John IX.: Pope 898-900. He was a Benedictine, and was elevated to the papacy after the expulsion of Sergius III. At a synod in St. Peter's he reversed the proceedings of the synod of Stephen VI. (q.v.) which had condemned Formosus (q.v.), and reaffirmed the validity of the orders conferred by the latter. He revised the provisions for papal elections, recognized Lambert of Spoleto as emperor, and declared the coronation of Arnulf null and void. At first he confirmed the decrees of his predecessors in regard to Photius, but just before his death he seems to have succeeded in reaching some understanding with the Greeks at a synod.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, ii. 232, Paris, 1892; J. M. Watterich, Romanorum pontificum vitae, i. 656 sqq., Leipsic, 1862; Jaffé, Regesta, i. 442-443; J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, iii. 307-311, Bonn, 1892; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iii. 231-238, London, 1895; Mann, Popes, iii. 245, 370, 384, 394; Bower, Popes, ii. 302-304; Milman, Latin Christianity, iii. 112; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 240-241, London, n.d.
John X.: Pope 914-928. He is said to have been born at Toffignano in Romagna, to have been first a deacon in Bologna, and then to have risen to the bishopric of that see, which he immediately exchanged in some uncanonical manner for that of Ravenna, whence he was called, again uncanonically, by the primates of Rome--meaning notably Theodora, to whom he seems to have been related--to the papacy about March, 914. He displayed some zeal and ability in ecclesiastical affairs, maintaining close relations with Germany and France; the instructions sent to the archbishop of Reims for dealing with the newly converted Normans are notable. He was, however, more important as a politician and military commander, succeeding in uniting the principal Italian princes and the eastern emperor against the Saracens, and personally winning a brilliant victory over them on the lower Garigliano in August, 916. But the league soon fell a prey to the spirit of faction, the Emperor Berengar was murdered at Ravenna in 924, and John had a powerful foe in Rome in the person of the intriguing Marozia. In June, 928, his brother Peter, prefect of the city, was murdered and he himself was thrown into prison, where he soon died.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: Liudprand, Antapodosis, ed. E. Dümmler, pp, 44-47, 61, 73, Hanover, 1877; Benedictus, Chronicon, ed. G. Waitz, in MGH, Script. xiii (1881), 714-715. Consult further: Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, ii. 240-241, Paris, 1892; Jaffé, Regesta, i. 447-453; J. M. Watterich, Romanorum pontificum vitae, i. 35-36, 661 sqq., Leipsic, 1862; B. Jungmann, Dissertationes selectae, iv. 46-62, Regensburg, 1884; J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, iii. 319-328, Bonn, 1892; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iii. 249-279, London, 1895; Bower, Popes, ii, 308-311; Milman, Latin Christianity, iii. 160-166; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 245-247, London, n.d.
Calvin College. Last modified on 10/03/03. Contact the CCEL.