John XVI.: Pope 997-998. A Greek of low extraction from Roseano in Calabria, he was made abbot of Nonantula by the favor of the Empress Theophanu, who, as regent after Otto II.'s death, procured his elevation to the bishopric of Piacenza. When John Crescentius expelled Gregory V. from Rome, he assumed the papacy; but Otto III. restored Gregory, and John was captured in March, 998, deposed, mutilated, and imprisoned in a Roman monastery, where he lived apparently until April 2, 1013.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jaffé, Regesta, i. 495-496; J. M. Watterich, Romanorum pontificum vitae, i. 68, 689 sqq., Leipsic, 1862; J, Langan, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, iii. 385-387, Bonn, 1892; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iii. 422-427, London, 1895; Bower, Popes, ii. 330; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 263-264, London, n.d.
John XVII.: Pope 1003. He was a Roman named Sicco, who was elected June 13 by the will of Crescentius, and died Dec. 7. The only thing known of him is that he was married before his elevation.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, ii. 265, Paris, 1892; Jaffé, Regesta, i. 501; Bower, Popes, ii. 333; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 265.
John XVIII.: Pope 1003-09. He was another creature of Crescentius, named Fasanus or Phasianus, son of a Roman presbyter Leo. That he was not lacking in energy is shown by his vigorous proceedings against the bishops of Sens and Orléans, who had required Abbot Gauzlin of Fleury to burn the papal privileges of exemption; and he seems to have had some success against his Byzantine opponents. He died in June, 1009.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber Pontificcalis, ed. Duchesne, ii. 266, Paris, 1892; Jaffé, Regesta, i. 501-503; J. M. Watterich, Romanorum pontificum vitae, i. 69, 699-700. Leipsic, 1862; Mary Bateson, in Historical Review, 1895, pp. 728-729; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iv. 7-10, London, 1896; Bower, Popes, ii. 334; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 266, London, n.d.
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