John XI.: Pope 931-936. A natural son of Sergius III. by Marozia, he was elevated to the papacy about 931 by his mother's influence, and was involved in her fall when his half-brother Alberic gained power a year later. It is not known whether he ever regained his freedom, but it was undoubtedly Alberic who decided all the more important acts of jurisdiction. John died in January, 936.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, ii. 243, Paris, 1892; Jaffé, Regesta, i. 454-455; J. M. Watterich, Romanorum pontificurn vitae, i. 38, 669 sqq., Leipsic, 1862; J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, iii. 329-331, Bonn, 1892; Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iii. 283-305, London, 1895; Bower, Popes, ii. 311-312; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 248-249, London, n.d.
John XII. (Octavian): Pope 955-964. He was the illegitimate son of Alberic, and was elected Dec. 16, 955. The most shocking moral scandals were rife; but with all his vices he combined the soaring ambition of his house. First he tried to extend his power in the south, and then to deal with King Berengar, both without success. Berengar's son Adalbert was occupying Roman territory when John decided to appeal to Otto I., possibly under pressure from the reforming party among the Roman clergy. After enacting guaranties for his own position, he admitted Otto into the city and crowned him emperor (Feb. 2, 962); but hardly had Otto left Rome when John entered into relations with Adalbert and attempted to do so with the Byzantine empire. Becoming aware of his treachery, Otto marched back to Rome. John and Adalbert fled to Tivoli. A synod met in St. Peter's under the emperor's presidency, which after nearly a month's debate declared John guilty
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