KITTEL, RUDOLF: German Protestant; b. at Ehningen (15 m. s.w. of Stuttgart), Württemberg, Mar. 28, 1853. He studied at Tübingen 1871-76 (Ph.D., 1879), and, after being a pastor 1876-79, was lecturer at Tübingen 1879-81. He was then professor in a gymnasium at Stuttgart until 1888, when he was appointed professor of Old-Testament exegesis at the University of Breslau, where he was rector in 1896-97. Since 1898 he has been professor of the same subject at Leipsic. He has translated Judges and Samuel for E. F. Kautzsch's Heilige Schrift des Alten Testaments (Freiburg, 1892); and the Psalms of Solomon for the same scholar's Apokryphen and Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (Tübingen, 1898); edited Chronicles for SBOT (New York, 1895); C. F. A. Dillmann's Handbuch der alttestamentlichen Theologie (Leipsic, 1895); the sixth edition of the same scholar's Kommentar zu Jesaja (1898); and Biblia Hebraica (in collaboration with various other scholars; Leipsic, 1905-07). He is likewise the editor of Saat auf Hoffnung, and has written: Sittliche Fragen (Stuttgart, 1883); Geschichte der Hebräer, (2 vols., Gotha, 1888-92; Eng. transl. by J. Taylor, H. W. Hogg, and E. B. Spiers, 2 vols., London, 1895); Aus dem Leben des Propheten Jesaia (Gotha, 1894); Die Anfänge der hebräischen Geschichtsschreibung im Alten Testament (Leipsic, 1896); commentaries on Kings and Chronicles (in W. Nowack's Handkommentar zum Alten Testament; Göttingen, 1900-02); Die orientalischen Ausgrabungen und die ältere biblische Geschichte (Leipsic, 1903); Der Babel-Bibelstreit und die Offenbarungsfrage (Leipsic, 1903); and Studien zur hebräischen Archäologie und Religionsgeschichte (1908), in Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten Testament, which he edits.
KITTIM. See TABLE OF THE NATIONS
KITTO, JOHN: English Biblical scholar; b. at Plymouth Dec. 4, 1804; d. at Cannstadt, Germany, Nov. 25, 1854. In his eleventh year he had to leave school to assist his father, a stonemason, and in 1817, while carrying slates up a high ladder, he suffered a fall that rendered him completely deaf for the rest of his life. Cut off from ordinary society by this infirmity he now devoted himself to study and resorted to various expedients for earning pennies to procure books. With the exception of a few months spent as apprentice to an ill-natured Plymouth shoemaker, he was in the workhouse from Nov., 1819, till July, 1823. Friends then provided for his support and secured permission for him to use the public library, and in 1824 A. N. Groves (q.v.), a dentist at Exeter, took him as a pupil. In July, 1825, he entered the Missionary College at Islington to learn printing, and in June, 1827, he went to Malta as a printer in the employ of the Church Missionary Society. In Jan., 1829, he returned to England, and the following June he joined Groves' private mission party as tutor to Groves' children. The party reached Bagdad in December. In 1833 he returned to England, obtained employment with Charles Knight, then editor of the publications of the Society for the
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Biographical matter is contained in The Lost Senses, ut sup. Consult: J. E. Ryland, Memoirs of John Kitto. . . . with a critical Estimate of Dr. Kitto's Life and Writings by Professeor Eadie, Edinburgh, 1856; J. Eadie, Life of J. Kitto, ib. 1882; W. M. Thayer, From Poor-House to Pulpit; the Triumphs of . . . John Kitto, Boston, 1859; DNB, xxxi. 233-235.
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