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JUBILEES, BOOK OF: See PSEUDEGRAPHA, OLD TESTAMENT, IV., 33.

JUD, LEO: The most prominent associate of Zwingli and after him of Bullinger; b. at Gemar (30 m. s.w. of Strasburg), Alsace, 1482; d. at Zurich June 19, 1542. He received excellent humanistic instruction at Schlettstadt, and in 1499 entered the University of Basel where he first studied medicine. Influenced by the lectures of Thomas Wyttenbach on the Epistle to the Romans, he devoted himself to theology, together with Zwingli, whose intimate friend he became. In the second decade of the sixteenth century he was preacher at St. Pilt in Alsace. In 1518 he succeeded Zwingli in Einsiedeln, where he worked for the Reformation in the spirit of Zwingli. In 1523 he became pastor of St. Peter's in Zurich. On the occasion of Zwingli's first disputation with the papists, Jud openly expressed his determination to preach the pure Gospel, and in the autumn of 1523 he married a nun. He assisted Zwingli much as Melanchthon did Luther, supporting him in his struggle against the Anabaptists, in the controversy on the Lord's Supper, and in his literary labors by editing his expositions of Scripture and translating his published works into German or Latin. On the death of Zwingli after the battle of Cappel he stood temporarily at the head of the Zurich Church, but the opposition party turned against him as one of the chief instigators of the war. Heinrich Bullinger, the successor of Zwingli, was assisted by him in the same unselfish and successful manner as was Zwingli.

Leo demanded the mutual independence of Church and State. The Church, he maintained, should not be hindered in the execution of its peculiar tasks, especially of discipline, to which, like Calvin, he attached great value. At the same time all compulsion in matters of faith should be abolished. In the efforts for union of the Lutherans and Reformed he defended Zwingli and Oecolampadius against Luther and warned the Strasburg theologians of the "new pope." He took a prominent part in the discussions on the formulation of the first Helvetic Confession, in Aarau and Basel, and his German translation of the Latin original was declared the authentic text. He laid the foundation of the Zurich liturgy by his compilation of a formula of baptism (1523) and other parts of the church service. He, possessed extraordinary gifts as a translator and was the leading spirit in the translation of the Zurich Bible, which, beginning in 1538, he compared word by word with the original text, being assisted by Michael Adam, a converted Jew (see BIBLE VERSIONS, B, VII., 5). Besides this German translation of the Bible Leo rendered great services by his famous and careful Latin translation of the Old Testament which may be considered the principal work of his life. He published also a larger (1534) and a smaller catechism

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(1534) in German and a Latin catechism (1538). He translated the "Imitation of Christ," Augustine's De spiritu et littera, and works of contemporaneous authors.

(EMIL EGLI†.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Vita was written by his son Johannes, printed in Miscellanea Tigurina, Zurich, 1724; the later life is by C. Pestalozzi, Elberfeld, 1860. Consult also: KL, vi. 1911-14; J. J. Mezger, Geschichte der deutschen Uebersetzungen, pp. 67 sqq., Basel, 1876; S. M. Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli, New York. 1903.

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