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LINES, EDWIN STEVENS: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Newark, N. J.; b. at Naugatuck, Conn., Nov. 23, 1845. He was educated at Yale (A.B., 1872) and at Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, Conn., from which he was graduated in 1874. He was ordered deacon and priested in the latter year, and was then rector successively of Christ Church, West Haven, Conn. (1874-79), and of St. Paul's, New Haven, Conn. (1879-1903). In 1903 he was consecrated bishop of Newark.

LINGARD, JOHN: Roman-Catholic historian; b. at Winchester Feb. 5, 1771; d. at Hornby (9 m. e.n.e. of Lancaster), Lancashire, July 13, 1851. He studied at the English College at Douai from 1782 to 1793, but fled from France on account of the Revolution and returned to England as tutor in the family of Lord Stourton. There he remained until, in 1794, he went to Crookhall, near Durham, where some of those driven from Douai had gathered, and completed his theological studies. He was ordained priest in 1795, and, having declined a flattering call to London, taught natural and moral philosophy in Crookhall, where he was also vice-president and prefect of studies. In 1808 the college was removed to Ushaw, Durham, and he accompanied it. In 1810 he was chosen president, but in the following year retired to Hornby, where he spent the remainder of his life, devoting himself to historical studies and declining both the professorship of Sacred Scripture and Hebrew at the Royal College of St. Patrick at Maynooth and the presidency of the seminary at Old Hall Green. In 1817 and 1825 he visited Rome and was received with great distinction, some believing that his appointment as a cardinal was reserved in petto.

The chief works of Lingard were as follows: Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church (2 vols., Newcastle, 1806; 3d ed., practically a new work, under the title The History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church, 2 vols., London, 1845); Collection of Tracts on several Subjects connected with the Civil and Religious Principles of the Catholics (London, 1813); History of England, from the first Invasion by the Romans to the Accession of William and Mary in 1688 (8 vols., 1819-30; 6th ed., 10 vols., 1854-55); Supplementum ad Breviarvum Romanum adjectis oficiis Sanctorum AngliŠ (1823); A new Version of the Four Gospels (1838); and Catechetical Instructions on the Doctrine and Worship of the Catholic Church (1836). His History is characterized by accuracy, care, and impartiality, although he was charged by extreme Protestants with perversion of the truth and by extreme Roman Catholics with undue concessions to the Protestants.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary of Eng. Catholics, iv. 254-278, London, n. d.; DNB, xxxiii. 320-323 (with citation of scattered references).

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