John XIX.: Pope 1024-32. He was the brother of Benedict VIII., Romanus by name, and was elected by the Tusculan party between April 12 and May 10. The eastern Emperor Basil II. requested him to acknowledge the patriarch Eustathius of Constantinople as "ecumenical bishop," or practically as an eastern pope. John was disposed to accede, but the monastic reformers raised such a storm of protest that the negotiations were broken off. After crowning Conrad II. (Mar. 26, 1027), John was completely under his power, and his decrees were treated with contempt by the emperor in Germany. In France, however, his authority seems to have been respected, and King Canute of England paid him a visit in 1027. Apparently without much protest, he conducted a simoniacal traffic; the only objection raised by Canute to the demand of money for conferring the pallium was to the largeness of the amount. He seems to have died Nov. 6, 1032.
Jaffé, Regesta, i. 514-519; J. M. Watterich,
Romanorum pontificum vitae, i. 70, 708-711, Leipsic 1862;
J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, iii. 418-428,
Bonn, 1892; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome,
iv. 31-39, London, 1896; Bower, Popes, ii. 337-339; B.
Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 269-270, London, n.d.;
Hauck, KD, iii. 496, 555-556, 559, 561.
John XXI. (Pedro Juliani): Pope 1276-77. A native of Lisbon, he became cardinal-bishop of Tusculum in 1273, and was elected pope at Viterbo Sept. 15 or 16, 1276, taking the title of John XXI., though he was in reality the twentieth pope of this name. He was a man of great learning, though apparently of equal eccentricity; since the fourteenth century it has been usually believed that he was identical with "Petrus Hispanus," the author of a number of medical works and a popular compendium of logic. His pontificate was without influence on the development of the church. He was injured by the fall of a ceiling in the papal palace at Viterbo, and died May 20, 1277.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Giurand and E. Cadier, Les Registres de Gregoire X. et Jean XXI., Paris, 1898; R. Stapfer, Papst Johannes XXI., Münster, 1898: Bower, Popes, iii. 25-26; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, v. 475-477, London, 1897; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, ii. 106-108, ib. n.d.: Milman, Latin Christianity, vi. 134-135.
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