1907; DB, iii. 505-506; EB, iii. 3374-80.


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